ANNOTATED GLOSSARY

T. E. Bearden 1997, slightly updated Dec. 2000
Latest editing and additions: 12th April, 2003

Foreword

This is an informal glossary originally prepared in 1997 for Gary Hawkins to use on his web site, and informal definitions and discussions were rather quickly jotted down in 1997.  We have been able to do a little updating now in Dec. 2000.  Careful crafting and polishing for greater rigor would require much more time than I am able to spare, but perhaps the glossary can be helpful anyway.

We put in the gist of it, as we see it, and usually an annotation or commentary to explain it. We tried to put in sufficient explanations and a few references, so that the reader can see for himself or herself that physics, mathematics, and even logic itself are not quite as cut and dried as is often presented!

The only thing we absolutely insist on, that differs from the normal physics and engineering approach, is that any true definition must be an identity statement a priori. In this view, since no equation is an identity, then no equation is a definition; regardless of those "equations" universally advanced in physics as "definitions." All an equation states is that the magnitude of the somethings on the right is equal to the magnitude of the somethings on the left. It does not at all define any of the somethings on either right or left!  I've completed as much as I have time for now, and made some additions and corrections to the 1997 version.  As time permits, we will try to add some more in the future . I hope these hasty comments are helpful, and any errors in them are my own and not due to Gary Hawkins or to Tony Craddock!

Tom Bearden, Dec. 2000

MATH AND SINGLE CHARACTER ABBREVIATIONS

f    The electrostatic scalar potential, in units of joule per collecting coulomb.

Ñ    The mathematical operator 'del'.

Ñf    The gradient of the function f , mathematically.

In EM theory, use of the del operator produces an electric field E given by E = - Ñf . An electrical field is also generated by the time rate of change of the magnetic vector potential A, where it is given by E = - dA/dt.  Note that we have used that fact to assist us in producing the motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG), with COP = 16 as of this writing.

fq    Joules of energy collected by a charge of q coulombs in an electrostatic scalar potential

having a reaction cross section of f.

Since the collected energy is also usually the energy that can then be dissipated as work, this expression often yields the work performed in the circuit by the energy the surface charges collected from that part of the S-flow in contact with the conductors and components.

df /dt    Time rate of change of the scalar potential.

Also one form of displacement current.

dE/dt    Time rate of change of the E-field.

Also one form of displacement current.

dp/dt    Time rate of change of momentum, which is a force F acting upon the system.

A force is defined as a time rate of change of momentum, or F = dp/dt.

dP/dt    Time rate of change of polarization.

Polarization displacement current.

dq/dt    Time rate of change of charge, otherwise known as "current".

Represents the normal current flow i of charges in a conductor, i.e., i = dq/dt.

...where i = dq/dt in that "load loop" is isolated from the current i = dq/dt in the source loop containing the power source, and the two loops are also field-coupling isolated.  A transformer, e.g., does isolate the actual current in the secondary from the current in the primary, but the field coupling from primary to secondary and from secondary back to primary result in the enforcement of COP = 1.0 as the maximum performance possible (in a perfect, lossless standard transformer).  In a real standard transformer with some losses, COP<1.0.

The notion is that, even though current cannot pass from the source loop to the load loop and there is no direct field coupling, energy density flow S = E´H can pass. This is in fact the definition of what we call bridging, if in addition to current isolation the rigid back-field coupling is broken between energy dissipation (power) in the source loop and energy dissipation (power) in the load loop. In that fashion, overunity operation of the load can readily be achieved.

E    Electric Field.

Defined in older classical electromagnetics (CEM)  as a force field, by E º F/q.   However, this only defines the entity after an interaction with mass.  In short, it defines the E-field as an effect existing only in matter.

In the early days of electrodynamics, Maxwell and the other "founding fathers" assumed a material ether filling all space.  Hence any field in space was indeed such an "effect" field existing in mass.  Maxwell died in 1879 of stomach cancer.   In the 1880s, the Michelson-Morley experiments falsified the luminiferous (material) ether as a material medium.  Hence the accepted use of the E = F/q type of "effect" electrical field as the electric field in space was also destroyed, but the equations were never changed to eliminate this error in the foundations of CEM.  Instead, electrodynamicists more or less announced one day that, "Since there is no (material) ether, we are not using one!"

There is some rationalization mathematically for such an approach, if the limiting process is used for the interaction of the "causal field" in vacuum with the charged mass q, as q is allowed to approach zero.  However, from a foundations view, it is still the interaction of the field in space with charged mass that is being described in the limit, and therefore it is still the "effect" entity rather than the "cause" entity.

This serious foundations problem is still unresolved in much of CEM theory and modeling to this day.  The standard by which other EM texts are measured is J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd edition, Wiley, New York, 1975.  In several places, Jackson opts for this avoidance of the use of the " effect" field for the "cause" field: quoting p. 28:  "...the thing that eventually gets measured is a force..."  "At the moment, the electric field can be defined as the force per unit charge acting at a given point.  It is a vector function of position, denoted by E."  Quoting p. 249:  "Most classical electrodynamicists continue to adhere to the notion that the EM force field exists as such in the vacuum, but do admit that physically measurable quantities such as force somehow involve the product of charge and field."

The problem is further increased by use of this flawed definition of E-field to "define" the electrostatic scalar potential (Jackson, p. 34) by the equation E = -Ñf.   First, no equation is a definition; it merely equates the magnitude of the entities on the left of the = sign to the magnitude of the entities on the right of the = sign.  It has nothing at all to say about the definition or nature of any of the entities, but is merely a comparison of relative magnitudes.  Any definition, a priori, must be expressed by an identity sign.  In all of classical electrodynamics, there is no available proper definition of (x) in the identity  E º (x).  Indeed, there is no such identity available for force F.  To quote Feynman: "…in dealing with force the tacit assumption is always made that the force is equal to zero unless some physical body is present… One of the most important characteristics of force is that it has a material origin, and this is not just a definition. … If you insist upon a precise definition of force, you will never get it!"  Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, 1964, p. 12-2.

In the Sachs unified field theory, O(3) electrodynamics as spearheaded by Evans is an important subset.  Hence in that approach there is a solution to the problem of defining force and field.  The EM fields (E, B, etc.) when in spacetime, are in fact curvatures of spacetime identically.  When these ST curvatures interact with a charged mass, the effects of the interactions are the well-known force-fields in matter, which Maxwell started with in the 1860s.  So in this way, the definition problem can be rigorously resolved.

jf   The Slepian vector, representing the time rate of energy density dissipation in the current

loop containing the jf.

This does not at all represent the energy flow in space and along the outside of the circuit, which may be very, very much greater, on the order of 1013 times as great.  It does match the Poynting energy flow component that enters the circuit.

Mq or mq    The mass of a charge q.

Instead of just using "q" and assuming it to be unitary, we must include the fact that charge is a system of two coupled components: (i) the mass mq of the charge q, and (ii) the virtual photon flux exchange (i.e., fq) of the charge q with the surrounding active vacuum. In particle physics it is already well-known that there is no symmetry of a mass system anyway, unless the vacuum's exchange with the mass is included. So the expression mqfq captures the vacuum-mass exchange. By continuing to assume that charge is unitary, physics inadvertently holds to the hoary old notion of the luminiferous ether (thin material ether) that permeates all of space. Maxwell and other electrical physicists of his time believed in a material ether, and Maxwell embedded that notion in EM theory. Inexplicably it has not been rooted out of the equations to this day, even though the notion of the material ether (not the ether per se!) was destroyed by the Michelson-Morley experiment over 100 years ago. Foundations physicists continue to point out such terrible defects in physics—and continue to be ignored. We quote Mario Bunge, "A mathematical theory of the dimensions and units of physical quantities," in Problems in the Foundations of Physics, edited by Mario Bunge, Springer-Verlag, Berlin and New York, 1971, p. 7: "The question 'What are dimensions?' is seen to be ill conceived, for there are two concepts of dimension, namely those of dimension function and dimension value. The correct question is: 'What are [] and d?' " {Note: [] is dimension function, and d is dimension value.}  Bunge is clearly discriminating between the function associated with the dimension, and the magnitude associated with it

Quoting Bunge, ibid., p. 8: "The concept of a unit is one of those scientific notions that has remained obscure for want of a theory and excess of a coarse philosophy. Indeed we know how to manipulate units but we do not seem to know what kind of mathematical object they are. As a consequence units are sometimes confused with dimensions, at other times with standards, and they are often introduced in relation to measurement rather than to concept formulation."

And quoting Mario Bunge, Foundations of Physics, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1967, p. 176: "Different theories of CED [Classical Electrodynamics] are called for, both for charged particles that can to a first approximation be regarded as electromagnetically structureless (e.g., the electron and the m -meson) and for extended systems with a charge distribution and spin (e.g., the proton). If fairly satisfactory classical theories were available they could guide the construction of the corresponding quantum theories. But no such theories are in sight partly because it is not usually acknowledged that electrodynamics, both classical and quantal, are in a sad state."

Again, Bunge, ibid., p. 182: "...the best modern physicist is the one who acknowledges that neither classical nor quantum physics are cut and dried, both being full of holes and in need of a vigorous overhauling not only to better cover their own domains but also to join smoothly so as to produce a coherent picture of the various levels of physical reality."

c    The speed of light in ambient vacuum.

To discuss the speed of light, we point out that the vacuum is highly energetic, as has been shown in modern physics.  Since the vacuum has an energy density, it can be modeled as a "potential" and particularly as a scalar EM potential for EM purposes.  Contrary to convention, we recognize that the local energy density of the ambient vacuum potential can vary, including seasonally within and close to the solar system, etc.   The average energy density of the vacuum in space far from charged masses such as stars and planets may be assumed as a "standard vacuum potential", and if this potential is equated with the notion of "flat spacetime", then an increase in this vacuum potential is an increase in the local energy density of spacetime, and hence represents a curvature of the standard flat spacetime.

In fact the interplanetary radar probes' "ranges" do show precisely such variation in the speed of light, with weekly and monthly and seasonal variations, etc. In order to comply with the nearly universal assumption in physics with respect to the constancy of c, the scientific staffs averaged the readings over the entire month. This zeroed out the variations, upheld the notion that space is a fixed type of thing, and that the speed of light in it is also a rigidly fixed constant.  It does not agree with the actual measured speed of light from day to day.

The Russians have known and openly printed for about a century that the speed of light in a hard vacuum in deep space, far removed from solar and planetary masses, is a little slower than the speed of light in a hard vacuum near the Earth or any other large charged mass. The huge collection of charged particles in the earth have tiny separations, so that looking at the Earth as a collection of tiny dipoles, one sees a collection of enormous 4-symmetry energy flows from the time domain to the 3-space domain (and vice versa for the time-reversed portions). The increased intensity of this 4-symmetry energy flux in the vicinity of a massive planet or sun changes the local energy density of the vacuum itself, increasing it in that vicinity.

Without elaboration, we will also point out that the Earth and its dynamics structures the local spacetime and the spacetime out to some distance.  So do all other planets, stars, etc.  By whatever manner we model the cosmos as having been created or initiated, the dynamics and structuring of all the phenomena occurring in the universe is further impressed in the infolded electrodynamics inside the vacuum potential.

The "laws of nature" in one sense represent the most general results of the reactions of this internally structured "common standard spacetime" or "standard vacuum potential" with the various physical systems, devices, and measuring instruments utilized in our experiments, etc.  If one deterministically alters the structuring of the local spacetime, one can have a system which will function there in a certain marvelous manner, but will not function that way elsewhere.  Some decades ago, I participated in experiments by Golden which over a period of some five years did condition (dimension) the local vacuum potential.  The result was an engine which consistently exhibited COP = 1.67 at that location, but when moved several hundred miles exhibited COP<1.0. Frank and I were made aware of this "vacuum conditioning" effect by Prof. William Tiller, who had himself conducted experiments exhibiting just such an effect over several years.

EM waves in vacuum are actually longitudinal (sound-type) waves, but we do not belabor the point since everything out there in the normal literature uses the transverse EM wave model for the EM wave in space.  Also, the transverse wave is indeed what is detected in the interacting electron gas in our measurement instruments—whose Drude electrons are restrained to simple drift velocity longitudinally down the conductor, but are spinning and are free to precess like gyros.  So our instruments detect the Drude electron precessions at right angles to the incoming disturbing longitudinal force field, which means that they do indeed measure a transverse wave.  However, these are actually the electron precession waves in the detector, and not the actual EM waves in space.  See my paper, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole", Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23 for a discussion of how all EM energy comes from the time domain, via the broken 3-symmetry of the source charge or source dipole, and is emitted in 3-space in all directions as longitudinal EM waves.  This is based on rigorous demonstration by E.T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics," Math. Ann., Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355 that the scalar potential is a harmonic set of phase conjugate longitudinal EM wave pairs.  We merely applied the Whittaker decomposition to the scalar potential of a source dipole or of a  source charge, and the rigorous proof that EM waves in space are longitudinal directly emerges.

Just as sound speeds up, say, in steel as a denser medium than air, the EM "sound waves" in the ambient vacuum potential speed up when that vacuum potential's flux density is increased. Consequently light does move a little faster in a hard vacuum on Earth than it does in deep space, because the vacuum itself has higher energy density near the earth than in deep space. The comings and goings and orbitings of planets and the solar mass, etc. do affect the local energy density of the vacuum between the planets, and hence the speed of light through that interplanetary space.

So the interplanetary radar does show the periodic variations of the local energy density of vacuum that are induced by these factors. For a critical paper on this, see Bryan G. Wallace, "The Unified Quantum Electrodynamic Ether," Foundations of Physics, 3(3), Sept. 1973, p. 381-388. His discussion of the interplanetary radar measurements of Venus, which did not fit relativity, are particularly interesting, with respect to his finding that the data were simply "averaged" to eliminate the variations and hence the diurnal, lunar, and synodic periodic components actually measured in the variations of the speed of light. See particularly Bryan G. Wallace, "The great speed of light in space cover-up." Scientific Ethics, 1(1), Feb. 1985. p. 2-3; — "Radar Testing of the Relative Velocity of Light in Space," Spectrosc. Lett. Vol. 2, 1969. p. 361.

Rigorously, the field is "defined" in electrodynamics as the effect of an interaction of the force-free entity (4-spatial!) existing prior to the interaction, with a 3-dimensional static charge.  This means that the field as originally defined is an effect and not a cause.  To then use it as the cause is a grave non sequitur.

This confusion of cause and effect is widespread in physics. It was probably initiated by the hoary old assumption several hundred years ago that a separate force acts upon a separate mass, which is false.  In fact mass is a component of force,  since
F
º d/dt(mv) = m(dv/dt + v(dm/dt). As can be seen, in both expanded terms there exists a mass term.  To skirt the issue, electrodynamicists have simply found a neat statement that "in massfree space the field continues to exist, but the force is zero."  We point out that m = 0 makes the momentum vanish, and so F vanishes, and in the definition of E = F/q also vanishes because the numerator F becomes zero.  Therefore that E-field vanishes.

Feynman and Wheeler pointed out that the field as it is defined does not and cannot exist in massless space.  Only the "potential" for the field exists there, in case some charged mass is brought in to interact with that entity that does exist there.  That is accurate, since spacetime is totally a potential and any "change" in spacetime is a change in that potential a priori.  In the Sachs-Evans unified field theory, this problem is resolved because the fundamental field is defined as a spacetime curvature (change in spacetime, hence change in the ST potential) rather than E = F/q.

In empty space there are always myriads upon myriads of interfering fields and potentials, from charges all over the universe, via Puthoff's cosmological feedback principle [see
H. E. Puthoff, "Source of Vacuum Electromagnetic Zero-point Energy," Physical Review A, 40(9), Nov. 1, 1989, p. 4857-4862.] Thus any EM wave traveling through space is always involved in enormously active interferometry. This alone results in violent momentary variations in the speed of that wave, even from 0.01 c to 100.00 c. For a paper showing this kind of "galloping" travel of an EM wave, see William G. Harter, John Evans, Roberto Vega, and Sanford Wilson, "Galloping waves and their relativistic properties," American Journal of Physics, 53(7), July 1985, p. 671-679. While the average speed of the wave is c(
g ), where g is the local energy density of the vacuum, the instantaneous speeds of the wave vary violently from instant to instant.

In special relativity, "velocity" merely is a rotation angle of the moving frame from the fixed laboratory observer's frame.  The speed "c" merely represents a full right-angle turn away, toward the time-dimension (since other than the 3 spatial dimensions that is the only other dimension available to turn toward).  In higher dimensional space, there are many other "higher" dimensions toward which further rotation can be accomplished.  Hence rotating in n-space is not limited to a single orthogonal turn, and therefore velocities are not limited to speed c.  However, each orthogonal rotation also subtracts one spatial dimension of the rotated object from the observer's 3-space. One rotation would be speed c, two departing rotations would be speed c2, three would give c3, etc.  At three orthorotations, to the lab observer the rotated object is now purely an internal structure inside his time dimension, very similar to a mental object (mind is time-like, not spacelike).  The nature of mind and its operations has a rather unexpected connection with matter, when one considers such orthorotations in hyperspace.

The point is, the speed c is not an "iron dictum" of nature, nor is it an "unchangeable constant"!  Nature herself routinely violates that notion.  As an example, de Broglie waves from any mass always move at v>c, and easily as v>>c.  EM "surface" waves—so-called transverse oscillations or upheavals and depressions in the magnitude (energy density; actually the reaction cross section) of the local ambient vacuum potential), move at a discretized average speed c(g ). The longitudinal component, if freed from the transverse component, can move much faster because it is a sort of "tunneling" movement. In actual quantum tunneling experiments, e.g., music (Mozart's 40th symphony) has been transmitted through quantum mechanical tunneling between two separated points at speed v>4c. Fogal is likely to eventually place a superluminal communication system on the commercial market.  We discuss superluminal communication elsewhere in this glossary.

C    Capacitance.  Essentially, the charge per unit potential.

For an isolated conductor, C = Q/V and C is expressed in farads.  A farad is one coulomb per volt.

A lower case c represents the speed of light in ambient vacuum.

E    The electric field.  Essentially, E =F/q, but that is not really a definition.

Conventionally, the units of electric field are considered to be force per unit electric charge; i.e., force per coulomb.  Note that the E-field even in this "classical definition" does not actually exist at a point unless there is a unit point charge (a point coulomb of charged mass) located at the point.  Hence contrary to classical electrodynamics, communications theory, and whatnot, no electric force field (and no magnetic force field either) exists in the vacuum, at least of the kind prescribed by Maxwell's equations and by the Heaviside-Hertz reduction of Maxwell's equations. Since Maxwell assumed it, these equations and models all still erroneously assume a material ether filling the vacuum, in which case there would be matter and charges, and there would then be force-fields in the vacuum.  We refer the interested reader to discussions by Feynman and by Wheeler.  Quoting: "One of the most important characteristics of force is that it has a material origin, and this is not just a definition. Y If you insist upon a precise definition of force, you will never get it! " [Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, 1964, p. 12-2.]

Even worse, note that E = F/q defines not the magnitude of the field in space, but has to do with the divergence of energy from the field around a unit point static charge there in space, as well as the pattern of the diverged energy density.  Actually, what is used as "the electric field" itself is the reaction cross section of the field, for a unit point static coulomb of charge.  That is at best a function of the "field density" or "field intensity" of the actual electrical field in spacetime, and the direction and pattern of change of that field density due to the intercepting and diverting charge.

The field problem is resolved in the forefronts of electrodynamics by making the field a topological function.  It is resolved in the Sachs-Evans O(3) electrodynamics (as a subset of Sachs' unified field theory) by making the field a function of the curvature of spacetime.

H    Magnetic field strength.

B    The B-field (loosely), or magnetic flux density (more properly).

