LEGEND:

= filled black dot (like scalar product) in original text

**Ø** = Greek letter **Ø** for the Scalar Electrostatic Potential field

= Greek letter Nabla (upside down triangle)

|x| = Absolute value of x (only positive)

uf = microFarad

**PRACTICAL OVERUNITY ELECTRICAL DEVICES**

(C) T.E. Bearden

May 13, 1994

**Introduction**

Recently, my associates and I have filed a patent application on what we believe will at long last reveal the mechanisms
for practical overunity electrical devices. It is my purpose in this paper to provide additional information augmenting my former
two papers, (1) "The Final Secret of Free Energy," Feb. 1993, and (2) "Additional Information on the Final
Secret of Free Energy," Feb. 1994. In this present paper, with the permission of my colleagues, I release the gist of our work on separation of electrical charge into two coupled components **Ø**(m), where **Ø**
represents the massless charge of the charged particle or mass, represents the fact that it is coupled or trying to couple to the special mass that makes up charged particles [i.e., the special kind of mass that will couple to the virtual photon flux density that is represented by the symbol **Ø**], and m represents the inert mass component of the charged mass. Since not all masses will couple with **Ø**, we indicate the type of mass that __will__ couple with it, as m. Thus a charged mass is composed of (**Ø**)(m), which we consolidate to
(**Ø**)(m).

**Charge Is Not Quantized**

An interesting immediate result is that the massless charge of a fundamental charged particle is not quantized; it changes as

a function of the background potential in which it is embedded. So it is discretized as a function of the background
potential (i.e., of the virtual photon flux exchange between it and the surrounding vacuum). Otherwise, e.g., there could be no **Ø**
created on any charged particle q, and hence no E-field, and hence electrons would not move in our present circuits. Since
they do move in our circuits, charge is not quantized.

**Electrical Current Has Two Components**

The first key to understanding free energy electrical and magnetic machines is to realize that electrical current actually

consists of two currents coupled together. Our treatment of an electric charge as a coupled system (**Ø**)(m) also means that
electron current i = dq/dt is comprised of two coupled components [(d**Ø**/dt)(dm/dt)]. This follows from simply
invoking the operator d/dt; i.e., d/dt[(**Ø**)(m)] =
(d**Ø**/dt)(dm/dt), which is the same as [(d**Ø**/dt)(dm/dt)].
The component (d**Ø**/dt) is the known but not well understood
__massless displacement current__, while the component (dm/dt)
is the __mass displacement current__, and the coupling operator
means "coupled to" or "trying to couple to". The coupling
operator represents a real physical operation: the exchange of
virtual photons between the vacuum potential and the charged
mass. Any potential **Ø**_{1}
is considered to be a potential
that is superposed upon the ambient vacuum potential **Ø**_{0}
, to
provide a potential (**Ø**_{0}+**Ø**_{1}). The ambient vacuum
potential does not disappear merely because we add another
potential to it!

**Confusion In Present Electrical Physics**

We point out that, in physics books of note, the overt
coupling effect is essentially unknown or ignored because physics
presently has not defined either the scalar potential or the
electrical charge. The conventional theory simply uses an
"inert" expression d**Ø**/dt to represent the displacement
current (and another inert expression q for a charged mass), and
most theoreticians are uncomfortable even with that. The
displacement current is also confused with force by equating the
displacement current d**Ø**/dt to dE/dt. In turn, this means
that d**Ø**/dt is confused with mass, hence with dm/dt, which
latter is also a component of dq/dt. m is always an \internal
component\ of force, as is known in foundations of physics but
this fact continues to remain completely oblivious to the
electricians. [*Good* electrical theorists do admit that there
is no force in the vacuum; and that the force associated with the
E-field is evidenced only in the interacting mass. However, they
continue to maintain the E-field (force per point-coulomb of
charged mass) in the vacuum, when there are no point-coulombs of
charged mass there!

**Mass Is an Internal Component of Force**

It is easy to show that mass is always a component of force:
We will simply define *force* precisely. We first insist that no
equation can be used as a definition; an equation simply states
that the magnitude of one of its sides and the magnitude of the
other side are equal. (The length of a board and the length of a
human may be equal, but writing that as an equation has
absolutely nothing to do with the definition of either a board or
a human). So we will insist that any true definition must be an
* identity*.

We define force F as Fd/dt(mv), whereupon mass is a component of force

At any rate, with the new and correct definition of the
E-field, one can see that the flow of displacement current
(d**Ø**/dt) upon a collector such as a rigid capacitor, containing
a fixed charge (**Ø**m), will result in the formation of an
excess **Ø** upon those restrained charges in the capacitor
plate, so that there is created an E-[( **Ø**)(q)]/|q|.
Since the conventional theory considers the antigradient of the
potential as an E-field, then one can now see the exact mechanism
that creates this E-field that grows upon the capacitor (across
its plates) as it charges. In fact, the q/|q| cannot change in
a capacitor if its plates and dielectric are immovable. Instead,
in that case, the **Ø** portion of the trapped (q) changes,
producing the ( **Ø**) change. Since the ( **Ø**)
component is coupled to the mass component of the fixed q as
(**Ø**+ **Ø**)m, then an E-field is created and exists as
E-[( **Ø**)(q)]/|q|.

