TOWARD A NEW ELECTROMAGNETICS
PART III:  CLARIFYING THE VECTOR CONCEPT

--Force and Hertzian Waves Cannot Exist in Vacuum --

Note that one cannot have an observable "force vector" existing' in vacuum a priori.
For example, we have the definition of force as (6)

or (7)

and we see that, rigorously, a force vector CONSISTS OF (not, "is equal to") a time-changing mass-motion vector system.  IF THERE IS NO OBSERVABLE ACCELERATING MASS PRESENT, THEN THERE CAN BE NO OBSERVABLE FORCE PRESENT.  The mass can accelerate in time (increase or decrease of mass) or space (increase or decrease of velocity) or both.
Observable force CANNOT exist in vacuum (in the absence of mass), a priori.20
However, assume for a moment that one could have a massless force vector, as assumed in present electrical theory.  Let this force vector appear at a point in the vacuum.  Since the vacuum has zero observable mass, it would have zero inertial resistance to this hypothetical observable force -- hence the observable force would instantly produce an "infinite" acceleration of its point of application, vanishing with it into the infinite distance.  Therefore our fictitious force would disappear the instant it appeared!  In any case, it could not be retained at a point in the vacuum for any finite length of time, however small.
The direct implications are that (1) something other than an observable electrical force field exists in the vacuum, and (2) there must exist a more fundamental mechanism by which this "something else" generates or CREATES a force on/of a moving electrically charged mass.  (Note again that, at the most basic level, any particle of mass is always quivering, in motion, and accelerating.  from quantal considerations alone.)
Thus immediately we have discovered something unique about so-called "force-fields" in vacuum:  for example, about gravitational field, electrical field, and magnetic field (and the strong force and the weak force as well).  These fields do not exist at all as ordinary force vectors -- and real force fields -- in vacuum! and fields, e.g., are defined in terms of force per unit electrical charged mass and magnetically charged mass, respectively.  In the absence of mass, they cannot exist.
And this in turn means that transverse field waves (Hertzian waves) cannot exist in a vacuum.  Indeed, they appear on, and ARE CONSTITUTED of, the charged-mass-motion that changes, and they appear where such change occurs, as a result of an introduced mass.21  But in the absence of the spinning charged particle of mass, they do not exist as force fields at all.
Hertzian waves exist in a transmitting whip antenna, for example, in the oscillating electron gas along its length.  Something else entirely different exists in vacuum between the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna.  Then in the receiving antenna, Hertzian waves again exist in the oscillating electron gas along its length.  (See Figure 3. ) Figure 3.  Detection of "transverse" and
longitudinal waves

 This is interesting, for Nikola Tesla stated several times that HERTZIAN WAVES CANNOT BE PRODUCED IN A VACUUM, NOR CAN THEY TRAVEL IN A VACUUM.22            Tesla was correct, as we are beginning to see.            We shall later return to show in what form so-called "force-fields" actually exist in vacuum.            For now, I point out that I am stating a fundamental change to all of physics, including both mechanics and electromagnetics. Next Page