Conventionally, this is thought to be defined, analogously to E, by the force it exerts. The force exerted on a point charge moving in the magnetic field B is at right angles to the velocity vector of the charge and also at right angles to B. Actually, the H-field was originally named the magnetic field and the B-field was named the magnetic induction (and is still sometimes called that.) This is an annoyance because it is B which involves the force, and hence B should be named the magnetic field. Other writers have noted this discrepancy, and Sommerfeld called H the magnetic excitation—which correctly describes its role—rather than calling it the magnetic field. As the reader can see, lots of things in electrical physics are still very untidy!  There are also different ways to approach the EM modeling problem.  In Kaluza-Klein unified field theory, all electromagnetics is modeled in the 5th dimension, which is wrapped around each and every point in our normal 3-dimensional space.

For practical use, a far better approach is the O(3) symmetry electrodynamics spearheaded by Myron Evans, which is also an important subset of Mendel Sachs' unified field theory.  In the Sachs-Evans unified theory, electromagnetics has become general relativity and general relativity has become electromagnetics.  Further, very powerful general relativity can now be directly engineered with this O(3) electrodynamics, as it further develops.  We refer the reader to "The New Maxwell Electrodynamic Equations: New Tools for New Technologies.  A Collection of 60 Papers from the Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study," Special Issue of Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Winter 1999, 335 p.  Also, particularly see Contemporary Optics and Electrodynamics, edited by Myron W. Evans, a special topical issue of  I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series editors), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, 2001 (in publication).  Evans gives a very long and detailed presentation, "O(3) Electrodynamics", in that publication, and also gives the paper "The Link Between the Sachs and O(3) Theories of Electrodynamics".

Q    A quantity of electrical charge.  Note that this statement does not define charge q itself.

We have tentatively proposed to redefine charge q as q º mqfq. The term fq captures the vacuum's violent virtual energy interaction with the mass mq of the charge, which is presently missing in classical EM theory and is an exceeding great flaw of omission. Further, fq may be decomposed into a harmonic series of phase conjugate wavepairs, as shown by Whittaker, 1903, ibid.  [In O(3) electrodynamics, the internal structuring is dramatically extended, so that one can get at the "inner electrodynamics" necessary to explain such things as homeopathy, chi, ki, prana, etc.

To those scientists pooh-poohing such things as acupuncture, we point out that acupuncture in a dramatic case can allow a person without anesthetic to undergo a major operation with chest cavity opened, while the patient remains alert, conscious, and talking.  President Nixon's physician on Nixon's trip to China witnessed such an actual operation, as well as other things.  Nothing in our vaunted Western medical science can equal that, nor can any of our medical schools, nor can our National Academy of Science or our National Science Foundation.  In short, acupuncture alone demonstrates how woefully inadequate our medical science actually is.

Also, acupuncture works on animals as well, so it does not involve hypnosis or deep suggestion.  In science, we must believe the repeatable experiment, not our dogma at the moment.  Yet the entire U.S. medical research community has no higher symmetry EM investigation of how acupuncture works, or of the infolded electrodynamics shown by Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential in 1903.  Hence our scientists totally miss the vast electrodynamics of the internal structuring of potential and charge with vacuum engines (spacetime curvature engines).  As a result, the entire U.S. scientific and intelligence communities were totally unable to comprehend nearly five decades of Russian induction of health changes and diseases in personnel in the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, using weak EM radiation.  Internal structuring of the activity producing what is called "charge"—including its internal structuring and engines—can be modeled and in theory directly engineered in the new Sachs-Evans approach.]

As shown in my paper, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23, the broken 3-symmetry energy flow of any charge and any dipole allows a more fundamental 4-symmetry energy flow solution for the century-old problem of explaining the actual source of the EM energy that pours out of the source charge in all directions in 3-space.  The 4-symmetry in EM energy flow explains its nature as longitudinal EM waves, with the charge's absorbed energy being received from the time domain (complex plane), transduced into 3-space, and emitted in 3-space.  The source of all EM energy at any point in 3-space is the time domain!

It has been known for decades in particle physics that there exists no equilibrium in mass systems, unless the interaction of the vacuum with the masses is included.  It has also been known that every charge and every dipole is a broken 3-symmetry in the fierce vacuum energy exchange with the charge or dipole.  Yet the vacuum interaction—and specifically the source charge's and the source dipole's broken symmetry in it—are not even included in classical EM as yet.  That this known total glitch in modern EM theory has not been previously corrected, when the particle physicists of every university physics department of note already know it is necessary, is inexplicable!  Here we must regretfully point out finger at our orthodox scientific establishment, and particularly at our National Science Foundation and our  National Academy of Science.  These institutions are not even working on, nor are they aware of, nor do they even care about, the most fundamental science problems of our time.  Bigger accelerators, yes.  Windmills, yes.  EM energy from the vacuum and electrical power systems which use it without destroying the source dipole, no.  The greatest of all electrodynamics—the infolded longitudinal EM wave dynamics inside all EM fields, potentials, and waves—no.  The correction of the dozens of major flaws and non sequiturs in classical electromagnetics, no.  The understanding of the longitudinal EM wave interferometer weapons and quantum potential weapons already arrayed against us, no.  The development of EM healing based on the Priore approach, which would totally revolutionize medical therapy and handle attacks on our cities by weapons of mass destruction, no.

We have a scientific mindset problem of epochal magnitude.  And that costs the U.S. taxpayers hundreds of billions of dollars spent on the "status quo" or "business as usual" scientific endeavors that are far inferior to what can be done.

S    Entropy.  A quantity which measures the extent to which the energy of a system is available
to do work.

Since in one sense energy is a function of ordering, then fundamentally, entropy refers to increasing disorder, which means increasing disruption of the ordering in our collected energy.  Unfortunately, entropy is one of those concepts in physics for which there are several differing major views.  We avoid all discussion of "information" etc., and prefer to deal only with the energy and time aspects.  For our work in energy from the vacuum, we take the very simple view that an entropic process is like a positive resistor: As forward observer time passes, the entropic process continually disorders or "loses"—from further controlled conversion of energy form—the collected energy in the system.  We regard a negentropic process as like a negative resistor: as forward observer time passes, the negentropic process  receives energy in a form unusable to us, transforms, it, and outputs it in a form that is usable.  Quoting Ilya Prigogine, Irreversibility as a symmetry-breaking process," Nature, Vol. 246, 1973, p. 70:  "Entropy Ycannot in general be expressed in terms of observables such as temperature and density.  This is only possible in the neighbourhood of equilibriumY  It is only then that both entropy and entropy production acquire a macroscopic meaning."

So basically, the notion of entropy will apply when we have a system in equilibrium or very near equilibrium.  For open systems in substantial disequilibrium, the entropy cannot even be computed, and the classical equilibrium thermodynamics with its infamous second law does not apply.  On the other hand, the loading of disequilibrium (negentropic) EM systems is a very nonlinear affair.  Some direct indications of this were in the Russian work in the 1930s which produced overunity and self-powering EM generators, in several physics institute.  [E.g., see L. I. Mandelstam and N. D. Papaleksi., "On the parametric excitation of electric oscillations," Zhurnal Teknicheskoy Fiziki, 4(1), 1934, p. 5-29.  English translation, Feb. 1968, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore, CA, performed for NASA].  The U.S. researcher G. Obolensky also has done appreciable important experimental investigation of the nonlinear load effects for negentropic systems.

S    Poynting energy density flow.  Not the overall or total energy flow by any means, but
just that component of it that   is intercepted, diverged, collected, and used, where S is given
by S = E
´H.

The energy flow theory is rather thoroughly fouled, and has been since the 1880s when the flow of energy through space was proposed by both Heaviside and Poynting, independently and essentially simultaneously.

Since both E and H are defined not as fields per se, but as the reaction cross section of the fields with a unit charge, the S does not refer to "energy flow" per se, but to the intercepted component of the overall energy flow.

Poynting only considered the energy flow component around a circuit  that strikes the circuit's surface charges and gets diverged into the conductors to power the electrons.  Heaviside, on the other hand, also considered the startlingly enormous additional EM energy flow filling all space around the circuit's conductors, generally parallel to the conductors but missing them.

This huge Heaviside component is still there around every electrical circuit, but almost entirely ignored and unaccounted.  It misses the circuit, passes on off into space, and is lost in most circuits.  Yet it is trillions of times larger in magnitude than the very tiny Poynting component which actually gets intercepted, "caught" and used by the circuit to power its loads and losses.

Since no one could explain where on earth such an enormous nondiverged Heaviside component pouring out of the power source terminals could possibly come from, Lorentz—reasoning that, since the nondiverged energy flow did not do anything, it was "physically insignificant" (Lorentz' term)—then just integrated the energy flow vector around a little closed surface assumed around every volume element of interest.  This efficiently discards the Heaviside nondiverged component from all accountability, leaving only the Poynting energy flow component vector accounted.  Of course the Poynting energy flow will agree with the energy measured in the circuit, since we actually measure energy dissipation, and the energy that dissipates from the circuit must have first entered it.  Electrodynamicists today just continue to use Lorentz's integration of the energy flow vector around an assumed closed surface surrounding any volume element of interest.  Thus, sadly our electrical power system engineers unwittingly waste trillions of times more EM energy actually produced from the vacuum by the source dipoles in their generators, than what the feeble powerline is able to intercept and utilize.

We have nominated the vast unaccounted Heaviside energy flow accompanying every field and charge interaction as the source of the extra gravity known to be present in the arms of the spiral galaxies and holding them together.  See my paper, "Dark Matter or Dark Energy?", Journal of New Energy, 4(4), Spring 2000, p. 4-11.  Informally we have also nominated this dark Heaviside energy which fills all space, as associated with the "quintessence" energy that is responsible for the recently discovered antigravitational acceleration of the universe.  In this view the giant negentropy process associated with charge (see my "Giant Negentropy of the Common Dipole" paper, ibid.) is ongoing in all the stars, galaxies, planets, nebulae, and other astronomical entities.  The ordinary energy we measure in all these processes is gravitational; hence for symmetry and energy conservation, the primary longitudinal EM wave energy from the time domain that furnishes the energy to all these spatially energetic processes represents an increasing curvature of spacetime in the time domain as we travel outward from any origin point.   This is an antigravitational force, in this concept, which is cumulative as a function of radial distance from the origin point.  Hence we see the distant parts of the universe as accelerating the expansion of the universe.  At present this is of course an hypothesis, and must be further validated by laboratory experiment and further theoretical work in a unified field theory electrodynamics such as the Sachs-Evans O(3) symmetry electrodynamics.

S-flow is actually comprised of an organized, structured flow of virtual photons or antiphotons and itself is not observable. Its interaction with charged particles (electrical charges and magnetic poles), however, is observable by the amount of energy  collected upon (diverged around) the charge or pole (formation of a local potential), and formation of a translation force upon the charge or pole.

Again, the "E" and the "H" in the expression "E´H" are not really the "electrical field" and "magnetic field" in space, but only their reaction cross sections at each point in space, should a little unit point static coulomb be placed at that point to divert some of the E-field flow around it, or a little unit point static magnetic charge be placed at that point to divert some of the H-field flow around it.  So even the Poynting energy flow S = E´H has been interpreted in terms of its reaction cross sections.

It is worth noting that electrodynamicists today are still politely debating EM energy flow and the energy flow vector.  As an example, a polite "debate" of this subject has been ongoing for over 30 years in American Journal of Physics alone.  A particularly significant statement of the problem is given by Jones: "It is possible to introduce the Poynting vector S, defined by S = E´H, and regard it as the intensity of energy flow at a point.  This procedure is open to criticism since we could add to S any vector whose divergence is zero without affecting [the basic integration procedure's result]." [D.S. Jones, The Theory of Electromagnetism, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1964, p. 52.]  In short, here Jones is stating that an enormous nondiverged energy flow may accompany the Poynting flow component, and it will not be accounted for by S = E´H.  After presenting the various elements required to solve the energy flow problem, Jones bows out with the statement: ""It does not seem likely that an expression satisfying all these conditions will be simple… …fortunately, we are rarely concerned with the energy flow at a point.  In most applications we need the rate at which energy is crossing a closed surface."  [Jones, ibid., p. 53.]  Panofsky and Phillips warn against over-attachment to the Poynting vector: "Paradoxical results may be obtained if one tries to identify the Poynting vector with the energy flow per unit area at any point."  [Wolfgang K. H. Panofsky and Melba Phillips, Classical Electricity and Magnetism, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, Menlo Park, CA, 1962, third printing 1969, p. 180.

We point out, however, that for gravitational effects of energy flows in space, one must account the total energy flow per unit area at and surrounding any point, and therefore one must restore the unaccounted enormous Heaviside nondiverged EM energy flow component as well as the accounted tiny little Poynting diverged energy flow component.

Dt    An increment (little piece of) time.

In special relativity, time can be considered a piece of spatial length compressed by the factor c, so that L = ct, where L is in meters, t is in seconds, and c is the speed of light.   Time can also be considered as spatial EM energy compressed by the factor c2.  To comprehend time and time rate of flow, one must first realize that a priori no observable exists or persists in time.  The observable is a 3-spatial snapshot made at one instant in time, so that "time stopped" momentarily.  The observable is thus a frozen snapshot of the 3-spatial intersection of an ongoing 4-space interaction.  At the very next instant, that snapshot no longer exists.  Hence for a mass (or any other observable) to "propagate in time", there must be a process whereby Dt is continually added to the observable (such as to mass m, converting it to masstime mt for a short duration) and then subtracted again, leaving behind another frozen 3-space snapshot of the "observable" that has seemingly now endured for that little Dt period, with respect to the observer.  As we explain in several papers, the sum total of the photon interactions with a mass m may be taken as the generator that produces (1) the flow of the mass m through time, by changing from m to mt to m to mt… continually, and (2) a substructuring of internal "time-flow components".  In short, any time-flow ascertained in the macroworld or the microworld by the observer, has an enormously rich internal dynamics and structuring.  Again, in higher symmetry electrodynamics such as O(3), the internal structuring of the photon, EM field, EM wave, and EM potential can be modeled and eventually even directly engineered.

DE    An increment (little piece of) energy.

The photon is considered to be (unit-wise) composed of (DE)(Dt). However, in our view (as we explain in energy, energy collection, and energy dissipation) energy does not occur in "little fixed chunks" at all. One only has "little chunks" of energy when one is collecting energy in an ongoing process. In electromagnetics, the "collection" of energy is actually the ongoing collecting of energy from an energy flow deviating around an intercepting charge. It is a dynamic, ongoing process whereby a collector such as a charged particle intercepts and interacts with (undergoes virtual photon flux exchange with) an impinging energy density flow S= E´H. In an equilibrium (static) condition, the deviated flow remains very like a persistent, unchanging whirlpool in a river, and so is said to have a "static magnitude". If that Poynting flow is removed, then there is no excess collecting going on and the "magnitude of the deviated energy flow" is zero.  EM energy collection/collecting is always like a rock in a high wind. As long as the wind is blowing on the rock, air is deviated to flow around the rock.  The rock has a force field on and of it, and wishes to move. It also has "excess collected energy", and a gradient in this "excess collected energy" determined by the wind flow direction. When the wind ceases to blow, the rock goes back to being just a rock, and forgets it had all that excess wind energy collecting and any desire to move.

TERMS AND PHRASES

ABEL, NIELS HENRIK (1802-1829)

Norwegian mathematician who in 1824 proved that the general equation of fifth degree cannot be solved algebraically.  He also left an important paper on transcendental functions which was published posthumously.

ABELIAN GROUP

A group obeying the commutative law of algebra for every pair of elements a and b under an operation , so that a*b = b*a.  As an example, the set of integers is an infinite abelian group under the multiplication operation.

ACTION AT A DISTANCE

An action (effect) occurring in a local system, for which no separate local 3-space cause exists, but for which a causal correlation exists between a distant cause and the local effect.

To the local 3-space observer, the effect is baffling. In electromagnetics, action at a distance can be considered a higher topology phenomena, occurring through hyperspace or through subspace, or through "multiply connected spacetime." Particularly note that "time" is multiply connected; i.e., every spatial point in 3-space (in the entire universe) exists at the same moment in time, which means that electrodynamic action through the time domain can be used to eliminate the spatial distance between any two 3-space points.  Action at a distance is absolutely required by quantum mechanics, and experiments establish its truth. Such action was implicitly included in Maxwell's quaternion theory, but was unknowingly discarded by Heaviside, Hertz, and Gibbs when they formulated a much more restricted vector interpretation of Maxwell's theory, after Maxwell's death.  Bohm's hidden variable interpretation of quantum mechanics uses the quantum potential, which is a multiply-connected entity producing instantaneous action at a distance.  In ordinary electrodynamics, the common scalar potential in the Coulomb gauge has instantaneous velocity, and it appears everywhere in space, wherever it will occupy, all at once in that gauge.

Time is also a set of energy flows in the time domain (complex plane) rather than in 3-space.  Time is also multiply connected, since a priori every 3-space point in the universe exists at and in a single moment of time.  Since time is dynamic and structured with special energy flows, it seems possible to use this feature to establish energy flow during one specific moment to a desired subset of 3-space points, regardless of where in the universe those points are located.  Hence the development of "time-energy" technology allows action at a distance via manipulating the multiple connectivity of time and its internal structure (internal time-like energy flows).

A model used and fitted for a specific purpose or area.

Tentative formulation, not intended toward general application and not yet firm because there is still not a comprehensive, tested demonstration of the "fit" of the model to the complex phenomenology.  Nonetheless, an ad hoc model can be quite useful in a given area, so long as it sufficiently fits the experimental data in that area and makes sufficiently accurate predictions in the area.

An electromagnetic field that is a solution of the classical Maxwell equations, which is positioned on the future light-cone of spacetime.

We believe much of the problem with the "advanced solution" is a problem of interpretation.  We would urge the re-interpretation not in terms of "time-travel" where the wave continues in observer forward time while the rest of the universe is assumed to retrogress to a previous state, but in terms of time-reversal of that wave only.  In that case, the rest of the universe stays sane and continues to move in observer forward time, and the wave itself just moves in forward time in a path-reversed manner, back along a previous "stimulus wave" (the retarded wave that moved forward in time normally).

An electromagnetic potential that is a solution of the classical Maxwell equations, which is positioned on the future light-cone of spacetime.

Presently this potential has not yet been given a physical interpretation.  See remarks above.

An electromagnetic wave that is a solution of the classical Maxwell equations, and which is positioned on the future light-cone of spacetime.

See remarks above.

AFFINE CONNECTION

In mathematics: "A connection on a manifold, whose form is unchanged under affine changes of parameter along curves, e.g., when the original parameter t of a curve g (t) is replaced by t = as + b."  Dictionary of Science and Technology, Academic Press, Christopher Morris (Ed.), 1992.

Ugh! We'll let the mathematicians take it from there.

AFFINE TRANSFORMATION

"Transformation on a linear space to itself which can be expressed as the sum of a linear transformation and a fixed vector.

The affine transformations form a group. In the plane, the group is six-dimensional, consisting of translations, rotations, stretchings and shrinkings, reflections, simple elongations and compressions, and simple shear transformations, as well as compositions of these."

Dictionary of Science and Technology, 1992, ibid.

AHARONOV, YAKIR

Renowned Israeli quantum physicist and former student of David Bohm.

Co-discoverer of the Aharonov-Bohm effect: Even when the electromagnetic force fields reduce to zero in a charged particle system, the potentials may still exist and interfere to cause real physical effects. Together with Bohm, Aharonov authored a fundamental paper in 1959 which pointed out the primary importance of the potentials rather than the force fields. Indeed, the force fields are only made in and of the charged particle system itself, by interference there of potentials, and do not exist as such in the vacuum. The forcefields are thus not primary electromagnetic causes at all, but are secondary effects due to the interference of potentials in a particular charged particle system. [See Aharonov-Bohm Effect] In his three volumes of physics, Feynman pointed out that the forcefields do not exist as such in the vacuum, and that only the potential for the forcefields exists in vacuum. The primary causative agents for electromagnetics are thus the potentials. This has been proven both theoretically and experimentally in quantum mechanics, but still does not appear in present classical electromagnetic theory taught in universities—which terribly confuses cause waves and effect waves in wave-charge interactions.