**An Ideal Capacitor Is an Electron Current Blocker**

We point out that, if the capacitor's components are ideal,
*completely rigid*, and do not physically move, then the
capacitor is a "dm/dt blocker." If the charges really were
frozen in place, then the potential would flow across the plates
at the speed of light, via the flow of excess massless
displacement current d**Ø**/dt. In that case, an ammeter would
not show the classical "exponential fall-off" of the current with
time; the electron current dq/dt would occur as a single-point
Dirac delta function at t=0, and would be zero thereafter. And
no electrons would be able to move in zero time. The voltage
would show an instantaneous adjustment to the charged value with
a single step-function, and the capacitor would charge up fully,
instantly, with no work (energy loss) whatsoever being done. And
this charge-up of the capacitor would not dissipate in the
slightest the source furnishing the voltage; there would be no
electron current dq/dt through the back EMF of the source,
hence no work inside it to deplete its separation of charges.

**Problems With Ordinary Capacitors**

However, most ordinary capacitors are much more than just
an ideal capacitor. The plates move, the dielectric moves, etc.
due to the forces created upon them by the E-fields created upon
the trapped charges in them. The spatial translation of the
resulting force moving the plates constitutes work; i.e., it
dissipates some of the flowing d**Ø**/dt energy. Each movement
of the plates and/or dielectric carries with it all its
internally trapped charges. The movement of those charges
constitutes a substantial longitudinal electron current dq/dt,
when compared to the longitudinal "drift" electron current in
normal circuits. [Electrons spend most of their time moving
radially in a wire, not down it.] This "moving plate and its
transported charges" make an electron current, which pumps the
inert electrons in the ground return line back through the back
EMF of the source, depleting the source. Consequently, the
ordinary capacitor will simply release as much energy as work (to
move the plates and dielectric) as it stored. Hence, it will
also produce dissipation of the source via the amount of energy
stored in the capacitor. You still get "free energy" stored in
the capacitor, but also dissipate the source by an equal amount.

**Rigidized Capacitors Must Be Used**

Only rigidized capacitive collectors are useful in free
energy devices. Such capacitors are in fact actually available,
e.g., as calibration standards, but they are extremely expensive
($400 to $2,000 or so each, for a capacitance reaching about 1 uf).

So, capacitive type collectors must be rigidized, if used in
overunity circuitry. Even so, in a single integrated circuit,
although one collects free energy, one will use half of what was
collected to dissipate the source. Not all the remaining half
will be discharged through the load; some will be discharged in
other circuit and component losses. Hence, there will always be
less work done in the load than is done in the source to kill it,
by a conventional two wire single closed circuit. In my second
referenced paper (Feb.94), I included precise proof that this is
true. One must use energy collection and shuttling between two
isolated circuits, and the load discharge current must not pass
back through the primary source of potential.

We have previously provided precisely how to utilize
capacitive collectors in our two referenced papers. We point out
here that the capacitors must be calibration standard capacitors,
or specially made rigidized capacitors.

**It Does Not Require Electron Current to Charge An Ideal Capacitor**

For the benefit of the skeptic, this is already proven. We
simply list references (2) and point out the equation that
represents the energy K in a charged capacitor. Here we have
K = ½(CV)^{2}. It is totally the displacement current

d**Ø**/dt
flowing (from a higher potential) onto the charging plate that
produces the higher potential **Ø** on that charging plate, and
hence a V between the two plates, one of them (the "ground" side)
being held at a constant potential. __The mass displacement
current component dm/dt of the electron current dq/dt has
nothing whatsoever to do with energy accumulation; it has only to
do with the dissipation of energy that is happening
simultaneously in all losses and loads in the circuit loop__.

We reiterate that most ordinary capacitors have terrible
internal movement, and accomplish as much energy dissipation as
they do energy collection by permitting dq/dt and work
performed upon the plates and dielectric to move them. The
standard two-wire circuit also guarantees that all such dq/dt
current "through" the capacitor is passed back through the source
against its back EMF, doing an equal amount of work in the source
to dissipate its separation of charges and "destroy" the source.