AHARONOV-BOHM EFFECT

Phenomenon theoretically pointed out in 1959 by Yakir Aharonov and David Bohm whereby interfering electromagnetic potentials can produce effects on charged particle systems, even at a distance and in the absence of the electromagnetic force fields.

See Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," Physical Review, Second Series, 115(3), 1959, p. 485-491.  For an overview and extensive bibliography, see S. Olariu and I. Iovitzu Popescu, "The Quantum Effects of Electromagnetic Fluxes," Reviews of Modern Physics, 57(2), Apr. 1985, p. 339-436.

Chambers experimentally demonstrated the Aharonov-Bohm effect one year later. When
E- and B-fields are zero in a region, their potentials still may exist and thus be stable and persistent. Being gradient-free, a force-free potential is not changing; no bleed-in or bleed-off of its magnitude or of its internal structure is occurring. Interference of the potentials produces real electromagnetic effects (energy) in the interference zone, even at a great distance, without transmission of "field energy" per se through the intervening 3-space. [Rigorously, the potential's EM energy can be considered to be hyperspatially transmitted, or subspatially transmitted (tunneled) via the Whittaker internal EM biwave mechanism. See discussions under action at a distance.]

In 1897-8 Stoney showed (in Philosophical Magazine) by physical reasoning that all the disturbances of the ether arising from sources of certain kinds can be resolved into trains of plane waves. This was extended and the general and special equations written by E.T. Whittaker in 1903 in Mathematische Annalen. In 1904 (delivered orally in 1903) Whittaker's second paper dealing with the subject was published in the Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, and showed that scalar EM potential interferometry is in fact what generates the classical EM force fields.

The two Whittaker papers may be interpreted to show a startling arrangement in a potential or EM wave. (1) any EM field or wave in a particular 3-space is due to two interfering scalar potential functions in that space.  So we may replace any EM field or wave with two scalar potential functions, a priori.  (2) But each of the scalar potentials onto which the functions are applied, is decomposable into the Whittaker 1903 longitudinal EM wavepairs, where the output waves are in 3-space and the input waves are time-like and come from the complex plane.  This provides a hidden "infolded LW electrodynamics" inside, and composing, all EM fields and waves.  Further, the decomposition is recursive, so each of the first tier infolded EM waves can be decomposed again into a second tier of biwaves, etc.  Thus the most primary electrodynamics of all is the nested infolded longitudinal EM wave structuring of all present EM waves, potentials, and fields.  The internal LW waves also form rigorous curvature of ST patterns (templates) and thus engines.  By engineering the structure and dynamics of the internal EM, one can engineer mass—including the atomic nuclei, quarks, and gluons—as one wishes, once the technology is sufficiently developed.  In the West, this entire area has been ignored, but it has been highly weaponized by the KGB in Russia.

AIAS

Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study.

Unusual "think tank" comprised of fellows and fellow emeriti in various places in the world, who cooperate in advanced electromagnetics studies via E-mail.  Led by Dr. Myron W. Evans, a theorist of note, the institute has been forging ahead with the production of O(3) symmetry electrodynamics, particularly as an important subset of Mendel Sachs' unified field theory.  Dozens of AIAS group-authored papers have been published in various leading journals such as Foundations of Physics, Physica Scripta etc.  More than 90 AIAS papers are carried on a restricted Department of Energy website for reference by DoE scientists.  The work is particularly significant in working out how EM energy flows in both the 3-spatial and time domains, and how EM energy can be and is extracted from the active vacuum.  More than a dozen of  the later AIAS papers are carried on a DoE public website, http://www.ott.doe.gov/electromagnetic/papersbooks.html.  Also, about two dozen AIAS papers have either been approved for publication in journals, or are in the review process.  The present author is a Fellow Emeritus of the AIAS, and is kindly tolerated as a conceptualist by these advanced theoreticians.

AIDS

Acquired Immunological Deficiency Syndrome.

A condition of acquired immunological deficiency associated with infection of the cells of the immune systems with the retrovirus HTLV-III.  It is usually recognized by testing positive to HIV infection, and eventually by physical deterioration and by development of one or more life-threatening opportunistic infections such as pneumonia, or of Kaposi's sarcoma.

AIKIDO

A Japanese martial art whose modern form is a synthesis of many schools of jujitsu and the zen art of meditation in motion.

It is the way (DO) of entering and turning (AI) the opponents vital energy (KI).  The present author is a retired sandan (third degree black belt) in Yoseikan aikido.  He is retired because of debilitating injuries suffered in other fields and accidents, and as a busted-up old dog of 70 has no business bouncing hard off the mats with all those vigorous young fellows.  His extra 50 pounds also no longer enhance his athletic ability.  We did write a book, privately held but never published, on Aikido and dealing with the principles of unarmed combat.  Interestingly, we simply went into the deep unconscious in meditation (and perhaps a little beyond, depending on one's viewpoint) to uncover the unsuspected principles.  To list them, we went through the alphabet four times.  Many of these principles have never appeared in any text on martial arts or military combat.  The task was placed on me by my sensei and required seven years to complete.  Perhaps one of these days we will formally publish the book.

ALGEBRAS

The various types of mathematics in which the theoretical models for physics and other sciences are embedded.

Some important algebras utilized in physics are the vector algebra, tensor algebra, quaternion algebra, Grassman algebra, Pauli algebra, Clifford algebra, etc.  There are many others.  The complexity of the symmetry and of the topology varies significantly between these algebras.  Thus, an electrodynamics model in a lower topology algebra such as vectors or tensors will not reveal or permit nearly so great a set of electrodynamic functions and operations as will electrodynamics embedded in a higher topology algebra such as quaternion algebra or Clifford algebra.

As an example, it has been shown by Barrett that the operation of many of Nikola Tesla's patented circuits cannot be understood if analyzed in vector or tensor electrodynamics.  The circuits will reveal totally new functions when analyzed in quaternion electrodynamics.  That paper is T. W. Barrett, "Tesla's Nonlinear Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Theory," Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 16(1), 1991, p. 23-41

ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE

A medical system which combats disease by using remedies which produce effects different from those produced by the disease treated.

Reliance is primarily upon drugs, pain relievers, and treatment of symptoms as well as use of agents to "kill" the microbial organisms regarded as the cause of the diseases.  Surgery is used as a major adjunct.  From time to time, other practices formerly frowned upon or even legally prosecuted are recognized as effective and legitimate, and are then brought in under the aegis of organized allopathic medicine.  Physical therapy is such a formally prosecuted modality that was eventually adopted; hypnosis is another.  The problems with organized allopathy is that (1) it tends to be monopolistic, (2) it uses the state's power to enforce its credo, (3) it controls both the bulk of the medical scientific literature and the flow of research funds from both government and private sources, (4) it does not adequately police its doctors and technicians, (5) it does not sufficiently accent preventative medicine or "whole human being" treatment, and (6) it engages in conspiracies to destroy competing systems of medicine (as in the case of chiropractic).  (7) On the other hand, it has made remarkable advances in preventing killer diseases by vaccination, treating them by antibiotics, and in eradicating or controlling many of the former great killer diseases such as smallpox, diphtheria, and bubonic plague.  It has been far less successful in treating and reversing debilitation, cancer, arteriosclerosis, etc.  Just now, most of its major weapons against the former dread diseases are beginning to fail.  The disease organisms are rapidly changing into new, more virulent forms that are resistant or even immune to the present "successful" treatments.  Even in orthodox medical publications, it is now beginning to be recognizing that allopathic medicine is starting to fail, and that we are again entering a period of great, uncontrollable killer pandemics.

ALLOPATHY

Another name for allopathic medicine and allopathic medical therapy.

AMBIENT VACUUM

The average active vacuum, in space, removed from large collections of charge and mass.

AMBIENT VACUUM POTENTIAL

The average standard vacuum (spacetime) considered as a potential having structure and dynamics on a myriad levels.

Anything that is composed of virtual particle flux is a potential.  Another way of looking at the vacuum is to realize that, having an energy density, then a priori it is a potential or may be modeled as such.

Hence the ambient vacuum can be decomposed via the Whittaker method into an internal set of infolded EM longitudinal waves of very special nature.  Further, our work on the broken 3-symmetry energy flow involved in any potential or dipolarity shows the more fundamental 4-symmetry energy flow between the time domain and 3-space.  This 4-symmetry energy flow is also highly structured and dynamic.

Whittaker's work shows that, contrary to present assumptions in quantum physics, a particular potential has its virtual particle flux formed into a beautiful bidirectional wave structure. The apparent disorder at any local point in the local vacuum potential is due to the constant arrival of myriads of potentials, from charged particles all over the universe. The violent interference and re-interference of these potentials results in the creation of violently changing virtual photons—or in terms of waves, violently changing EM waves and fields. In other words, the statistical disorder of the vacuum is actually composed of continually and rapidly changing perfect order. [Here we have confronted 3-law Aristotelian logic with its missing 4th law, because at the limit opposites are identical!] The continual violent interferometry results in the zero-point EM fluctuations of vacuum. Each EM fluctuation is completely deterministic, as shown in Puthoff's cosmological feedback mechanism. However, the macroscopic observer has no knowledge of the cause or of the arrival, and of the myriads of interferences that produced the final EM field fluctuation. Hence although the zero-point fluctuations of vacuum are completely deterministic one-by-one, the observer has no information on their causality. Hence to the observer these fluctuations are completely statistical and seemingly without local order. However, because of their hidden determinism, these fluctuations are chaotic rather than random—contrary to the Gibbs' thermodynamics statistics assumed and adopted by quantum mechanics. That statistics should be changed to an "already chaotic" statistics containing hidden Whittaker order. This would appear to be the real solution to the recognized major QM problem of the missing chaos.

Since their changes and appearances are completely in one-to-one correspondence to all distant features of the macroscopically ordered universe, then their integration yields macroscopic order. Further, as can be seen, Mach's principle—so near and dear to the heart of Einstein—arises directly from the foregoing discussion. In such fashion, integration of statistical (but chaotic, and with hidden order) quantum changes results in the familiar, ordered macroscopic world. This removes the great error in QM: that heretofore it has failed to predict the ordered macroscopic universe we observe and inhabit.

ANALOGUE

Part that is analogous (representative or modeled).

At root, an analogue of something is a second something that functions in similar fashion to the first something.

ANAEROBE

An organism that lives, is active, and occurs in the absence of free oxygen.  Particularly applicable to one-celled organisms that do so.

ANAEROBE, FACULTATIVE

An organism that can live either as an aerobe or as an anaerobe.  Particularly applicable to one-celled organisms possessing that capability.

ANAEROBE, OBLIGATORY

An organism that is restricted to being anaerobic; i.e., it cannot utilize oxygen from the atmosphere.

ANAEROBIC

Characteristic of an organism of living, active, or occurring in the absence of free oxygen.

ANGULAR MOMENTUM

The momentum or "leverage" of the momentum of a moving body, with respect to an axis or reference point.

Angular momentum as the same units as action; that is, it is energy multiplied by time, or momentum multiplied by length.  In terms of particles, it is also known as spin.

ANOMALOUS EM JAMMING MECHANISM

In a dense signal environment, an unusual mechanism whereby EM energy from the skin of an aerial vehicle is directed laser-like into the internal circuitry.

The density of the signals impinging upon the skin are such that the probability of multiple photon interaction increases.  Also, on a nonlinearity in/on the skin, the multiplex of signals creates a scalar EM potential.  Decomposition of this potential into Whittaker waves provides hidden "pump" waves upon the nonlinearity, which therefore acts as a pumped phase conjugate mirror (PPCM).  EM fields and signals from the internal operating circuits in the vehicle provide "signal waves" to the internal skin and to the nonlinearity PPCMs on the skin.  Amplified phase conjugate replica (PCR) waves are generated by the PPCMs, where in each PCR wave the energy may be the total of the external signal density pump waves upon the initiating PPCM.  The result is that the skin becomes a "collector" of energy from all the impinging external signals, and focuses much of this collected external energy into laser-like beams inside the vehicle which penetrate directly back to the circuit element that originated the particular signal field/wave to the inner skin.  The result is spurious jamming throughout the vehicle, directly in its operating circuits, in a manner not described in normal ECM theory.  Also, the same effect occurs in a human body when exposed to such a dense signal environment (threshold about 200,000 signals per square meter per second, and particularly active above 500,000 signals per square meter per second.  I.e., in such an EM "smog" environment, the anomalous jamming mechanism is able to progressively conduct the energy impinging upon the skin deep into the body and throughout it, including into the bone marrow.  This effect is not described at all in the standard dosimetry literature and experimental approaches for examining the effects of EM fields and radiations upon biological systems.  By rigorous frequency band control of radiations and communications, most equipment can be operated in an appreciably dense environment such as appears on the modern environment, because the equipment is essentially "narrow band."  The human, however, is a very wide-band receiver, and in such dense environments—even at very weak signal levels—the human system will eventually undergo cumulative damage.  This is one of the major mechanisms involved in long term deleterious biological effects of EM radiation environments, but this effect on living systems has not been investigated in the laboratory by present EM bioeffects researchers.

In the U.S. air attack on Libya in 1986, the anomalous jamming mechanism interfered with the aircraft, controls, and missiles because frequency discipline was not rigorously enforced.  In the Gulf War, rigid frequency discipline was enforced, with the result that the electronic systems operated normally.  However, the troops exposed to that environment (which varied from place to place) were affected by the mechanism, which added a bit to the previous cumulative damage to their immune systems, etc.

ANTIBODY

A body substance produced in response to a specific antigen (protein or carbohydrate or other substance, such as a toxin or enzyme, capable of stimulating an immune response).

The antibody counteracts the effects of the antigen, by neutralizing toxins, agglutinating bacteria or cells, precipitating soluble antigens, etc.

ANTI-ELECTRON

The time-reversed electron, or positron.  Under time reversal, electric charge reverses in sign.

Paul A.M. Dirac, in his "A Theory of Electrons and Protons," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A126, 1930, p. 360 introduced the negative energy electron sea (now called the "Dirac sea") with negative energy electron holes treated as the positive electron.  He attempted to identify these holes with protons, but that was later refuted.  The positron, discovered about a year after Dirac's paper, was later connected with this anti-electron.

Note that Dirac himself was not adamant that all negative energy state holes in the Dirac sea were filled with electrons, but just that almost all of them were.  Modern researchers have tended to extend this to state that all the holes are filled, normally.  That is sufficient in forward time situations.  But it does not necessarily hold in a time-reversed situation, in a time-reversed zone, or in a tempic back emf.

ANTIGRAVITY

An effect whereby normal masses repulse one another rather than attract one another

Antigravity may also be considered as time-reversed gravitation.  It may also be considered as gravitation between two negative masses.

ANTIMATTER

Matter consisting of atoms which are composed of antielectrons (positrons), antiprotons, antineutrons.

Also loosely refers to the antiparticle corresponding to a particle—the antiparticle may be regarded as the particle traveling backward in time, or "phase conjugated", or "time-reversed.

ANTIPARTICLE

A counterpart to an ordinary fundamental particle, having identical mass lifetime and spin, but with charge and magnetic moment reversed in algebraic sign.

Note that when the charge is reversed, parity and time are also reversed.  Thus, properly, the antiparticle is the phase conjugation of the particle, or just conjugate particle for short.  In effect an antiparticle is the particle traveling backward in observer time rather than forward in observer time.

ANTIPHASED

180 degrees out of phase (contrary-wise in timing).

ANTIPHOTON

A time-reversed photon.

Presently, the photon is considered its own antiparticle, so that photon and antiphoton are one and the same. In the new approach, that is not quite true. First, one considers that a photon—as is well known—has the units of angular momentum. Thus it is made of "energy multiplied by time." We consider that the time-forward photon (i.e. a normal photon), is made of (+DE)(+Dt). Usually physicists have largely neglected the fact that a photon carries an increment of time as well as an increment of energy! In our approach the antiphoton, being a time-reversed entity, must be composed differently. We have tentatively considered the antiphoton to be comprised of (DE)(- Dt). It will probably initially be necessary to take into account the fact that Minkowski geometry treats the T dimension as imaginary rather than simple arithmetic. We haven't had the lengthy time to work all of that out; perhaps one of the better theoreticians or one of the sharp young graduate students will do that and save us the trouble.

At any rate, the requirement is that—in a coupled photon-antiphoton pair (a graviton)—the energies of photon and antiphoton must add spatially, while electromagnetically the translation forces (actually translation impulses) of photon and antiphoton must cancel or thwart each other. One insists on a strong interpretation of the distortion correction theorem in phase conjugate optics. In other words, we consider the "wave" as composed of photons, while the "antiwave" (phase conjugate replica) emitted by a phase conjugate mirror is composed of antiphotons. And we consider that the distortion correction theorem must apply to the wave's photons, so that the antiphotons are precisely superposing (coupling) and then decoupling as the wave and antiwave pass through each other in perfect spatial superposition. We feel that this "totally in phase spatially but totally antiphased temporally" concept is important.  It is well-known, e.g., that in certain cases protons—the very building blocks of matter itself—can pass right through other protons, as shown in certain colliding beam experiments if their relative spins are properly arranged.

ANTISIGNAL

The phase conjugate of a signal.  The time reversal of that signal or its twin.  The phase conjugate replica signal/wave emitted by a phase conjugate mirror material in response to an incident signal/wave.

ANTI-STOKES EMISSION

Radiation emitted from an intensely scattering medium that is of greater intensity than the input radiation.

In other words, the medium gives off more energy than we have to put into it. This has been known since the 1930s and proven experimentally, but no really complete explanation has been forthcoming.  The conventional explanation is that some of the kinetic energy of the medium is furnished to cause additional emission.  In that case, anti-Stokes emission would lower the kinetic energy of the emitting medium.  Note that this is not necessarily true at all in Letokhov's negative absorption (excess emission) of the medium, where in that case the excess energy in the emissions is said to come directly from energy absorbed from the active vacuum.

The radiation coming from an anti-Stokes emission process from an intensely scattering medium, where more energy flux is emitted than is input by the experimenter-operator.

In the past, there has just been "arm-waving" that the excess energy must come from the internal energy of the molecules. There seems to be no explanation at all of where the excess energy of the molecules must continue to come from! Tacit silence on this "apparent" violation of energy conservation is held.  But see Letokhov's negative absorption of the medium discussions in the literature.

We quote from H. C. Dake and Jack DeMent. (1941) Fluorescent Light and Its Applications, Chemical Publishing Company, Inc., Brooklyn, New York, 1941. p. 51-52: "When a phosphor or other luminescent substance emits light, it gives in most cases an emission according to Stokes' Law. This law states that the wavelength of the fluorescent (emitted) light is always greater than the wavelength of the exciting radiation. It was first observed in 1852 in the memoir "On the Change of Refrangibility of Light," by Sir G. G. Stokes. In terms of energy the relationship states that e em < e ab. While Stokes' Law holds for the majority of cases, it does not hold in certain instances. In some cases the wave length is the same for both the absorbed and the emitted radiation. That is, the efficiency appears to be perfect or unity. This is known as resonance radiation. In other cases Stokes' Law does not hold where the energy emitted is greater than the energy absorbed. This is known as Anti-Stokes emission. In 1935 Prileshajewa showed that there is an energy difference as much as 1.1 v between the exciting light and the fluorescence of aniline vapor. This added energy is attributed to additions from the internal energy of the molecule."

There is no real problem of identifying the source of the excess energy, once one realizes that (i) every dipole is a broken symmetry in the vacuum exchange with the end charges of the dipole, and thus extracts virtual energy from the vacuum, integrates and orders it, and outputs it as EM energy density flow.  One then adds multiretroreflection and multiple passes of the EM energy flow, so that charges that intercept and collect energy from the reciprocating flow can multiply connect from the same energy flow (on a given pass, only a tiny, tiny fraction—nominally about 10-13—of the energy flow is intercepted and interacted with by the collecting particle). Thus multiple collections from the same EM energy flow can be accomplished, if the flow is iteratively rerouted (as by retroreflection or phase conjugate reflection) back across the collecting charges again and again.

In this fashion additional energy is collected in the collected volume, which increases the local collected energy density in that volume. In turn this increases the local potential of that volume. In turn that increases the energy flow from that potential acting as a dipole, because it increases the dipole strength and consequently the magnitude of the dipole's broken symmetry in its vacuum flux exchange.

The inefficiency of the process increases nonlinearly with increasing local potential, and faster than the buildup of local energy density occurs from multipass multicollection. When the inefficiency curve reaches the increasing broken symmetry energy extraction curve, then a point of equilibrium is reached. At that equilibrium point, the rate of energy diffusing out of the multipass region and escaping from the periphery of the system is equal to the rate of extraction of energy from the vacuum and flowing it out into as Poynting S-flow into the multicollection region and collecting it.

So we have described an open thermodynamic system, where there are two inputs of energy flow: (i) that by the operator-experimenter, and (ii) that from the vacuum via the dipolar broken symmetries. At equilibrium condition the total input energy rate is equal to the total energy escaping rate, and the conservation of energy law is rigorously upheld. However, this is an open thermodynamic system far from equilibrium, and so rigorously the nonlinear thermodynamics of such systems applies, rather than the normal equilibrium thermodynamics. As is well-known, the coefficient of performance for such open systems in disequilibrium, may permissibly be overunity, even greatly overunity.

Properly utilized, the overunity anti-Stokes or Letokhov emission can be made very large—such as COP »1200 in Patterson's adaptation. The process and its overunity certification already exist in the hard science literature, being known and experimentally demonstrated for at least three decades.

ANTIWAVE

The time-reversal (phase conjugation) of a reference wave.

A phase conjugate replica wave is a time-reversed replica of its referent wave. Hence it is the antiwave of the referent wave.

A-POTENTIAL

Vector magnetic potential.

The A-potential is a real entity more primary than the magnetic field B, and not a mathematical convenience as was originally thought—as detailed in the second volume of Feynman's three volumes of physics. Indeed, it may be separated from the magnetic field, as reported by Feynman, and used for instrumentation effects in the manner patented by Gelinas. When separated from magnetic field, it is often referred to as the "curl-free vector potential," since the B-field is modeled as being created from the A-field by curling it. In other words, B is defined as the curl of the magnetic vector potential, if we use B º Ñ´A.   Hence "separating" magnetic field from A-potential simply is a sort of "parallel branching" of the energy density flow of the A-potential.  It is like branching the voltage on a feeder line conductor in an electric circuit into two parallel conductors.  The feeder potential splits into two, so that each branch has the same potential.  Actually the vast energy flow in the feeder line only has a small component which strikes the surface charges, diverting the energy into the conductor and potentializing the Drude electrons.  In branching into two conductors, the giant flow branches also, but is so great that the surface charges in each of the two branches still intercept essentially the same amount of energy, diverging it into the conductor.  Hence each conductor exhibits the same potential as the feeder conductor

The same thing happens when one "splits" or branches the A-potential in similar fashion.  The diverted and separated B-field branch will exhibit "equal energy density" flow (i.e., in the form of magnetic flux density flow) and yet the original A-potential path through space will still have the same previous energy flow density magnitude, just without curl (without magnetic field).

Any good toroid or very long solenoid already performs such separation, and hence energy density flow doubling.  If properly used—as in the motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG)—this effect can be used to provide a generator with COP>1.0.  At this writing, the present MEG exhibits COP = 16, and is a patent-pending system.

The well-known Aharonov-Bohm effect, e.g., also uses this separation of the curl of the
A-potential, leaving an uncurled A-potential whose changes will and do interact with electrons.

The curl-free vector potential is particularly interesting because (1) it is a unique and independent field of nature, (2) its curl produces a magnetic field, (3) its time derivative produces an electric field, (4) its magnitude does not fall off inversely as the distance squared, but only inversely as the distance, and its time derivative dA/dt = B E.  Hence, as in the MEG, one can extract energy both from the curl-free A-potential and the curled
A-potential (magnetic field B), increasing the available energy collected in the circuit to greater than what the operator input to it.  This is simply a physical process of regauging, wherein electrodynamicists already routinely assume (and apply) the fact that the potential energy of any EM system can be freely changed at will, by regauging.  In the real world, of course, we may have to pay a little switching energy, but we are free to regauge (by this "splitting the potential into equal parallel paths, and by other methods), at will and at any time and place.  The MEG just takes advantage of one major method for free regauging, in order to violate the Lorentz symmetry condition (violate symmetry in the system's energy exchange with its active vacuum environment).  It thereby is legitimately permitted to exhibit COP>1.0 and output more energy than one inputs, because the regauging transforms it into an open dissipative system far from thermodynamic equilibrium in its active environmental energy exchange.

ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC

The conventional three laws of logic, unconsciously fitted to the physical reality created by the single photon interaction.  The three laws are:  (1) a thing is identical to itself, (2) a thing is not identical to something else, and (3) either one has a given thing or something that is not that thing.  Mathematically these are written as (1) A A, (2) A Ã, and (3) A Ã.  Aristotelian logic applies only to single observation at a time (monocular observation, a single observer).  When multiple simultaneous observation (multiocular observation, multiple observers) are considered, the three laws may be violated.  In that case a fourth law, A Ã is added.  This law may be seen to be the exact negation of all the first three.  An application rule (which may itself be called a fifth law) is also added, and states that either the first three laws are explicit and the fourth is implicit, or the first three are implicit and the fourth is explicit.  Further, the fourth law is the law of the paradox:  Something that is found to be true in nature, but violates one or more of Aristotle's three laws, is known as a logical paradox.  In  the higher logic, it simply violates the case where the three Aristotelian laws are explicit and the fourth law is implicit.  Instead, the three Aristotelian laws are now implicit and the fourth law has become explicit.  All boundaries exhibit this effect.

It is highly recommended that the interested reader familiarize himself or herself with Morris Kline, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty, Oxford University Press, New York, 1980.  Kline deals directly with the fact that mathematics is not a body of unshakable truths about the physical world, and mathematical reasoning is not exact and fallible.

ARISTOTLE

A great Greek philosopher who lived from 384-322 B.C.

Aristotle is famous for his three laws of logic: (1) a thing is identical to itself, (2) a thing is not identical to something else, and (3) either one has the thing considered or one has something else.

Heraclitus pointed out that Aristotle's laws prohibited any change, and yet changes were ubiquitous.  In short, for a thing to change, it had to change into something else, so Heraclitus pointed out.  So how could a thing be both itself and something else simultaneously? How could it be not itself while being itself?  The problem has not been solved by the logicians and philosophers to this day, because it has no solution in Aristotelian 3-law logic.  So Heraclitus, believe it or not, concluded that all change was an illusion.

ATHERIOSCLEROSIS

Basically, clogging of the arteries, which may be due to deposits onto the artery walls or by thickening and growth of the artery walls themselves, or a combination.  It is a chronic (slowly progressing) disease where the artery walls become progressively thickened and hardened and the artery becomes less elastic.

It has been found that the common cytomegalovirus (one of the herpes viruses) plays a key role in the development of the disease.  Initial deposits irritate and injure the arterial walls, and the herpes 6 virus infects the site, partially nullifying the control of excess grown of the arterial muscle tissue.  This deposit and concomitant stimulation of some excess muscle growth occurs repeated, so that the muscle tissue grows abnormally over an extended period of time.  For this reason, when an operation is performed to forcibly reduce the deposits inside the artery, the resulting injuries to the arterial wall tissues leads to the herpes 6 infection and stimulation of excess muscle growth.  It has been found, e.g., that after angioplasty the process is often engendered, so that within a year or two the artery is narrowed again, but this time by abnormal growth of smooth muscle tissue.  The Prioré team demonstrated positive and total remission of arteriosclerosis in laboratory animals by means of nonionizing EM irradiation to produce an amplified "antiengine", which "time reversed" or dedifferentiated the stricken cells and the stricken areas back to a previous state.

ARTIFICIAL POTENTIAL

A scalar potential which is composed of, or partially contains, an artificially assembled bidirectional wave set.

See E. T. Whittaker, "On the Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903, p. 333-355 for proof that a "scalar potential" is actually a harmonic set of hidden bidirectional EM  phase conjugate longitudinal wavepairs. Each wavepair consists of a wave and its antiwave (true time-reversed replica wave).

If the external observer could see the detected (effect) waves in a hidden wavepair, he would see the "wave" going in one direction and the antiwave passing precisely through it in the other direction.  However, prior to detection, the phase conjugate wave exists entirely in the complex plane and hence in the time domain (in -ict).  So the interpretation of Whittaker's 1903 paper, in terms of cause and effect waves, is that the phase conjugate half set is incoming from the time domain to each and every point in the dipolarity or potential, and the "real 3-space half set" is being radiated in every direction in 3-space from that point.  See my paper, "Giant Negentropy….".

In addition to Whittaker's sum set of biwaves, Ziolkowski added the product set in the mid-1980s. E.g., see Richard W. Ziolkowski, "Exact solutions of the wave equation with complex source locations," Journal of Mathematical Physics, 26(4), April 1985, p. 861-863; Rod Donnelly and Richard Ziolkowski, "A method for constructing solutions of homogeneous partial differential equations: localized waves," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A., Vol. 437, 1992, p. 673-692. Particularly see I.M. Besieris, A.M. Shaarawi, and R. W. Ziolkowski, "A bidirectional travelling plane wave representation of exact solutions of the scalar wave equation," Journal of Mathematical Physics, 30(6), 1989, p. 1254-1269.

However, these deal only with the effects waves after detection.

Another way of defining an artificial potential is: A potential formed by or containing a subset formed by, deliberately summing nonzero force field vectors to a zero vector resultant. [Note that electrodynamicists routinely discard vector systems that sum to a zero resultant; not realizing that in doing so, they are discarding vacuum engines and a vastly extended electrogravitational dynamics!] The vector zero system of infolded nonzero vectors has a deterministic, internal stress pattern that is macroscopic. The type of potential made by the zero summation depends upon the type of force vectors summed. For example, summing electric field vectors to zero produces an electrostatic scalar potential; summing magnetic field vectors to zero produces a magnetostatic scalar potential of vacuum.

All potentials represents local warps or curvatures in vacuum/spacetime, and all artificial potentials contain internal, deterministic templates of nested internal spacetime curvatures. Curvature of spacetime interacts directly upon mass and physical systems embedded in it. Thus these deterministic, internested local spacetime curvatures of the artificial potential represent vacuum engines, or spacetime engines, and the artificial potential is said to be a dimensioned or activated potential. Any system exposed to and placed in such a vacuum spacetime engine, will have these hidden vacuum flux asymmetries interacting upon each and every part of it, down to and including the nuclei, the nucleons, and the quarks in the nucleons.

ASYMMETRICAL REGAUGING

Change of either the scalar potential f or the vector potential A, but not both, so that a single excess force and a single change of system energy occurs in the system.

This violates the assumed Lorentz condition, and thus excess energy can enter the system, and an excess "free" force appears which can (if the system is adroitly designed) then translate to perform work upon the system to increase its (e.g. kinetic) energy, exhausting the excess regauging energy in the process and restoring symmetry.

In conventional EM theory, Maxwell's equations in potential formulation are in terms of two potentials, f (the scalar potential) and A (the vector potential). When Heaviside retranslated Maxwell's quaternion set of 20 equations in 20 unknowns, he transformed it (in potential form) into two equations where main variables f and A are not separated. Electrodynamicists, who until recently considered the potentials as not even real, but just mathematical figments and conveniences, then simply arbitrarily changed both f and A just precisely so that the extra force appearing in the system by the change of f was countered by an equal and opposite extra force also appearing in the system by the change of A. This type of symmetrical (no net force) regauging is known as the Lorentz condition.

Each asymmetrical (produces a nonzero excess net force) potential change (each half of the two asymmetrical regaugings that comprise the symmetrical regauging) also altered the overall energy of the system. However, in the symmetrical regauging that total energy change is "bottled up" as increased stress in the system, because no net translation force is available to be translated and use the energy change to produce excess "free work."

The Lorentz condition assumes that the designer will not allow the equilibrium of the system to be broken! In that case, of course, ordinary equilibrium thermodynamics applies, and the system cannot produce COP>1.0. Prior to this Lorentz condition assumption and its absolutely arbitrary regauging, Maxwell's equations do include asymmetrical regauging and therefore open EM systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium; precisely those which violate the Lorentz condition (symmetric regauging) assumption.  In short, the unregauged equations do include COP>1.0 electrodynamic circuits and systems.

Unknowingly the electrodynamicists arbitrarily discarded the entire Maxwellian class of overunity EM engines and circuits—which class incorporates making a change in one potential(s) such that the Lorentz condition does not hold.

ASYMMETRY

Lack of symmetry, or "broken symmetry" in a general sense.

ASYMMETRY OF THE DIPOLE

Any dipole or dipolarity is a broken 3-symmetry in its fierce exchange of EM energy with the active vacuum.  This means that it continuously receives and absorbs copious virtual energy from the seething vacuum flux, and that not all this absorbed energy is reradiated back to the vacuum in virtual form.  Instead, some of it is integrated into observable form and re-radiated in all directions as usable, real 3-space EM energy.

This is standard, well-known particle physics, although it appears to be totally missing from classical electrodynamics and it is not considered at all by electrical power system designers and analysts!

Every electric charge is a broken symmetry in the virtual particle flux exchange between the quantum mechanical (energetic) vacuum and the mass of that electric charge. The dipole is two different such asymmetries. As is well-known in particle physics (not in classical EM theory!) each such broken symmetry must "gate" out some of the vacuum energy. In short, the charge asymmetry "extracts" some vacuum energy from its normal "energetic exchange" with the vacuum flux, and puts it out in some form we call "observable" (capable of being measured; specifically, of being intercepted by electric charges so as to produce a force field across the charge and translate it).

Well, an electrical charge produces a flow of energy density which we may represent conventionally as S = E´H  (when collected and measured on assumed unit point charges), which we—a little bit mistakenly— call "observable." [Actually, until the energy flow interacts with that assumed unit point charge,  it is an organized flow of virtual entities]  After interaction it is real observable EM energy in 3-space. The spinning electron has its own magnetic moment and its own E-field. Since (in one form) also E = - Ñf , an extracted and formed S = E´H is output by the charge asymmetry. This output energy flow also produces the assumed f evidenced by the charge interaction, since f as used represents the reaction cross section of the potential.  Note that all these entities S, E, H, and f are defined in electrodynamics only as their own interaction cross section with a unit point charge containing mass.

In classical electrodynamics (formed long before the notion of charged particles, atoms, and EM energy flow!) it is just recognized that "charge is the source of a potential." Actually charge gates the energy flow from the vacuum flux, receiving the energy from the time domain by its asymmetry, transduces the energy into 3-space energy, and outputs it as real EM energy pouring out in 3-space in all directions.  That energy-flow contains and carries the energy that will interact with charge to form the E-field, the H-field (spin field), and f.

Also, in particle physics and gauge theory it is well-known that no mass system can be in equilibrium anyway, unless the vacuum-to-mass interaction is incorporated! After CEM was formed, much later the atom was discovered and the electron was discovered. Much later then, particle physics and quantum mechanics came along. CEM theory has never been altered to include the necessary vacuum interaction, although it has been known for decades that CEM is totally in error in this respect.

Here one poses a question to the sharp young graduate students: Why does every university continue to teach a seriously flawed classical electrodynamics which does not include the vacuum/mass interaction, when the physics department at the same university knows full well that it must or no EM system can be in equilibrium? Why is not such a fundamental and universal issue strongly raised and intensively discussed by our large, tax-exempt scientific organizations at their annual symposia? Why do not the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Science demand that serious work be done at all speed, to correct such known scientific deficiencies in the classical EM theory? What happened to science as the search for physical truth, and replaced it with "status quo" models or—in some cases—even dogma?  It is an inexplicable mystery to me, and one to which I do not know the answer.

AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER

A disease or disorder relating to or caused by the antibodies or T-cells that attack foreign molecules, cells, or tissues of their host organism.

A flagrant autoimmune disease example is AIDS, Acquired Immunological Deficiency Syndrome.  The AIDS virus successfully hides from the antibodies, so that they cannot perform their proper function, and it infects the T-cells and negates their function.  However, there are other examples other than AIDS: e.g., rheumatism and osteoarthritis.

BACK EMF

The counter-electromotive force, usually between the end charges of the source dipole for an EM circuit.

When the electrons in the circuit are forced against the emf—as when the charges from the ground reference of the circuit are forced back up through the emf of the source dipole—then work is done upon the source dipole to scatter the charges and destroy the dipole.  Removing the dipole removes its receipt of vacuum energy via its broken 3-symmetry, transduction of that energy, and output of it along the circuit and in space around the circuit as the energy flow that powers the circuit (with part missing the circuit and being just wasted).

Since this removes the power from the circuit, then additional energy must be input to the source to perform work on the internal charges and restore that source dipole again.

There are actually two emfs in a circuit, not one.  There is a 3-space emf and also an entirely unrecognized tempic emf.  In either case, under proper circumstances there can be a back-emf or either one or both.  See discussion under electromotive force, back.  See also tempic back emf (to be added).

BALL LIGHTNING

Rare form of lightning where an incandescent, slow-moving globe forms.  The globe often moves erratically, explodes, and may set fire to objects it touches.

Ball lightning may be due to scalar electromagnetic interferometry which can produce a controlled pattern of electromagnetic energy at a distance, or it may be due to the formation of a special localized spacetime curvature engine.

BARE ELECTRON

The true electron without its partial shielding of virtual positrons that are attracted around it.

BARRETT, TERENCE W.

Noted modern electrodynamicist and consultant who works in SU(2)´SU(2) gauge symmetry extended electrodynamics, and was also one of the pioneers of ultrawideband radar.

BECKER, ROBERT O.

Medical doctor, medical research scientist, and Nobel Nominee,  noted for his early-on efforts—particularly in the 1960s through the 1980s, in the effects of EM fields on biological systems, studies of evoked or partially evoked limb regeneration in certain species, electrical stimulation of bone fractures to stimulate healing and reveal the mechanism involved, and the cellular regeneration system of the body as opposed to the immune system.

Becker particularly recognized that the cellular regenerative system was a special electrical system having unique functions.  He even succeeded in diagramming this system as far as it is revealed by ordinary U(1) electrodynamics.  Becker demonstrated partial limb regeneration in salamanders, etc. and in some other species, with electrical stimulation.  In his EM-stimulated bone fracture healing, Becker showed a startling result:  First the red blood cells entering the fracture area shucked their hemoglobin and grew a nucleus, thus "dedifferentiating" (biological term) or "time-reversing" (physics term) back to an earlier state.  Then this modified cell redifferentiated (biological term) or "fast-forwarded in time" (physics term) into the type of cell that makes cartilage.  Then this newly modified cell further redifferentiated into the type of cell that makes bone, and was deposited in the fracture site.  The continuing deposits of these cells from the ongoing process evoked in red blood cells healed the fracture with new bone growth.  Whereupon the action stopped.

Becker also was one of the first qualified scientists who testified in court on the deleterious effects of power line radiation.  He thereby incurred the enmity of very powerful interests, so that his research funds were pulled and eventually he was forced to retire at an early age.

He was nominated for the Nobel Prize multiple times, and his epochal work did finally focus at least some attention of the medical research community on the regenerative system as opposed to the immune system which heals nothing.

Becker's profound work was of tremendous influence on me as I struggled to decipher the active mechanism in his experiments, the Prioré team's experiments in France, the Russian microwave radiation of U.S. Embassy personnel in Moscow, Kaznacheyev's experiments demonstrating transmission of cellular disease and disorder electromagnetically into target cells environmentally isolated except for contact by light from the sender cells having such disease or disorder, and the body's own regenerative system.  After some 14 years struggle with the problem, I finally did break the mechanism(s) involved in all those things.  But it was only possible because of the magnificent work by Becker and Prioré, the reported work by Kaznacheyev, and gradual exposure to higher symmetry electrodynamics.  The work was crude at first, but eventually progressed (by 1998, e.g.) to include the port-hole concept, transduction of EM wave polarization types, the engine and engine template concepts, and unified field theory.  Since then it has become clear that the proper electrodynamics to model such things is the higher symmetry O(3) electrodynamics pioneered by Evans, and now revealed to be an important subset of Sachs' unified field theory.