An ideal capacitor does not pass dq/dt, but only massless
displacement current as theorized by Maxwell to save current
continuity in a circuit containing a capacitor, and hence to save
Ampere's current law. That is, an ideal capacitor is a dm/dt
blocking device. However, the capacitors utilized in normal
circuits are not ideal capacitors at all. By allowing the plates
to move, electron current dq/dt is created on both sides of the
capacitor. Otherwise there would not be a ground return dq/dt,
but only a ground return d**Ø**/dt. This d**Ø**/dt would not and
does not push electrons back up through the source against its
back EMF; else the ground side of the source, which is engaged
in continuous d**Ø**/dt exchanges with the vacuum, would produce
destructive amperage d**Ø**/dt in the battery or potentialized
source, against its back EMF, while it was simply sitting on the
shelf. In fact, a flow of d**Ø**/dt continually runs from the
vacuum to the positive terminal, then through the inside of the
battery to the negative terminal, and thence back to the
surrounding vacuum. Also, the incoming flow from the vacuum
"splits" at the positive terminal, where one branch flows inside
the source to the negative terminal, and the other branch flows
through the external circuit to the ground return line, and
thence to negative terminal and back to the vacuum. In the
external circuit, the d**Ø**/dt hooks to free electrons and moves
them as ordinary dq/dt. In the internal circuit inside the
source, the electrons are restrained, hence they only move when
their restraint is overcome.

**Displacement Current d Ø/dt Is Real**

In recent years, SQUID detectors have been utilized to detect the magnetic field created between the plates (at right angles) by the displacement current d

Note that an ammeter cannot differentiate between displacement current d

A better solution than the capacitor or capacitive collector is the use of a special rigid solid state "charge blocking device", such as a Fogal semiconductor, to enable the current separation into two components, blocking of the mass flow component, and passage of the massless displacement current component.

Fogal's marvelous semiconductor blocks passage of electrons into its output terminal, but passes displacement current d

We accent that the flow of

All measurement is work, not energy. Energy cannot be measured, even in theory, a priori. Energy is also a flow process, and never a finite amount in one location. A specific differential of energy flow may exist on a specific finite collector. However, it only represents a certain constant differential amount of energy flow compared to the universal vacuum energy flow or some other flow reference point. It is like a whirlpool in the river. Energy is like the flowing water, and an "amount" of energy is like the amount of water in the collecting whirlpool form (between its input flow and its output flow) at any time. Obviously, energy (ordering) forms can come and go; the water flow itself remains. Any "magnitude of energy" is always a "trapped" amount of energy in a "collector" (form).

The two components of electron current dq/dt can be decoupled, by blocking the dm/dt component while allowing the d

In our second paper, we pointed out a second way: utilize an ordinary capacitor and ramp-up step-charging. We found, however, that in most ordinary capacitors, the capacitive aspect is defeated by the sloppy movement of the plates and dielectric, converting d

Two Isolated Circuits

The charge (actually

Therefore, the first major free energy secret is simply to block the "working" component dm/dt of the current dq/dt while allowing the excess "lossless energy flow" component d

The second major secret is to transfer the collected excess free energy (via energy shuttling) to a second, isolated, load circuit, where the energy is discharged through the load in the conventional fashion (i.e., such that the two current components are coupled, and electron current i = dq/dt occurs through the load). The second circuit must be isolated from the original collection circuit, so that none of the load electron current dq/dt passes back through the original source, against its back EMF.

Should the grounds be the same between the load circuit and the collection circuit so that load electron current is returned through the back EMF of the primary source, then exactly as much excess work will be done inside the source to dissipate its separation of charges as was done in the external load to furnish useful work and in the external losses. In that case, overunity is destroyed, because one is using one-half the excess free energy to destroy the source faster, while the remaining half is distributed among all external loads and losses. Since there are always some external losses besides the load, then the ratio of load power to source dissipation power is always less than unity in a conventional closed-loop circuit containing both load and source. Hence the necessity for utilizing two isolated circuits: one where energy is collected freely from the source, and one where energy is dissipated as work in the load without dissipative work in the source, and energy shuttling between them.

**A Simple Open-Loop Overunity Device**

Figure 1 shows a very simple but very powerfully amplified
overunity device, using an AC charge blocking semiconductor
(CBS) (such as a Fogal semiconductor). The gist of the circuit
is that an AC source furnishes AC current dq/dt to the CBS,
which uses some of the power to power itself, but then blocks the
dm/dt portion of the dq/dt input current, passing only the
massless displacement current component (d**Ø**/dt) into its
output circuit. The (d**Ø**/dt) output of the CBS is fed
through the primary winding of a transformer, in this case a
step-up transformer. The "current gain" of the CBS will depend
upon (1) the load connected to it, and (2) the ability of the CBS
to continue to block the increasing E-field on its trapped
charges, as more free energy flow (d**Ø**/dt) is drawn through
it by the load. Thus the load and the CBS must be matched within
the operational ability of the CBS, so that the CBS does not fail
catastrophically.