Becker is therefore one of my heroes whose magnificent work and long perseverance against strong scientific suppression I greatly admire.  Most of Becker's detractors were or are in fact employed in positions either directly or indirectly funded by the electrical power industry.  I believe that, had Becker had access to O(3) electrodynamics and Sachs' theory, he would have personally impelled the entire medical field to a marvelous and extraordinarily advanced EM medical therapy.

See Robert O. Becker and Andrew A. Marino, Electromagnetism and Life, State University of New York Press, Albany, 1982;  Nice summary of EM bioeffects (orthodox) ; also on http://www.ortho.lsumc.edu/Faculty/Marino/EL/ELPub.html.

See also R. O. Becker, "The neural semiconduction control system and its interaction with applied electrical current and magnetic fields," Proceedings of the XI International Congress of Radiology, Vol. 105, 1966, p. 1753-1759, Excerpta Medica Foundation; Amsterdam; — "The direct current field: A primitive control and communication system related to growth processes," Proceed.  XVI Internat. Congr.  Zoology, Washington, D.C., Vol. 3, 1963, p. 179-183; — “The control system governing bone growth in response to mechanical stress,” J. Ark. Med. Soc., Vol. 62, 1966, p. 404; — "A technique for producing regenerative healing in humans," Frontier Perspectives, 1(2), Fall/Winter 1990, p. 1-2; — with  Charles H. Bachman and Howard Friedman, The direct current system:  A link between the environment and the organism," New York State Journal of Medicine, Vol. 62, April 15, 1962, p. 1169-1176; — and D. G. Murray, “A method for producing cellular dedifferentiation by means of very small electrical currents,” Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. 29, 1967, p. 606-615; — and Joseph A. Spadaro, "Electrical stimulation of partial limb regeneration in mammals," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, Second Series, 48(4), May 1972, p. 627-64; — and Carlton F. Hazlewood, Abraham R. Liboff, and Jan Walleczek, Electromagnetic Applications In Medicine," NIH-OAM Electromagnetics Panel Report, Jan. 15, 1993.

See particularly Robert O. Becker, "The significance of bioelectric potentials."  Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics, Vol. 1, 1974, p. 187-199. This is probably the paper by Becker that provides a really good overview of the control system.  A block diagram of the proposed system is given by Becker on p. 191.

Becker also has authored several popular-oriented books filled with excellent information.  These include Robert O. Becker, M.D. and Gary Selden, The Body Electric: Electromagnetism and the Foundation of Life, William Morrow and Co., New York, 1985; and Robert O. Becker, Cross Currents: The Perils of Electropollution; The Promise of Electromedicine, Jeremy P. Tarcher, Los Angeles, 1990.

BEDINI, JOHN

Noted audio engineer, overunity energy researcher, and inventor of the renowned Bedini amplifiers well-known to audiophiles, the BASE process for holographic sound, and a process for cleaning the harshness from digital audio disks.

Bedini has invented a variety of COP>1.0 processes, motors, generators, etc.  Particularly he has developed a process whereby, in a battery-powered circuit, he adroitly back-pulses the battery in a recharging direction while the battery is powering the load, causing a pile-up of electrons on the surface of the battery plates that is a sharply increased scalar potential opposing the onrushing very massive lead ions in the battery in discharging mode.  The result is that the potential's electron pile-up increases dramatically due to the ions' far greater inertia than that of the electrons.  The result is a high potential (perhaps 40 volts) upon the surface of the battery, overpotentializing both the incoming lead ions between the plates and the electrons in the external circuit in powering mode.  In this phase, energy flows from the vacuum onto both the ions and the external circuit electrons, adding significant energy to the powering of the external circuit for the same ion current inside the battery.

As the ions slow and stop, Bedini's back-pulse trailing edge causes a very sharp cutoff, thus invoking Lenz's law and resulting in the surface potential on the plates increasing to well over 100 volts.  This further overpotentializes the external circuit electrons in powering mode, dissipating much more energy in the external circuit to power the loads.  As the ions finally stop and reverse, their relatively sluggish re-acceleration in charging mode and their overpotentialization still results in excess energy being delivered to the external circuit.  Then as the overpotentialized ions accelerate in charging mode, the external circuit is still in powering mode until the drain-off of the severe electron pile-up on the surface of the battery plates.

This is one of several modes of operation used by Bedini in his overunity battery powered circuits, which keep their batteries recharged while powering their loads.

By separating the other closed current loop between external electron currents and the ion currents between the battery plates, and then dephasing these currents, Bedini breaks the usual dissipation symmetry enforced in a closed loop circuit where all charge carriers have the same m/q ratio.  In Bedini's circuits, the m/q charge ratios dramatically differ between the ion current section between the plates and the electron currents between the outside of the plates and through the external circuit.  Also, by providing a much greater potential between the two circuit halves, The potential extends in both directions—internally back over the ions, and externally in the circuit over the external Drude electrons powering the circuit loads and losses.  He provides a true negative resistor on the surface of the plates, which extracts energy from the vacuum (via its broken 3-symmetry as a dipolarity) from the time domain, transduces it into real EM energy, and overpotentializes (regauges) the potential energy of both the internal ion currents and the external electron currents.

The Bedini process is therefore a legitimate COP>1.0 system, and in his self-powering embodiments the system will run indefinitely without external energy input by the operator, use of fuel, etc.  He has converted the system to an open system far from thermodynamic equilibrium in its violent energy exchange with the active vacuum, and thus the system is permitted to exhibit both COP>1.0 and self-powering as well.

For an expanded explanation of the Bedini negative resistor process in batteries, see T. E. Bearden, "Bedini's Method for Forming Negative Resistors in Batteries," Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 24-38.

BEING

Pure essence, existence.

Again, something which in actuality resists Aristotelian definition unless preliminary assumptions are made.  Generally used in one of two senses: (1) persistence, as in "he is (he continually exists)," or (2) identity, as in "he is the man ('he' and 'the man' are the same thing)."

BIDIRECTIONAL EM WAVES

EM waves running antiparallel to each other through a given point or region of space.

Suppose we run a normal EM wave into a phase conjugating mirror (PCM) with a gain of 1. By ordinary phase conjugate optics, the mirror then emits a backwards-traveling phase conjugate replica wave (PCR wave). According to the so-called "distortion correction theorem," that backwards traveling wave will travel backwards (as seen by the external observer) back over the exact route taken by the previous wave, and it will reappear in space precisely superposed spatially with the previous waves. If we examine the impulse (density) fields (i.e., Edt), then the forward-time wave contains Edt while the backward time wave contains E(-dt), which is just -Edt. So electromagnetically—as far as producing a net translation force on a charge—the E-fields seem to cancel, although they are still there and their energy is still there. Instead of translation, the two produce stress.

One thus (simple case) will have a strange kind of standing wave wherein the local energy density of the vacuum varies (e.g., sinusoidally) as a function of distance, but a charged particle placed in it will not be translated! Rigorously, that is a gravitational standing wave. Since change in local energy density is also a curvature of spacetime, that is also a standing sinusoidal wave of the local curvature of spacetime. This is where electromagnetics and gravitation actually meet, and where electromagnetics can be utilized to produce gravitational waves. (Much more complex waves can be produced; this is just the simplest example).

BIDIRECTIONAL FIELD FLOWS

E-fields (and B-fields) being propagated in a pair of opposite waves traveling "through" each other in opposite directions,

...where the two may be "locked together" as a wave and its antiwave; i.e., as a "Whittaker biwave pair".  Note that Whittaker bidirectional EM wavepairs are not to be confused with the pairing of the wave and reflection wave on a transmission line.

BIDIRECTIONAL GATING

Gating (of energy flow, e.g.) in both directions simultaneously.

BIDIRECTIONAL TRAVELING PLANE WAVE

A wave and its antiwave, where each wave is moving in an opposite direction (standard assumption in phase conjugate physics).

In short, to the external observer the waves seem to be "moving through" each other; one from left to right, and the other from right to left; or one radially outward and the other radially inward. All scalar potentials were shown by Stoney and Whittaker to be comprised of a harmonic series of such "bidirectional traveling wave pairs."  However, the interpretation of the phase conjugate waves was after detection, so that the detected "effect" wave existed in 3-space.  Prior to detection, the phase conjugate half-set of the Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential is convergent from and in the time domain (complex plane).

BIOELECTROMAGNETICS (BEM)

Presently, the scientific study of interactions between living organisms and electromagnetic fields, forces, energies, currents, and charges.  The range of interactions studied ranges from atomic and molecular, through intracellular, to the whole organism.

Electromagnetic fields studied in BEM include those of endogenous origin (from within the organism) and exogenous origin (from outside the organism).  Sources of exogenous fields include: the earth and sun, electrical equipment (power lines, radio transmitters, etc.), clinical treatment devices (e.g., TENS), and other organisms.  The electromagnetic fields of greatest interest in BEM are generally classified as nonionizing (i.e., lacking sufficient energy to directly dislodge electrons from molecules or atoms.)  BEM is a scientific discipline emerging on the boundaries between physics and biology.  As in other sciences, progress in BEM is made by testing falsifiable hypotheses against valid measured data obtained in repeatable experiments.

Our new viewpoint seeks to dramatically enlarge the scope of this definition, to include not only the presently-recognized external (outfolded) electromagnetics, but also the internal (infolded, inside the scalar EM potential) electromagnetics, and also to utilize a unified field theory where EM is GR and vice versa.

BIOENERGETICS

That branch of Russian (KGB) energetics which is targeted against the living body, its cells and tissues, and its EM fields and potentials (biofields and biopotentials).

BIOGENESIS

Generation of living organisms from other living organisms; also, the theory or philosophy that living organisms develop only from other living organisms.

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

Warfare against living humans, livestock, crops, etc. using pathogenic micro-organisms  or biocides to create diseases and death, or using dimensioned electromagnetic potentials, fields, and waves to kindle cellular damage, disease, and death in the same targeted populations.

BIOLOGICAL WARFARE, ELECTROMAGNETIC

The use of dimensioned electromagnetic potentials, fields, and waves to induce cellular damage, disease, and death in targeted living populations.

The decades of Russian microwave radiation of personnel in the former U.S. Embassy in Moscow is an example, where only field-free potentials were dimensioned with the disease or health-change patterns (the engines).  This science was developed in Russia as an outgrowth of the thousands of Kaznacheyev experiments demonstrating that any cellular disease and damage pattern could be induced  from diseased or damaged cells into environmentally isolated cell cultures, purely by specialized EM radiation from the damaged or "transmitting" cells into the targeted cells.

The Chinese also used such dimensioned radiation to induce cancer in almost all GRU operatives stationed in China at the time of the major disagreement between China and Russia.  In his book, Stanislov Lunev and Ira Winkler, Through the Eyes of the Enemy: Russia's Highest Ranking Military Defector Reveals Why Russia Is More Dangerous Than Ever, Regnery, Washington, D.C., 1998, p. 160, Lunev reveals it this way:"…I was not the only person who was stationed in Beijing to come down with cancer… Almost all of the GRU officers stationed in China with me have been diagnosed with cancer.  People assigned to the embassy had told me that they were picking up high levels of radiation from the apartment building around the embassy compound.  Whether it was a form of high-tech monitoring or a conscious effort to harm our health, it seems to have been successful.  So much so that in 1992 the GRU was asked to investigate the high rate of cancer among embassy officials.  The findings, however, have never been made public; in part, no doubt, because of the rapprochement between Russia and China."  In short, the Chinese did exactly to the Russian GRU what the Russians were doing to the Americans.

BIOPHOTON

A quantum  of angular momentum, each containing "a piece of energy welded to a piece of time, with no seam in the middle," emitted by biomolecules in living organisms.  The difference between a biophoton and a normal photon is that the "infolded EM structuring" (ST curvature engine sets) carried by the biophoton carries the dynamics and templates of the living cell or tissue or body emitting the radiation.

As presently known, biophoton emission is associated with processes such as mitosis (cell division) and with mechanisms such as soliton vibrations of DNA and other alpha-helix proteins [Popp et. al., 1984; Popp et. al., 1992].  An organism's biophoton field may represent a highly-structured innate organizing field capable of encoding or transmitting information over macroscopic distances.

Kaznacheyev, e.g., showed that almost any cellular disease or damage condition can be induced from the diseased control cells to separated and environmentally isolated target cells initially normal, if (1) the visible spectrum of radiation is blocked from the targeted cells, and (2) the two groups of cells are optically connected below and above the optical spectrum, in the infrared and in the ultraviolet.

The new viewpoint seeks to dramatically extend the scope of this definition.  Considering the wave aspects of the photon frequency, the infolded oscillating EM energy in the photon may be decomposed into two oscillating potentials [Whittaker, 1904].  In each of these potentials, there exists a magnificent infolded structure [Whittaker, 1903] of internal bidirectional EM wave pairs, to include the sum set [Whittaker] and the product set [Ziolkowski].  Thus the photon carries internal information, which is also referred to as the "information content of the field."  Since the product set represents modulations, the basic infolded structure has signal characteristics.  Mind, thought, and long term memory exist inside the personal quantum potential, which may further be regarded as consisting of coupling and uncoupling photon/antiphoton pairs—i.e., hidden gravitons.  In the new viewpoint, the biophoton is the carrier of biogravitons, and also biograviton lattices.  This information forms vacuum engines which can cumulate over a period of time to breach the quantum threshold and outfold, producing real change in cells, as shown by the Kaznacheyev cytopathogenic mirror effect experiments.

BIOQUANTUM POTENTIAL

A quantum potential connected to and of a living body, where the inner EM structuring and dynamics of the quantum potential are in correspondence with the inner  EM structuring of the normal EM fields, potentials, and waves in the body, and also are in correspondence with the time-polarized EM structuring and dynamics of the mind and its operations.

The biopotential provides the volition and intent exhibited by the biological body, breaching the quantum threshold and producing direct psychokinetic change (by the mind-body coupling mechanism) that is the "input signal" to the servomechanisms of the body,. from the smallest to the largest.  In this biopotential, the Stoney-Whittaker-Ziolkowski decomposition provides the information structure and vacuum engines that are the mind, thought, long term memory, etc.  A living biological system may be defined as a physical system of otherwise inert matter (the body) and of mind, coupled to each other through a bioquantum potential.

BLOCKING

In the charge-barrier semiconductor functioning, stopping or partially stopping the flow of current in a circuit, or between two points, without stopping the Poynting S-flow.

In ordinary usage, "stopping the progress of."

BOHM, DAVID

World renowned physicist and originator of the hidden variable theory interpretation of quantum mechanics.  See David J. Bohm, "A Suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of 'Hidden' Variables, I and II." Physical Review, 85(2), Jan. 15, 1952, p. 166-179 (Part I); 180-193 (Part II).

Together with his student Aharonov, he co-authored a fundamental paper on the Aharonov-Bohm effect wherein interfering electromagnetic potentials can produce effects on charged particle systems, even at a distance and in the absence of the electromagnetic force fields.

BOHM'S HIDDEN VARIABLE THEORY (HVT)

A major interpretation of quantum mechanics, formulated by David Bohm and published in Physical Review in 1952.

See David J. Bohm, "A Suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of 'Hidden' Variables, I and II," Physical Review, 85(2), Jan. 15, 1952, p. 166-179 (Part I); 180-193 (Part II). Bohm's theory makes all the correct predictions and also eliminates many problems in quantum mechanics, such as the "measurement problem" and the—now alarming—problem of the missing chaos (i.e., the missing "hidden order.").

Ironically, the prevailing Copenhagen interpretation of the QM theory predicts that the organized macroscopic world does not exist, while Bohm's theory predicts it. [Question to the sharp young graduate student: How can one defend a scientific model which predicts that he himself does not exist? If one keeps one's sense of humor, it would seem that this has to be the greatest scientific faux pas of all time!] It may be that one unconscious reason that most physicists still oppose HVT is that it implies that physical reality can in fact be deterministically engineered. Most physicists would seem to fervently wish physical reality to stay "solid as a brick," with fixed "laws of nature," which can be leisurely discovered and then utilized comfortably, predictably, and sanely. The advent of HVT (which is just a matter of time; for decades the Russians have highly weaponized the HVT area!) dramatically alters our perception of "fixed physical reality" into that of an "engineerable, changeable" physical reality! I tentatively believe that the terrible psychological implications of such a potential development is something that most scientists do not wish to cope with—we simply do not have the Gestalt for it. On the other hand, the Russian national psychology is such that they do have the Gestalt for it. The Russian energetics—which I have long referred to loosely as scalar electromagnetics—basically utilizes the infolded ordering inside the potential to create "direct patterns of vacuum flux", hence vacuum engines. And it also utilizes the quantum potential, including internally structuring the QP, to enable instantaneous action-at-a-distance in multiple simultaneous locations and nodes, with stupendous and automatic energy amplification.

By deterministically "patterning" the internal structuring of the scalar potential, one can directly form such vacuum engines. Whittaker showed in 1904 that any EM field pattern whatsoever can be expressed as two scalar potentials, rather than the common f and A representation. This means that any EM wave is simply the "interference" (between the hidden biwave structures) of two scalar potentials, even at a distance. By properly structuring an EM signal (i.e., structuring the two potentials into which it can be decomposed), the resulting EM signal—appearing normal on the surface—nonetheless now transports special vacuum engines deliberately designed to perform some particular internal task in mass systems, electronic systems, or humans when it strikes a target at a distance. I refer to this "internal structuring" of the Stoney/Whittaker/Ziolkowski internal biwaves and their products, as dimensioning of the potential(s), and hence of the EM carrier wave. The Russians call it the information content of the field; but our own scientists tend to erroneously interpret that phrase as ordinary spectral analysis. In other words, they erroneously continue to regard EM vacuum engines as if they were ordinary EM signals.

BOHREN EXPERIMENT

Revealing experiment by Bohren, replicated by Paul and Fischer, which shows that a given charge when in particle resonance absorbs more energy from a field or potential then the same charge does in "static" position.

By conventional outlook, this provides a guaranteed COP>1.0 process.  Bohren demonstrated absorbing 18 times more energy with the charge in particle resonance than with the static charge.  This is a direct experiment proving the Heaviside dark energy component of EM energy flow, whether in field form or in potential form.

See Craig F. Bohren, "How can a particle absorb more than the light incident on it"?", American Journal of Physics, 51(4), Apr. 1983, p. 323-327.  See independent confirmation of Bohren's work by H. Paul and R. Fischer, ibid., p. 327.  Other pertinent references are V. S. Letokhov, "Laser Maxwell's Demon," Contemporary Physics, 36(4), 1995, p. 235-243; — "Generation of Light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Soviet Physics JETP, 26(4), Apr. 1968, p. 835-839; — "Double Gamma and optical resonance," Physics Letters A, Vol. 43, 1973, p. 179-180; — "Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption," ZhETF Plasma, 5(8), Apr. 15, 1967, p. 262-265.  Also see R. Pappalardo and A. Lempicki, "Brillouin and Rayleigh Scattering in Aprotic Laser Solutions Containing Neodymium," Journal of Applied Physics, Apr. 1992, p. 1699-1708

BRIDGE

A component or process which passes EM energy between two isolated circuits, but does not pass dq/dt between them, and which breaks the normal rigidly field-locked power dissipations in the two circuits.

Space itself would appear to be one such bridge.

BRIDGING FUNCTION

The function of passing EM energy flow between two isolated circuits, but not passing dq/dt between them, while simultaneously breaking any normal rigidly field-locked power dissipations in the two circuits.

BROKEN SYMMETRY

The fundamental meaning is a condition in which two parts of some configuration or shape on opposite sides of some divisor or condition or boundary, are not similar but differ.

In vacuum energy physics, we are very interested in the fact that any charge and any dipole represents a broken symmetry in its fierce energy exchange with the vacuum.  This implies that something virtual has become observable; i.e., part of the virtual EM energy absorbed from the vacuum by the charge or by the dipole is changed into observable form and re-emitted as real, observable EM energy.

Any observable implies a broken symmetry.  Non-observables imply symmetry, and vice versa.  Each symmetry also can be represented by a conservation rule or law.  Physicists have uncovered many kinds of symmetry in physics; and in the 1950s they also discovered broken symmetry.

BROMWICH, THOMAS JOHN l'ANSON

Brilliant English mathematician, 1875-1929, who made significant contributions to the mathematics of electromagnetism—particularly to superpotential theory—before his passion for overwork led to development of a mental disorder and eventual suicide.

Bromwich originated a method for solving the source-free Maxwell equations in 1899, publishing it in 1919.  This approach formed the basis for his seminal paper on scattering of plane EM waves by spheres.  He did excellent original work on infinite series and made contributions to quadratic and bilinear forms.  He also placed Heaviside's operator calculus on a rigorous basis by treating the operators as contour integrals.  Unfortunately Bromwich worked so intensively, in such painstaking detail, and at such length that his physical health was affected.  He developed a mental disorder and eventually ended his own life in suicide.

For a summary of Bromwich's life and achievements, see G. H. Hardy, "Thomas John Bromwich," J. London Math. Soc. 5 (1930), 209-220; — "Obituary of Thomas John Bromwich," Proc. Roy. Soc. London A 129 (1930), i - x.  For an exposition of Bromwich's equations-solving work, see J. D. Zund and J. M. Wilkes, "Bromwich's method for solving the source-free Maxwell equations," Tensor (NS) 55 (2) (1994), 192-196.

BROWN, G. SPENCER

Noted author and creator of the laws of form, a new form of logic that dramatically extends Aristotelian logic.

Essentially Brown added complex numbers to logic, rather than just staying with simple 2-dimensional plane figures for postulate derivation.  Electrical circuits— designed by Brown's logic—do function and do work.  When computer software is designed by Brown's logic, it is then possible to mathematically prove whether or not the end result possesses any defects (bugs).  In the future software—particularly the larger systems—may well be designed by Brown's logic.  G. Spencer Brown, Laws of Form, Julian Press, New York, 1972. With a dramatic advance in logic itself, Brown has succeeded in formulating a true calculus of form.  Note: There is now a second edition of the book.

Simply a change in the amplitude of the entire potential,

… (i.e., to every internal biwave pair comprising it) at some point or in some region of space, as compared to changing the amplitude of only one or a few of the internal biwave pairs of the potential, without changing all the rest.

BYPASS RESISTOR

In electrical theory, a resistor to pass current by (in parallel to) some other component.

If other effects such as use of the overpotential, pumped phase conjugate reflection, quantum wells, quantum tunneling, and charge blocking are added, the function of the bypass resistor becomes extremely complicated.

CANCER

Conventional definition:  A malignant tumor of potentially unlimited growth that expands locally by invasion and systemically by metastasis.

Growths are further characterized by the type of tissue in which they occur, and their actions.  Of particular interest are neoplasm, tumor, carcinoma, and sarcoma.  Malignant disorders tend to produce deterioration, infiltrate, metastasize, and terminate fatally.  A neoplasm is simply any new growth of tissue that serves no useful function.  A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that (1) is not inflammatory, (2) arises from preexisting cells, and (3) serves no useful purpose. A carcinoma is a malignant tumor of epithelial (covering membraneous tissue of a free surface) origin.  A sarcoma is a malignant neoplasm that arises in mesodermal tissue (connective tissue, bone, cartilage, or striated muscle) and that spreads by (1) extension into neighboring tissue or (2) by way of the bloodstream, or (3) both.

New definition of cancer:  A centrally-commanded, final, desperate, "first-step dedifferentiation" adaptive attempt by stressed, affected cells experiencing sustained oxygen shortage (hypoxia) to reverse their cellular evolution and return to the anaerobic stage of their primeval cellular ancestry.  Thus a cancer cell is a severely stressed hypoxic cell that has been "ordered" by the master cellular control system (MCCS) to dedifferentiate back to a more primeval form in which it needed little or no oxygen.  It is the last desperate attempt by the body to insure the affected cells' survival when all other means available to the MCCS to provide the necessary oxygen have been exhausted and have failed.  The "order" differs from normal signal theory in that it consists of a Stoney/Whittaker/Ziolkowski template inside the personal quantum potential of the organism.  Thus the "order" actually consists of a vacuum engine, so that the spacetime in which the affected cell exists is acted upon by structured, energetic hidden variable fingers to directly alter it.  The "signal order" is in fact a set of hidden vector forces in spacetime itself, created directly in and on the affected cell(s), in every part, in every atom.  The cure for the cancerous cell, once formed, is simply to cause the MCCS to generate the "counter-order" reversing the original dedifferentiating action.  This can be readily accomplished by establishing hidden multifrequency pump waves in the quantum potential on the cancerous cell, on all its parts, so that they act as pumped phase conjugate mirrors.  Since they already exist in the altered "cancer" spacetime template/signal, the pumping causes a phase conjugate replica of the precise cancer state to be created in and on the cell and its parts.  [In fact this is a general therapeutic mechanism, and it can be applied to reverse almost any conceivable cellular damage or disorder.]  This counter-order is a new and amplified vacuum engine that acts upon the cell to redifferentiate it back to a normal cell.  If an abnormal number of cells results, the body's normal processes then recognize the excess cells and destroys them.

CANCER HOTSPOT

An area or locality or location where cancer recurs repeatedly, more than the normal deviation expected statistically.  In such case, one is dealing with a hidden cause or carcinogen.

Human systems exposed to such a hotspot experience cellular changes (hypoxia) which eventually result in the master cellular control system (MCCS) issuing a dedifferentiation order to the affected cells to regress back to a primeval anaerobic form.  The first step is dissociation from central (MCCS) control of cellular growth, resulting in a cell that now grows and divides unrestrained by the normal body.  The real question in the hotspot is, "What is the unknown agent inducing the hypoxia condition, and what is the mechanism by means of which it induces it?"  Epidemology will point out a hotspot, but is usually incapable of resolving the primary causative agent or its active mechanism since it can only show correlation.

CAPACITOR AS A TRANSMISSION LINE

A capacitor can be theoretically treated as a special type of transmission line, a fact which is apparently known to transmission line theorists but not to many engineers and physicists not specializing in transmission lines.

CARCINOGEN

A substance or agent (such as a chemical or a spacetime curvature engine) capable of inducing a cancer.

In the new theory, the primary carcinogen is an actual order (a vacuum engine) issued by the master cellular control system (MCCS), reverting (dedifferentiating) the affected cell to a primal anaerobic form.  Usually what are normally regarded as carcinogens are also causes of cellular conditions wherein the cell becomes very hypoxic, so much so that the MCCS exhausts all other alternative corrective means and as a last desperate measure orders the cell to change to a form that requires little or no oxygen.  The "exhausting of other measures" may be very rapid, as when the cell has been affected and damaged by powerful carcinogens, or it may require decades to occur, as when the cell is subjected to long-term mild hypoxia, such as from electromagnetic smog.

CARRIER WAVE

A fundamental wave which is modulated by another wave or other waves, and hence "carries" the other waveform(s).  By stripping off the carrier in a demodulator, the carried waveform(s) emerges.

Hence it is a continuous frequency wave which can be modulated by an information-bearing signal.

CASIMIR EFFECT

The attraction of two conducting parallel plates in space, placed very close together, due to their influence on the active vacuum and on the vacuum's interaction with the plates.

CASIMIR, HENDRIK BRUGT GERHARD (1909-2000)

Noted scientist who in 1948 predicted that two parallel conducting plates, placed very near each other in a vacuum, would experience an attractive force due to their influence on the electromagnetic vacuum.

See H. B. G. Casimir, “On the attraction between two perfectly conducting plates,” presented at a meeting of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences on 29 May, 1948.  Published in the same year in Proceeding. Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, Amsterdam, vol. 51(7), 1948, p. 793-796.  For a beautiful modern experiment confirming the force, see S.K. Lamoreaux, “Demonstration of the Casimir Force in the 0.6 to 6mm range,” Physical Review Letters, 78(1), Jan. 6, 1997, p. 5-8.

The force was experimentally detected some 10 years later.

CAUSAL SYSTEM ROBOTS (CSRs)

Massless 4-space "engine" systems (therefore in the causal domain only, hence the name) formed of longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics, which are therefore sets of spacetime curvatures and their deterministic dynamics (engines) which function as individual robots.

This is a totally new kind of system leading to a totally new kind of warfare, developed over some decades and deployed by the KGB in 1999.

Matter is composed mostly of empty space filled with EM waves, fields, and potentials.  Those "fillers" themselves are just bundles of longitudinal EM waves and their impressed dynamics.  Hence all matter, the vacuum, and all conventional EM potentials, fields, and waves—being filled with vast sets of longitudinal EM waves—are vast superhighways for longitudinal EM waves to travel on or in.  The CSRs, being totally LW and LW dynamics in nature, thus are free to travel right through EM radiations from power lines, phone lines, TV stations, radio stations, etc.  They easily penetrate any matter, including right through a mountain.  Any function of a normal EM system can be performed—at least in theory—by such robots.  This includes longitudinal EM wave interferometry, which forms external EM fields and waves, of whatever pattern or form desired.  Further, these CSRs are actual functioning systems, and if communications functions are designed in, one can communicate with them at a distance, using longitudinal EM wave communication, right through the intervening earth and ocean, etc.

For some time, extensive underground facilities—hundreds—have been building in the former Soviet Union, and this massive buildup continued unabated after the Russian economy collapsed and the Berlin Wall came down.  This tremendous expenditure, when the Russian economy was crippled, shows the strategic significance of these facilities.  Further, apparently our satellites have not seen any missiles, normal weapons or munitions, etc. associated with that vast complex.  In short, it is suspected that we don't have the foggiest notion of what it is.  Indeed, those facilities will already have sent some CSRs into those very satellites, to insure that we do not find out what is going on, and perhaps to "spy on the spy satellites".

We think these terribly important facilities are the KGB-controlled facilities for developing and producing the CSRs, and contain a vast longitudinal EM wave command and control set of facilities as well.  In short, this is the strategic arsenal, development, and control for building sets of various type CSRs in huge numbers—a vast new army of robots with unprecedented capabilities, under the command and control of a human "strategic force" operations command of very large size.

Developing and debugging one CSR would be a formidable and lengthy task.  Once a single one is developed, making a million copies is simple.  Just take a normal CD-ROM, e.g., and record something on it.  Send in a working CSR robot to "reside inside" the infolded EM interior of the recorded informational electromagnetic pattern on the CD-ROM.  Then simply copy that CE-ROM magnetically, as many times as is desired.  Each copy contains a copy of the original signal that was recorded, including the exact infolded electromagnetic structuring inside that signal.  Voila!  One has as many new duplicate CSRs of that exact type, as one wishes, for a few pennies each.

One can see the implications.  In all those underground facilities, there are many development laboratories, production laboratories, and command and control facilities and "storage facilities" for the robots.  Those hundreds of facilities are in fact a great new strategic weapon system and all its development labs and production facilities, as well as its tactical control and command and control systems, its "troops", its "equipment", and its commanders and operators.

Well, then one can deploy and "utilize" such a strategic armada just as one would use any other great strategic army.  One "deploys" one's forces against the enemy.  In this case, one just sends the armada (individually controlled!) right through the "LW superhighways" of matter itself, right into the strategic territory and very heart of the targeted nation.  One deploys the robots everywhere—e.g., inside the electronics in nuclear warheads, inside the control systems for the nuclear submarines and nuclear bombers, inside the satellites, inside the fighter aircraft electronics, inside the fighting ships, inside the main battle tanks and major weapons carriers, inside the signals on the hard drives of computers, etc.  One sends them right through the "inside" of the targeted nation's power grid electrical energy signals, through the TV stations' emitted signals, etc.  The Pentagon and Cheyenne Mountain are duck soup, as is the stock exchange and other civilian systems vital to continued functioning of the infrastructure.  So is everywhere else, even the deepest vault and "special security" facility.

In short, the vast electronic command and control activities of an otherwise "modern" superpower provide great, convenient, easy superhighways for full strategic deployment to be completed by millions of weapons systems (CSRs) into everything of value in the targeted nation or nations.  This completely solves the usual weapons delivery problem; delivery is made in advance of D-Day.

Such a vast CSR armada was deployed throughout the Western world, and particularly in the United States, just before the end of 1999.  Yes, this was to be the KGB's great millennium gift to America—a really enormous Y2K problem that would stun and disable the entire nation, its armed forces, its electronic systems in its major weapons, and its command and control centers in one great TOT (time on target) assault.  The major electrical power systems of the nation would have been disabled, as would have been the major communications systems.  Using LW interferometry, the robots would have wreaked havoc on the nation.  They would have disabled the electronics of every major C4I computer of importance, every major fighter aircraft, every major fighting ship, every nuclear submarine, every ICBM, every nuclear powerplant, etc.  The attacking force was in its deployment and employment sites in the targets themselves.  Everything was in place and cocked and ready to fire.  To test whether we knew what was going on, the KGB even had one or more robots temporarily produce hacker-type operations and signals "emerging" in some U.S. command and control center computers, and deliberately let our fellows discover this "hacker attack" was coming from the Russian Academy of Science.  Then the CSR simply stopped its LW interferometry, which caused the "normal hacker electronic" signals to just vanish and never reappear.  Little wonder that our counter-type fellows were totally unable to find any trace of it, or where it was residing.  They have no technology for such.

Well, happily those early-model CSRs are easy to root out and destroy, if one has quite advanced LW technology.  Visualize these beasts as existing in a special sort of "internal sky" or "infolded atmosphere" inside matter.  Strategic range LW "radars" can just sweep through this "internal atmosphere" inside matter, etc., detecting and tracking those CSR beasts analogous to how normal radar detects and tracks aircraft.  The difference is that the strategic LW can also use a bit of LWI pulse to instantly snap those CSRs like popping bugs, completely jamming their operations or even "erasing" them once their characteristics are observed.

That very new kind of vast strategic warfare occurred right at the end of 1999, all through the United States—the Pentagon, our strategic weapon systems, the works.  The friendly little nation rooted out and destroyed all those "on site" CSRs just prior to the attack being launched.

A full-up strategic war, of previously unknown kind, was fought all over the U.S. and our own system guys apparently didn't know it.  It didn't even surface.  Didn't make a whimper.

That hostile CSR armada consisted of first generation systems.  These systems did not have defensive countermeasures.  The systems were depending on total surprise, but were found out (that is another story that would make a great movie if one could live to film it) and then were destroyed in short order.

CSR development has ushered in a totally new kind of strategic, operational, and tactical warfare.  The delivery of all the weapon systems "into the target" is accomplished long before the advent of hostilities.  The second generation CSRs, once built, will be even more sophisticated.  These will almost certainly be on line soon.  They will likely also possess countermeasures.

An eerie new chapter in the annals of warfare has been initiated, and the world will never be the same again.  Once the CSRs have sufficient defensive countermeasures such as stealth means and coordination with countering, rapid response LWIs to target and destroy the hostile "LW radars" seeking them, etc., the next world-wide strategic CSR war will be neither so simple nor so bloodless.

NOTE: Contrast this CSR discussion to the discussion of nanotechnology and nanobots.  Just as nanobots are natural developments which teams skilled in nanotechnology would produce, so CSRs are natural developments which teams skilled in longitudinal EM wave technology—and in the "infolded" electrodynamics inside all EM fields, potentials, and waves—would produce.  For decades (since the 1950s) the KGB has been developing and using longitudinal EM wave interferometers (LWIs) which beam right through the "inner highways" inside the fields and waves inside matter, thus allowing very large LWIs which beam right through the intervening earth and ocean, and can "focus" under the ocean or within the earth as well as out of it.  With such background, the CSRs were just as natural a development for them as the nanobots are for conventional Western nanotechnology scientists.

CAUSALITY

The relationship between "cause" and "effect".  The basic notion in a causal system is that the system's response to an input signal is not dependent upon future input values.

Thus the notion of causality involves a precise time ordering of ordinary inert interactions, where the cause was never input from a future time.  Macroscopic (observable) causality may be and is violated by the interaction of hidden subquantal (virtual state) variables.

CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE

Each half of the cerebrum, i.e., each half of the enlarged anterior or upper part of the vertebrate brain.

The two cerebral hemispheres may function as a longitudinal EM wave interferometer or a time-polarized (scalar) EM interferometer to sense distant scenes (even distant in time), or produce EM energy and signals at a distance, since the body, brain, and nervous system does produce longitudinal EM waves and scalar EM waves.  For proof of scalar EM wave interferometry in O(3) electrodynamics, see M.W. Evans, P.K. Anastasovski, T.E. Bearden et al., "On Whittaker's Representation of the Electromagnetic Entity in Vacuo, Part V: The Production of Transverse Fields and Energy by Scalar Interferometry," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 76-78.

CHANGING THE PAST

Every intentional inception upon ordinary inert causality prior to collapse of the wave function represents a slight alteration or change in direction, departing minutely from pure causality.  From a causal viewpoint, each human inception minutely changes the causal past, as well as the future.

Experimental proof that the causal past can be changed is provided by the delayed choice two-slit experiment.  E.g., see C.W. Rietdijk, "Another proof that the future can influence the present."  Foundations of Physics, 11(9/10), 1981, p. 783-790.  Particularly see Wheeler, John Archibald Wheeler, "The 'past' and the 'delayed-choice' double-slit experiment," in A.R. Marlow [Ed], Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Theory, Loyola University, New Orleans, Louisiana, June 2-4, 1977; Academic Press, New York, 1978, p. 9-48.

CHAOS

In dissipative dynamical systems, the dynamical evolution that is aperiodic and highly dependent upon initial conditions of the system.

The trajectories of the system move on a strange attractor, which is a fractal subspace of the phase space.

The term suggests the ordinary meaning of random and unpredictable disorder, but there exists intrinsic determinism and at least partial embedded ordering.  The mathematical equations describing chaotic behavior are very nonlinear and so complex that at the present time they cannot be computed or predicted.  Even simple systems, including simple electromagnetic systems, can exhibit unpredictable chaotic behavior.  The science of chaotic dynamics is still in its infancy, having begun moving once the modern computers became economical and pervasive.

CHARGE, ELECTRICAL (Q)

Electrical charge q is defined as q º mqfq, to first order.

As can be seen, the actual "charge" action associated with the mass is due totally to fq, and to the broken symmetry of fq in the vacuum flux exchange with mq.  The charge q can be further broken down into a set of composite dipoles if the gathering of a virtual charge screen in the vacuum, surrounding the mass of the "bare charge" inside the gathering, is included. At first order, fq can be expressed (particle view) as a change in the local vacuum virtual photon flux (VPF), due to the VPF exchange between vacuum and mq. The fq component is actually the "electrical charge" and massless of itself.

However, see my paper, "Giant Negentropy of the Common Dipole," Journal of New Energy, 5(1) Summer 2000, p. 11-23.  We include the isolated charge by treating it as a system of multiple composite dipoles.  We also explain the previously unrecognized 4-symmetry EM energy flow ongoing, where incoming longitudinal EM waves are being received, transduced into real longitudinal EM waves in 3-space, with the latter being emitted in all directions in 3-space.

A charged particle of mass is thus a little energy flow generator. It is a broken 3-symmetry in the local VPF, and therefore has an "observable" energy flow output, extracted and gated from the asymmetry in the VPF. This "observable" energy flow outputs the well-known energy flow S in classical EM, though CEM does not recognize or include this vacuum interaction, the broken 3-symmetry of the dipole, and the steady input of EM energy to the dipole in the form of EM energy from the time domain (complex plane).

Instead, classical EM just assumes that the "charge" q is the source of a potential. When originally formed as a concept, q was just a "quantity of electric fluid," like a "cubic centimeter of fluid," etc. The atom and the electron had not yet been discovered.

CHARGE CARRIERS

Anything—usually fundamental particles, ions, etc.—which consists of or contains charges and can move.

It can be an electron, a collection of electrons fixed in a moving dielectric, ions, atoms, molecules, etc.