In the primary winding of the transformer, the (d**Ø**/dt)
displacement current produces a magnetic field H, storing the
excess flowing energy in that field. This is a normal magnetic
field; all magnetic fields are produced by the (d**Ø**/dt)
component of the current anyway. This magnetic field, as it
changes, couples to the secondary winding, producing a normal
magnetic field H therein by normal means. In the secondary
circuit, electrons are not restrained by a CBS. Hence the
(d**Ø**/dt) induced in the circuit on the secondary side couples
to the unrestrained electrons, producing normal electron current
dq/dt, and driving it through the load to power it. Note that
* energy* is conserved across the primary and the secondary;
however,

**Free "Power" Amplification**

If one places an ammeter in the output from the CBS, between
it and the primary winding of the step-up transformer, one will
read the (d**Ø**/dt) as
*normal dq/dt in the ammeter itself*.
If one calculates the "free power" (i.e., the rate of energy
dissipation) that is going into the transformer primary using
this as the "current," one will show that energy and "power" are
conserved between primary and secondary of the transformer.
However, the actual dissipative power going into the primary side
is zero or, in real circuits, vanishingly small. Consequently,
the device has a very high variable power gain that depends upon
the __rate of energy draw and dissipation__ of the load on the
secondary side. If one adds more load, one draws more dq/dt
current on the secondary side, hence more excess d**Ø**/dt
displacement current on the primary side. The overall "power
amplification" is limited by the ability of the transformer to
handle the power in the secondary and the ability of the CBS to
withstand the pressure of the internal charge barrier. This
device can be easily "close-looped."

**The Negative Resistor: A Close-Looped "CBS and Shuttle" System**

Figure 2 shows the close-looping of the device shown in
Figure 1, in such manner that, once stable operation is underway
and the load and input stabilized, the ordinary power supply for
the CBS can be switched out of the circuit. In this case, the
circuit operates as a self-powered overunity device; i.e., as a
* negative resistor*.

A normal resistor receives an ordered energy flow from its external circuit and scatters this energy as work out to the vacuum. I.e., it receives i = (

A negative resistor does exactly the opposite: it accepts inert incoming electrons from its "ground" side, also accepts incoming (converging) d

In Figure 1, all that needs to be done is simply to extract some of the secondary power and feed it back to create the power input consumed by the CBS and the other normal components of the primary circuit side of the transformer.

Multitaps can be added to the secondary side, to provide varying voltage power supplies for loads requiring different voltages.

Energy is conserved in the device, because it always functions as an open circuit, receiving excess energy from an external source (the surrounding vacuum, in its virtual photon exchange with the charges in the system). It is far from thermodynamic equilibrium, and classical thermodynamics (including the second law) does not apply.

It is simply a continuous free power supply: it is a

Far more complicated units can be designed and produced. The basic point is that this type of overunity power supply is continuous and self-powered, driven by the violent exchange of energy from the vacuum, and simply collecting and gating some of that energy to the load to power the load.

With this third paper, we complete the triad of papers we set out to write a little over a year ago. With the availability of charge barrier devices such as the Fogal semiconductor, together with the collection, shuttling, and use of free d

Let us use it wisely, and for the betterment of humankind, not for its destruction.

[Support of portions of this research by A.D.A.S. is gratefully acknowledged.]

1. Bearden, T.E., Feb. 9, 1993, "The Final Secret of Free Energy," ADAS, distributed over Internet. The paper was also published in

2. For proof that an ordinary capacitor can be charged almost without entropy, see Fundaun, I., C. Reese, and H.H. Soonpaa, "Charging a Capacitor,"

3. In most texts, the treatment of displacement current is far from adequate. A better treatment than most is given by Krauss, John D.,

4. For a typical confirmation that massless displacement current is already known to be lossless transport of energy

without entropy, i.e., without work, see Buchwald, Jed Z.,

5. For a very recent proof that the potential is a flow process, and in fact consists of bidirectional EM waves, see Hsue, C.W., "A DC Voltage is Equivalent to Two Traveling Waves on a Lossless, Nonuniform Transmission Line,"

6. For proof that the vacuum EM zero-point energy is continually produced by a cosmological feedback from every

charged particle in the universe, see Puthoff, H.E. , "Source of Vacuum Electromagnetic Zero-point Energy,"

7. For proof that in theory the vacuum energy can be tapped, see Cole, daniel C. and Harold E. Puthoff, "Extracting Energy and Heat from the Vacuum,"

8. For proof that a higher topology examination of EM phenomena allows energy collection as potentials and energy shuttling in circuits, see Barrett, T.W.,

9. Stoney, G.J. (1897) "XLVII. On a Supposed Proof of a Theorem in Wave Motion, To the Editors of the Philosophical Magazine,"

10. Whittaker, E.T., "On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics,"