The moving charge (i.e., the current dq/dt) with an energy flow streaming onto it and on beyond, carries its interaction with that energy-flow right along with it in the current
i = dq/dt. This is what the charge's "excess collected energy" consists of, and this is how the collected/collecting energy in the circuit is transported to the collected-energy dissipation sites (loads and losses).

CHARGE, GRAVITATIONAL

CHARGE, MAGNETIC

Essentially, the magnetic scalar potential, or monopole.

In an uncurved spacetime, the magnetic charge must always occur in dipolar pairs, where each is equal and opposite the other.  In a curved spacetime, a free net monopolar magnetic charge may and does exist.  In classical electrodynamics, the assumption of a locally flat spacetime is ubiquitous though not prominently emphasized.  Hence most electrical engineers are unaware that monopoles can indeed be made, but only if one uses a process to curve local spacetime.

CHARGE-PARITY-TIME (CPT) THEOREM

The theorem states that all known quantum field theories obey CPT symmetry.

C is charge conjugation, which changes the quantum number of every particle into its antiparticle.  P is the reflection operation known as parity  which turn an object into its mirror image and rotates it 180 degrees about an axis perpendicular to the mirror, T is time reversal.  Any violation of time-reversal symmetry is always accompanied by a violation of CP symmetry and vice versa.

Electrodynamics and the strong interaction preserve CP symmetry to great accuracy.  Weak interactions do not conserve CP symmetry.  T symmetry violation has been shown at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.

CHARGE TRAPPING (Also "Pinning")

Holding charges "pinned" or "trapped" by a barrier or force, so that they do not flow as
i = dq/dt.

CHARGE-BARRIER

A process or component or function—particularly in a semiconductor such as the Fogal semiconductor—which blocks the movement of charges q as current dq/dt.

CHARGE-BLOCKING ASYMMETRIC QUANTUM WELLS

A quantum well which has more charge-blocking action in one direction than the other, and is thus "asymmetric" in its function.

It may also be dynamic, so that it changes in its degree (and/or its direction) of action as a function of time.

CLASSICAL AND QUANTAL ELECTRODYNAMICS

Classical EM (CEM) theory is simply classical electrodynamics (CED).

Classical EM does not break the fields into "quanta" (a quantum is a standard-sized piece of action (angular momentum)]. Instead, CEM considers the fields as continuously varying in magnitude from zero to infinite magnitude (at least in theory).

Quantal Electrodynamics is known as quantum electrodynamics (QED). These are standard terms for standard disciplines.  QED considers the fields to be composed of quanta called "photons".  Hence there is an underlying region called the "virtual state" whose denizens are "smaller in magnitude" than the quantum.  Heisenberg uncertainty applies, since the quantum of action is not quantized energy, but quantized (energy x time).  In short, it is a function of both the magnitude of the energy and its duration of persistence.  Hence a field or photon of any amount of energy may form temporarily, so long as it does not endure sufficiently long in observer time to reach quantum size and breach the quantum threshold.

In this view, then, "empty space" is not empty at all, but is a seething cauldron of these "energetic bubbles" continually appearing and disappearing, with the entire spectrum of frequencies and energies.  This is in fact the "new ether".  If we consider only the field portion of the bubbling virtual photons appearing and disappearing, this leads to a vacuum that consists of EM field fluctuations, again of essentially the entire frequency spectrum and energy spectrum.

However, how we attempt to tie either of these "energetic vacuum" EM views to general relativity (GR) is then a problem.  The cause of the problem, however, is largely ignored in physics.  In CED, e.g., one models EM energy moving through a flat space.  This is a non sequitur, since the presence of any change of the energy density of space a priori is a curvature of spacetime.  Hence rigorously EM energy can only propagate through a curved spacetime.  Indeed, when this correction is made, the EM wave becomes an oscillating curvature of spacetime.  This is the approach worked out by Mendel Sachs, extending Einstein's work.  The higher symmetry O(3) electrodynamics spearheaded by Evans turns out to be an important subset of Sach's umbrella unified field theory.  Hence EM has become GR, and for the first time in history, O(3) electrodynamics provides the approach that will allow direct engineering of general relativity on the lab bench, in working devices, etc.

CLASSICAL ELECTROMAGNETICS (CEM)

"Ordinary" electromagnetics, of the kind used in ordinary EM circuits, which fundamentally consists of the modified Maxwell's equations.

Classical EM consists of Maxwell's equations and the various changes and additions that have since been made.  CEM does not break the fields into "quanta" (a quantum is a standard-sized piece of action (angular momentum)]. Instead, CEM considers the fields as continuously varying in magnitude from zero to infinite magnitude (at least in theory).

Primarily refers to Maxwellian electrodynamics as reinterpreted by Heaviside, Gibbs, Hertz, and a few others.  Unfortunately these reinterpretations of Maxwell's theory also greatly reduced its topology, and therefore reduced the area of natural electrodynamic phenomena that the resulting equations describe.

Significantly more advanced "classical" electrodynamics emerges when one goes back to the quaternion algebra electrodynamics of Maxwell, or to the more advanced Clifford algebra electrodynamics.  The higher symmetry electrodynamics models such as O(3) symmetry EM developed by Evans and others, are capable of modeling a great deal more physical phenomena than the very limited standard U(1) electrodynamics largely in vogue in science.

CLASSICAL EM THEORY

Classical electrodynamics theory, begun by Maxwell, with his seminal paper orally presented in 1864 and published in 1865.

Essentially Maxwell's electrodynamics at root basis, with the background supporting classical theory.  Today many variations have been made, particularly with the basic symmetry of the theoretical equations.  See discussion above under classical electromagnetics.

CLIFFORD ALGEBRA

A special higher topology algebra founded by Clifford, which includes as subsets many other algebras of lower topology.

CLOSED SYSTEM

A system that does not communicate with its environment, and does not exchange energy or matter between system and environment.

An ideal model where dynamically and energetically the system is considered to be "isolated" as if nothing else existed.  In short, consider the system as if it were in some "magic box" and nothing outside the box can ever enter the box or affect the system inside the box, and nothing in the system can ever leave the box or affect anything outside the box.

One performs a non sequitur whenever proclaiming treatment of a system as a "closed system", and of course good scientists are aware of this. This is particularly true in electrical power systems.  Here one is indeed allowed to input energy into the system to excite or potentialize it.  That of course assumes that the system was "opened" long enough to take on excess energy!  Then as the system operates, losses and dissipations occur, in which case energy is considered to "escape" from the system permanently.  In other words, the system was also continually "opened" so that energy could escape.

There is really no such thing as a truely closed system in the universe, since every system is embedded in the active vacuum and is an open system in an energy exchange with the vacuum.  If that exchange is symmetrical, then the system is in equilibrium with respect to the vacuum exchange.  In that case, the system may be treated as if it were a closed system for a limited number of purposes.  In classical electrodynamics (CED), the Lorentz regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations further reduced them to describe only Maxwellian systems in such equilibrium with the active environment.  Consequently, the interaction between the external vacuum and the system is not included in the CED model.  Obviously a broken equilibrium in that actual physical interaction is also not included in the CED model.

An electrical power system is already permitted to violate the Lorentz condition when it
(1) receives additional EM energy to "energize" or "potentialize" or "excite" or "regauge" it, and (2) whenever energy escapes from the system in the loads and losses (which escapes of energy are "de-energizing", "depotentializing", "dissipating", or "regauging" actions.

Hence the Lorentz condition greatly simplifies the Maxwell-Heaviside equations and makes them much easier to solve.  However, when enforced by the system itself with regard to the system's excitation and de-excitation (dissipation) functionsi.e., when those functions are "symmetrical" (equal and opposite)—it also arbitrarily discards all those Maxwellian systems capable of the five "magical" functions of an open disequilibrium system:  (1) self-ordering, (2) self-oscillation or self-rotation, (3) output of more energy than the operator inputs (the excess energy is input by the active environment, (4) powering itself and its load (all the energy is input by the active environment, and (5) exhibiting negentropy.

It follows, however, that physical electrical power systems must therefore have some feature which self-imposes the Lorentz condition, at least during the phase when the system's excitation energy is discharged in the loads and losses.  The standard closed current loop system, where every electron progressing through the external circuit's loads and losses must be forcibly rammed back up through the source dipole in the power source, is indeed what enforces the Lorentz condition with respect to excitation and dissipation, and arbitrarily prevents the system from achieving COP>1.0.

In a battery-powered system, the otherwise closed current loop is broken into two quite different circuits: (1) the electron current circuit between the outer surface of the plates and the external loads and losses, and (2) the ion current in the electrolyte between the inner surface of the plates.  Since the ions (e.g., in a lead-acid battery) in the "inner" ion current may have a m/q ratio very much greater than that of the electrons in the "outer" electron current, clever timing of pulsed signals to the plates may be used to form a phase difference—including even a phase angle of 180°—between the two currents.  It can be shown that this forms a high potential on the plates which acts as a negative resistor, extracting EM energy from the vacuum and recharging the battery while simultaneously powering the external circuit.  This is the Bedini process, and with Bedini's permission an explanation of that process has been published by Bearden  ["Bedini's Method For Forming Negative Resistors In Batteries," Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 24-38.]  Note that Bedini's process in fact repeatedly removes the Lorentz regauging condition, and therefore the system is rigorously permitted to achieve not only COP>1.0 but also self-powering of itself and its loads and losses.

COLD EXPLOSION

The sudden extraction of EM heat energy from a distant intersection zone (IZ) of the crossing beams of a scalar potential interferometer, which transmits in the sharply pulsed mode, while the electrical grounding of the transmitters are negatively biased with respect to the potential in the distant IZ.

COLD FUSION

An ad hoc term applied to the transmutations at low energy achieved in electrolyte experiments, particularly when using specially prepared palladium electrodes, and particularly when deuterium is present in the electrolyte.

COMPOSITE DIPOLE

Dipole formed as one part of an isolated, observable "charged particle", consisting of a differential element of that observable charge on one end and a momentary clustering virtual charge of opposite sign.

In quantum electrodynamics, it is well-known that virtual charges of opposite signs cluster in the immediate vacuum around any "isolated" observable charge.  By applying the composite dipole concept, this author was able to treat the isolated charge as a set of composite dipoles.  By then applying Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential between the ends of each of these composite dipoles, the "source charge" was a set of broken 3-symmetries in the vacuum flux, and thus a set of 4-symmetries in that flux exchange.  This meant that the EM energy continuously output in all directions by the source charge was actually continuously received by the source charge (as a set of composite dipoles) from the time-domain, and 4-conservation of EM energy flow rigorously was upheld.

This allowed a solution to what has been called the most formidable problem in both classical and quantum electrodynamics: the problem of the association of the source charge and its associated fields and potentials along with the energy contained by them and continuously pouring from the charge without any 3-space energy input.

CONCOMITANT

Occurring or existing together.

CONGLOMERATE HIERARCHY OF THE PHOTONS

Every photon remains perfectly ordered! A conglomerate (group) of photons, however, may be arranged in almost an infinite variety of orderings, groupings, directions, etc.—which we refer to as templates and as hierarchies (group orderings) of photons.

In a pure energy flow (energy transport), the "herd" of photons is organized along the flow direction. Regardless of how one scatters or "disorders" this patterning of the "herd" or "hierarchical ordering" of photons, not one single bit of the underlying energy and individual photon ordering is lost. So when one "uses" energy (e.g., scatters the hierarchical ordering of a photon herd from a resistor as heat), one does not lose any energy at all, but simply has "scrambled" the hierarchical ordering of the photons into a new herd configuration (which may be varying every which way!). The point here is the real meaning of the fundamental conservation of energy law: Energy can neither be created nor destroyed!

When we "use" one joule of energy to perform one joule of work (say, in a single-pass, scattering), we still have exactly that one joule of energy left, but just in different form (different direction, type, collection or not collected, etc.)  It can still do another single pass joule of work, then another, then another, and so on. If we plan things right, we can use a single joule of work to perform many joules of work, contrary to what we were so strongly taught in the "single-pass, single collection, single dissipation" examples given to us in university as the "law" of God and electrodynamics.

Note that the conventional work-energy theorem assumes single pass, single collection, and single dissipation of a joule of energy to perform a single joule of work. The point is, that is not a limitation of nature, but a limitation of a single process! Nature regularly uses a joule of energy to do multiple joules of work, because after one dissipates or scatters the energy the first time, it's still there and later will be intercepted to do some more work.

Anti-Stokes emission, the Patterson Power Cell, Lawandy's lasing without population inversion, and some gas-filled tubes with anti-Stokes emission are examples of known, validated overunity processes (processes with coefficient of performance greater than unity). These all use multipass, multicollection, multi-dissipation in iterated manner, to increase dipole asymmetry and therefore produce excess extraction of energy from the vacuum. Patterson's unit, e.g., has been independently measured by universities at efficiencies of some 1200 or so. This absolutely does not violate the laws of physics nor the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium.

CONSCIOUS MIND

The serial processing mind which we normally associate erroneously as ourself.  Other to be added.

Mind is time-like, not space-like.

CONSCIOUS MIND (PSYCHOENERGETICS VIEW)

The serial-processing mind which one normally associates erroneously as oneself.

Mind is time-like, not space-like.  Hence it is not directly observable, a priori, since all observation is 3-spatial.  However, if we consider that changes in 3-space produce spacetime curvatures and thereby also produce slight changes in the time domain, then iterative coherent spatial changes eventually will produce a change in the time-domain.  Consequently, the time-like mind will have a continuing stream of such small but processable time-energy changes from coherent 3-spatial phenomena in its body and the macroscopic (coherent) universe.  To sense the 3-space body as "self" while simultaneously sensing other 3-space physical changes as "non-self", the conscious mind must compare the various received time-like projection signals against its "time-like orders" issued.  That set of received time-signals that matches or closely matches the conscious mind's issued order signals, thus yields the sense of the body behavioral changes as (1) self, and (2) body responses to its orders.  The time delay between issuance of the mind's orders and the receipt of the correlated time-like responses from its body, provides the sense of self-persistence or independent being.

The mind couples to the body via a similar spacetime curvature mechanism.  When the mind issues "orders", they are in the time-like realm but are changes, hence small spacetime curvatures.  They therefore involve very small 3-spatial changes (projections) into the 3-space body.  Since the mind orders are coherent, this small iterative set of 3-space changes will integrate coherently, yielding real quantum changes in the body and nervous system (e.g., the brain).

This coupling mechanism is profound.  The steady stream of integrated time-like projections arising in the mind due to the physical world outside one's body, does not compare or match the mind's memory of its orders.  Hence that allows the sensing of the "external world" as "nonself".  The sense of that external world as "existing" or "being" is provided by the time delay in the comparison process, from "mind signals issued" to "physical signals received".  The metric yardstick standard for this comparison time, so to speak, is provided by the time in the identified "self-loop" with the physical body.  In other words, the mind uses that length of time to differentiate those time signals which coherently integrate but do not match its issued order signals, from those time-signals which coherently integrate in the same time loop interval and do match its issued ordered signals.

In this manner, we resolve all the great previously unresolved philosophical questions of the nature of consciousness, nation of being, nature of self, nature of nonself, perception of the physical world, perception of body as self, perception of other bodies as non-self, etc.  At least we resolve these issues from a testable physics approach, so that we can see that now a unified physics (and a technology) of mind and matter is at last in view.  Since O(3) electrodynamics has been shown to be an important subset of Sachs' unified field theory, then O(3) electrodynamics—or SU(2)´SU(2), which is homomorphic with O(3)—can be used to develop the direct engineering of mind, the mind-matter interaction, and mind functions of the living biological system.

It is my considered opinion (with much evidence) that the Russian branch of energetics, known as psychoenergetics, uses a unified field theory and a higher symmetry electrodynamics to achieve that type of direct engineering already, but for weapons use rather than beneficial use for humanity.

As examples, we strongly suggest that the deaths of U.S. Captains Button, Svoboda, and Hess all involved KGB testing of long-range strategic psychoenergetics weapons over the United States, on those targeted personnel.  This should not be surprising at all; the KGB has tested longitudinal EM wave interferometer weapons over the U.S. since 1967, and continues to do so today.  They tested bioenergetics EM weapons against U.S. Embassy personnel in Moscow for several decades.  Kills of U.S. aircraft and missiles have been performed at various times, including kill of the Arrow DC-8 at Gander, Newfoundland in Dec. 1985, kill of a Titan ICBM fired from Vandenberg AFB in the spring of 1986, kill of the U.S. space shuttle Challenger in the spring of 1986, continuing weather engineering over the U.S. and elsewhere, etc.

That novel electromagnetic weapons have indeed been developed and are being tested world-wide, was confirmed by Defense Secretary Cohen in 1997 as follows:

"Others [terrorists] are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves… So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations…It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our [counterterrorism] efforts."  [Secretary of Defense William Cohen at an April 1997 counterterrorism conference sponsored by former Senator Sam Nunn.  Quoted from DoD News Briefing, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Q&A at the Conference on Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy, University of Georgia, Athens, Apr. 28, 1997.].

We specifically call attention to the fact that the Secretary did not speak the words enclosed in square brackets.  This is not limited just to terrorists or counterterrorism.

There appears to be no insurmountable difficulties in developing psychoenergetic technology using the approach outlined above.  Certainly it is not as formidable a task as has been hot fusion.

The incident involving Captain Button, e.g., was to demonstrate control of an individual performing complex technical tasks for a period of at least one hour.  The test against Captain Svoboda was to demonstrate how simply human kill can be achieved in combat troops, merely by introducing selected changes in the mental functioning of the targeted individuals.  As Svoboda was climbing her A-10 out of a successful low-level ordnance drop at night on a ground target, her sense of up and down was instantly reversed.  Instantly perceiving she was diving instead of climbing—although actually climbing out perfectly—she "corrected" immediately and dove headlong into the ground, perishing in the resulting explosion of her aircraft.

In the case of Capt. Hess, the test demonstrated that rather complete mental control can be almost instantly asserted, and even the responses of the autonomic nervous system can be overridden.  So Captain Hess, out for a morning jog, simply went aside, sat down, and stabbed himself repeatedly, including multiple times right through the heart.  Had one seen the incident, he would have simply continued stabbing himself very calmly, without emotion or reflex action from his autonomic nervous system, until physical failure of his body.

As can be seen, it is of the utmost importance that this nation understand psychoenergetics weapons of such nature, and develop effective defenses against them.  The next great strategic battlefield may be as much a "virtual reality" battle as it is a "real physical world" combat.  The war can be quickly lost in either arena.

We also point out that the psychoenergetics weaponry readily is adapted to use in more advanced longitudinal EM wave interferometers, which readily penetrate the Earth and the ocean.  Hence deeply buried strategic command and control centers are vulnerable to psychoenergetics warfare, as are the crewmen of our nuclear submarines, ICBMs, aircraft carriers, division and army command centers, national command centers, strategic bomber pilots, etc.

Indeed, one of the major incentives for developing such psychoenergetics weapons as was demonstrated in controlling Captain Button, was to seize and control the entire on-site manning crews of the defensive quantum potential weapons preventing launch of full strategic warfare.  By having the QP systems "stood down for maintenance" by their own crews, the major strategic retaliation and "dead man fuzing" would have been removed and countered.  Then powerfully striking the QP sites with LWIs would have destroyed them, and left the sites themselves radioactively emitting longitudinal EM waves, thus preventing reoccupation in case the QP weaponry survived.  The counter to that scheme was to place the friendly QP weapon sites on "insane" command and control.  In that mode, instead of human decision being made to launch, every so often (say, every two hours) the computer automatically initiates the launch sequence.  During that sequence, if the crew is still alive and functional, codes can be punched in and the computer cancels the launch initiation.  It then repeats the sequence two hours later.  If no coded cancellation order is punched in, for whatever reason, the launch sequence completes and the QP weapons fire.  In that case, much of Russia disappears from the face of the earth.

Eerily, just about the time that Secretary Cohen was making his quoted statement in April 1997, the KGB was being notified by the friendly little nation of the change to insane command and control.  This forced the abortion of a great strategic attack upon the West, scheduled to occur on May 1, 1997.

We are strongly stressing that psychoenergetics is not parapsychology and it is not just an idle theory of academics.  Instead, it is already potently used in some very powerful and deployed weapon systems that could well decide the course of the next world war, almost at a moment's notice.

CONSCIOUSNESS

Refers to a living being's awareness of its sensations, feelings, thoughts, and the world around it.

The new approach uses a coupling mechanism between the time-like mind and the body of a living creature.  The nature of this coupling mechanism then generates the mechanism by which self-awareness is produced, awareness of non-self is produced, and the sense of existing in the external world but differing from it is produced.

CONTINUOUS MODE

For a longitudinal EM wave interferometer, a continuous mode of operation where power is fed continually to the transmitters, and the two longitudinal EM wave patterns or beams are continuously transmitted.

CONVENTIONAL SCALAR POTENTIAL

A scalar potential formed without use of artificially added substructuring of its internal biwaves and their products.

In other words, one in which it is assumed that its virtual particle flux has no ordering, but is just a randomized flux. This assumption (e.g., of quantum mechanics indirectly) is incompatible by the Whittaker demonstration that (i) a scalar potential is a harmonic set of "bidirectional" EM phase conjugate wave pairs, and thus not a scalar entity at all, and (ii) perfect ordering of its wave components exists inside the scalar potential.

One must carefully distinguish what each of these internal "phase conjugate EM longitudinal wavepairs" actually represents.  Prior to interaction with detecting charges, the potential is a 4-potential existing in spacetime (4-space).  The time domain, of course, is represented by ict, and in that expression only "t" is a variable.  Hence the "incoming" phase conjugate longitudinal EM waves in the imaginary plane are actually longitudinal EM waves in the time dimension.  These waves converge upon the dipolarity represented by the "scalar potential" or any "piece" of it.  The dipolarity represents the interaction of charges; specifically, a dipole.  This reaction—by the spin of the charges—transduces the incoming EM energy from the time-dimension into 3-space, and emits it from the charges as real EM longitudinal EM energy radiating out from the dipolarity in all directions in 3-space.

The phase conjugate half-set of the Whittaker waves, prior to their interaction with charge, are not waves in 3-space, but are waves of LW EM energy coming in from the imaginary plane and thus from the time domain.  The charges of the dipolarity spin 720°, being 360º in the complex plane and then 360º in real 3-space.  So the charges absorb the EM LW energy impinging on them from the time domain, during their 360º rotation in the complex plane.  When they enter real 3-space for the rest of their spin, the already-excited charges dissipate their excitation energy in all directions as they spin their 3609º in 3-space.  That is what the Whittaker decomposition actually shows, but it has been ignored for almost a century.

In short, the broken 3-symmetry of the dipolarity—well-known in particle physics for nearly a half-century, but never incorporated into CED—allows nature to jump to a higher, more fundamental 4-symmetry in the energy flow.  Energy is being conserved in 4-space, but not in 3-space.  Further, there is a special new energy flow symmetry involved: one-way in the time domain and the other way in the 3-space domain.  Note that energy is not conserved in 3-space!  There is no law of nature requiring the extra requirement that, in addition to conservation in 4-space, the energy must also be conserved in 3-space!  So when the dipole breaks that extra requirement, only the basic 4-conservation applies.  In that case, nature very happily gives you what might be called a white hole in astrophysics terms: energy will pour in to the dipolarity unceasingly from the time-dimension, and will pour out in 3-space unceasingly, so long as that dipolarity persists.

By considering the virtual charges of opposite sign that cluster in the vacuum around any "isolated observable charge", one may represent a single charge (as an electron or proton) as a set of composite dipoles, where each dipole consists of a virtual charge (while it exists) and a differential element of the observable charge.  So the charge becomes a set of composite dipoles, each with Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential between its ends.

Hence we have solved the long-vexing problem that Semiz called "the greatest unsolved problem in electrodynamics": the problem of the source charge (or source dipole) and its associated fields and potentials and the enormous EM energy continually pouring out of any charge or dipole in all directions in 3-space.

When the arbitrarily discarded giant Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component is also accounted, this leads to the giant negentropy of the dipole, as shown in my paper, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole".  We have also proposed this "dark Heaviside energy" as the unaccounted source of the excess gravity known to be present in spiral galaxies and holding together their arms.  The dark energy yields at least 90% of the total gravity involved, and the additional 10% or so can be accounted for my known gravitational sources.

It appears that these new discoveries can also be utilized to show that "quintessence" is also caused by COP>1.0 processes in the universe, and the excess production of negative "giant dark energy flows".  If so, then this also would account for the recently discovered fact that the universe has an excess of negative gravitation, so that it is not only expanding but is accelerating in that expansion.  At this time, the present author is still attempting to tie up the loose ends involved in showing that quintessence also is created as a result of functions of the giant negentropy process.

In the Whittaker biwave pairs, If one then insists that these hidden EM waves are comprised of hidden photons, then it follows that the photons exist as continually coupling and uncoupling photon/antiphoton pairs, or continually forming and unforming gravitons as the wave and antiwave continually pass through each other.

It is a little more complicated than that, since Maxwell actually omitted half the EM energy in the EM wave in space, and also in the circuit—as do electrodynamicists to this day.  For gravitons, one really must come to grips with this error and correct it.  This will be added later in this glossary.  (To be Added).

COOPER PAIR

A dynamic pairing of electrons in superconductivity theory.

In this pair, if the energy state with wave number s and spin ½ is occupied by an electron, then so is the state with wave number - s and spin - ½.

COP (COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE)

Ratio of energy out, divided by that portion of the total energy input that is input by the operator or experimenter.

The COP is thus a measure of "efficiency of using the operator or experimenter's input energy" to produce—or direct the production of—useful work. Note that he can direct the use of his own input energy, as almost all our present systems do. Better yet, he can also direct (gate or "switch") the use of some external free flow of energy from the environment into the system, so that he gets lots more work out of the system than he has to put in himself. Only a few of our systems—such as solar cells, sails on sailboats, waterwheels to power mills, and windmills—are such Maxwell's demons (open systems) where the output exceeds the operator's input of energy.

We sharply contrast the term "COP" to the term "efficiency".  The efficiency (overall) of a system is how much useful energy output (usually as work, or can be converted to work at will) the system produces for the total amount of energy that is input (both by the operator and by the external environment).  Even a highly inefficient system may nonetheless have a COP>1.0, if the operator inputs less energy than the system outputs.

We urge the reader to thoroughly understand the difference between energy-use "efficiency" of a system and coefficient of performance of the system.  Many scientists, engineers, and especially free-energy researchers are confused on the precise difference in these terms.

CORPUS CALLOSUM

The thick nerve cable that links together the two cerebral hemispheres (which are separate brains) in each vertebrate (including human) brain.

In each of the two cerebral hemispheres, there is a separate mind and personality (given that the other is separated).  However, a brain has a unique characteristic: Anything that arises directly inside it is automatically assumed to be self-originated, since the brain-tuner can differentiate no separation or "separate source" for the signal/thought arising directly upon its "internal screen".  This allows integration of the two brains/minds/personalities into one. That is, when one brain half prepares and sends a message, that message is also routed across the corpus callosum into the other brain half, arising internally upon the second brain's "display." The second brain half therefore thinks that it itself originated the signal or message.

COSMOLOGICAL FEEDBACK PRINCIPLE

Puthoff's self-regenerating cosmological feedback cycle for the source of the vacuum EM ZPE.

One may assume the existence of EM zero-point energy (ZPE) by fiat as part of the boundary conditions of the universe, or conceive of its generation by the quantum-fluctuation motion of charged particles that constitute matter.  Puthoff calculated the latter possibility, assuming that the ZPE spectrum (field distribution) drives particle motion, and that the particle motion in turn generates the ZPE spectrum.  This provides a self-regenerating cosmological feedback cycle, which in fact is consistent with the general relativity assumption that curvature of spacetime affects mass energy, and mass energy changes affect the curvature of spacetime.

The result of Puthoff's calculation is the appropriate frequency-cubed spectral distribution of the correct order of magnitude.  His result is thus consistent with, and indicates, a dynamic-generation process for the ZPE fields.

In general this is also consistent with the Sachs' unified field theory approach, and with the Evans O(3) important subset of it.

COURRIER, ROBERT

Noted French scientist who collaborated with Antoine Prioré in his revolutionary healing experiments on laboratory animals using longitudinal EM waves from plasma tubes.

Courrier was the head of the Biology Section of the French Academy and also the perpetual secretary at the time.  He personally presented the astounding results of the Prioré work, showing cures of terminal tumors, to the assembled French Academy, creating a furor.

CROSSTALK

In ordinary science, the transfer of energy or signal from one channel to another, by cross modulation or cross coupling between the channels.

In the new approach, the term "crosstalk" can be used in an additional sense where it refers to virtual energy exchange between orthogonal universes or frames—that is, between different 3- or 4-dimensional slices of an infinite-dimensional universe.

CURL CONCEPTS OF FIELDS

Refers to concepts of fields as the curl of some vector potential;

E.g., the magnitude of the B-field is equal to the curl of the A-potential, given by B = Ñ´A.  More exactly, the B-field is identically a curled A-potential, by B º Ñ´A, but only that portion of Ñ´A that is diverged around or collected by an intercepting unit point static charge.

Note that we are accenting that no equation is a definition.  So texts stating that the first equation with an equals sign "defines" the magnetic vector potential A, are in error.  If we state that B º Ñ´A, then we are defining the B-field as a curled form of the magnetic vector potential, which it is.

The reader must be aware that the field concept itself in CEM is flawed, being "defined" as the effect existing after an interaction by a 4-space entity with a 3-space mass, and hence
3-spatial and an "effect", and yet then used as if it were the 4-space "cause" entity that propagates in 4-space to interact.  In short, the field concept is thoroughly confused in the texts and papers in the literature (and has been confused for more than a century) as not only the cause but the result of the interaction of the cause with some recipient.  This problem has been highlighted by many physicists, including Feynman, Wheeler, etc.

This "confusion of the cause with the effect" is widespread in physics, and is the single greatest foundations error which hampers the progress of physics.  Another example is the false notion that a "separate force" acts upon a "separate mass", when in fact mass is a component of force by the definition F º d/dt(mv).  That such simple and obvious errors have been propagated by so many hundreds of thousands of scientists for so many decades is perplexing.  Indeed, the errors simply continue to be used.  Note that Nobelist Feynman and the great John Wheeler pointed out that the "field" as defined in CEM does not and cannot exist in spacetime!  Instead, Feynman pointed out that only the potential for the field exists in spacetime, in case some charged mass is brought in to interact with it and thereby produce the field as an effect.

Indeed, no observable persists, for it "exists" only as a momentary 3-space frozen snapshot or slice of a 4-space dynamic interaction.  Here again, most physicists do not realize that observables such as mass m do not and cannot persist other that at the instantaneous frozen moment of the snapshot.

CURL-FREE MAGNETIC VECTOR POTENTIAL

A field-free magnetic vector potential without curl, hence with no B-field.

Toroids and long solenoids have the characteristic of separating the B-field (curled potential) and holding it inside.  However, drawing energy from any potential whose "source charge or source dipole" is not destroyed, simply results in the full value of the potential being replenished from the vacuum, via the 4-symmetry energy flow mechanism in the presence of the broken 3-symmetry of the dipole.  Hence one may easily "double" the potential energy density at will, and this is a special form of gauge freedom, where the potential energy of any electromagnetic system can be altered freely and at will.  We strongly accent that, contrary to what is in the EM textbook, gauge freedom rigorously allows the direct and free amplification of potential energy of the EM system at will.  That this principle, incorporated in gauge field theory, has been known so long and still not used in the design, production, and use of COP>1.0 electrical power systems is quite inexplicable.

In the motionless electromagnetic generator, we used a special core material to extract the curled potential (B-field) from a permanent magnet's vector potential A, so that A is replenished in uncurled form directly from the vacuum via the giant negentropy process.

To achieve COP>1.0, we then simultaneously interacted both the uncurled A-potential energy external to the output coil, and the internal curled A-potential energy (B-field energy) internal to the core through the coil, with the coil.  By pulsing, the Lenz law effect is also invoked as yet another momentary regauging and potential energy increase, so that an additional energy gain is achieved.

The well-known Aharonov-Bohm effect proves that the uncurled A-potential can indeed be separated from the B-field in like manner, and the A-potential does interact with electrons since dA/dt = - E.

Thus the MEG achieves COP>1.0 permissibly, because it is an open system freely receiving excess energy from the active vacuum environment, via the vacuum's replenishment of the magnetic vector potential of the permanent magnet dipole as fast as energy is drawn from it.  The MEG also violates the usual closed current loop's self-imposition of Lorentz symmetrical regauging when discharging its excitation energy (its free excess regauging potential energy), because the "source dipole" (the permanent magnetic dipole) is not destroyed.

CURVED SPACETIME (externally, internally)

A four-dimensional geometry used in general relativity, where the curvature is determined by the distribution of mass-energy.

In the new, more extended approach, any change in the spatial energy density of spacetime or any change in the time-energy density of it, or a combination of changes in both.  The difference is that in the new approach time is also treated as a special form of energy.  Specifically, time may be regarded as spatial EM energy compressed by a factor of c2.

CYBORG  (An acronym for cybernetic organism).

(Noun): A single integrated system consisting of a living system energetically or functionally linked to mechanical or electromagnetic devices and/or systems performing some vital functions.

(Verb): Link, in the sense of forming such a system.

In the new approach, a living biological system may thus be considered a cyborg of its time-like mindworld (mindframe) to its 3-spatial body (laboratory tuner).  The "cyborging" is provided by the personal quantum potential and by the mind-body coupling mechanism.  Due to the giant negentropy mechanism of any dipolarity, any scalar potential as a dipolarity is a cyborg between observable reality and virtual state (time-like) reality, i.e., between 3-space and the time-domain.

CYTOMEGALOVIRUS

Any of several members of the herpesvirus family that cause infected cells to enlarge and/or to form cytoplasmic (the protoplasm of a cell, external to the nuclear membrane) inclusions in leukocytes (white blood cells), particularly in their nuclei.

Cytomegalovirus makes a protein that appears to disable the p53 protein.  As a result, smooth muscle cells in blood vessels can proliferate until they impede blood flow.

CYTOPATHOGEN

Literally, a pathogen (disease causing organism—or extended, mechanism—) that affects cells and generates damage in them.

CYTOPATHOGENIC

Damaging, harmful, or destructive for cells.

CYTOPATHOGENIC EFFECT

The generation of damage, disease, death, or other symptoms at the cellular level in cells that are exposed to or subjected to a pathogen.

CYTOPATHOGENIC MIRROR EFFECT

Distant EM pathogenic effect noted by Kaznacheyev in thousands of military experiments, where cellular death, disease, and damage forms are shown to be transmitted from one cell culture in the dark (absence of visible light) where the changes are induced, to another similar targeted cell culture in the dark that is environmentally shielded from the first except for light transmission in the infrared and in the ultraviolet.  After exposure begins, after a time delay (say, 2 hours or more), the cells in the targeted cell culture will begin to exhibit the same symptoms as the culture having the induced damage.  Eventually, in most cases the targeted cells will develop the same damage, disease condition, or death.  The effects vary with the time of day etc.

The necessity for photon connection from IR to UV is shown by contrasting a thin quartz window allowing the light transmission with a thin window glass window.  The quartz is open from the IR to the UV, and will pass that entire spectrum.  With the visible light absent, the IR and UV biophotons emitted by the damaged cell culture will pass through the quartz window into the targeted cell culture.  After the time delay, the targeted cell culture starts developing the condition.

Use of a thin window glass window, however, prevents the effect.  Normal window glass is opaque in the IR and in the UV, and so it blocks the transmission of the IR and UV biophotons.

The UV is a harmonic of the IR, arranged properly.  An unusual effect exists when two sine waves one the first harmonic of the other, are simultaneously transmitted into an isotropic nonlinear medium, such as water.  On each sine wave, the peak travels faster in the water than off-peak parts of the wave does.  Hence the wave peaks overshoot its middle, the wave collapses, breaks up, etc.  Both the waves of the transmitted harmonic set do that.  However, if one pretends that one transmitted the difference frequency between them, and not the waves themselves, a strange phenomenon results.  Regardless of the breakup of the primary harmonic set, the difference frequency travels through the water as if it were a real frequency in a linear medium.  This effect has been proven and is used in underwater sonar equipment.

For example, see Owen Flynn,  "Parametric arrays: A new concept for sonar," Electronic Warfare Magazine, June 1977, p. 107-112.  Any two sine-wave frequencies as simultaneous drivers combine to produce a sine-wave difference frequency propagating in water, essentially without sidebands or reverberations.  Its pattern has a main lobe approximately equal to that of the high frequency drive, but devoid of sidelobes.  The level of the propagating difference frequency is proportional to both the product of the two fundamental drive levels and to the square of the desired value of difference frequency.

Living cells contain a great percentage of water.  Hence the effect should apply to those targeted cells, under the conditions stated.

From general relativity, we know that any pattern and dynamics of mass-energy, such as in a cell and all its parts and dynamics, directly interacts with local spacetime to curve it, and any set of curvatures of spacetime interact with any conglomerate of mass-energy and its parts and dynamics.  The set of precise curvatures and their dynamics we call an engine.  In a mass embedded in a local region of spacetime containing an engine, the engine will interact with the mass-energy to change it if the mass-energy and its dynamics do not "fit" the engine and its dynamics.

In a diseased, damaged, or dead cell, the mass-energy of that cell and its "template" (form and dynamics) differs from its template while the cell was living and normal.  Let us now see what happens when that dead cell emits a biophoton.

A photon emitted from a dielectric such as a damaged cell, is not emitted just from one spot.  Every part of the dielectric participates in the emission of that photon.  (See "porthole concept", to be added).  Further, each emitted photon contains in its scalar potential and its magnetic vector potential, the exact longitudinal EM waveset that constitutes the vacuum engine of the damaged cell that emitted it.  When a cell absorbs a photon, it absorbs that vacuum engine carried by the photon also.  If it absorbs a stream of photons of harmonic interval, the difference frequency constitutes in terms of a wave, traveling through the cell water as if in a linear medium, and transporting that vacuum engine to every part of the absorbing cell dielectric.

So the biophotons emitted from Kaznacheyev's damaged, diseased, or dying cells sent biophotons containing the exact spacetime curvature engines and dynamics of their precise condition (template). Further, a harmonic interval of such radiation is transmitted into the targeted cells, and absorbed.  The mixing of the two absorptions eventually is sufficient to establish the harmonic interval, thus with a clear EM signal difference that travels through the cell's water and to every tiniest part of it.  This "difference frequency clear signal" also contains the pure vacuum engines of the template of the changes in the diseased, dying, or damaged emitting cells.

The result is the "kindling" (coherent integration) of the template in the absorbing cell's local spacetime in which it is embedded.  As that spacetime engine grows, it differs from the resident engine of the absorbing cell.  That difference is itself an engine, and it operates steadily upon that absorbing cell to alter its engine and then its physical condition and state.

As the new engine continues to interact, the physical cell is gradually changed into an equilibrium condition in its mutual interaction with its local spacetime engine.  That occurs after the absorbing cell has developed the same disease, damage, or dying condition as the transmitting cells.

This is the secret of the Kaznacheyev experiments.  The Kaznacheyev work was allowed to be released in the open literature to stimulate the U.S. scientific and intelligence communities and see whether or not the scientists and analysts had applied a unified field theory and higher symmetry electrodynamics to the EM bioeffects problem.  The totally casual reception of the Kaznacheyev experiments in the West, with no interest or interaction from the stimulated communities, assured the KGB conclusively that the West was still in kindergarten in its knowledge of EM bioeffects, and particularly had little or no knowledge in the field of EM biological warfare.

Kaznacheyev referred to the effect as the "cytopathogenic mirror" effect, for the pathogenic effects from the emitting damaged cells being "mirrored' in the targeted cells.

See Vlail Kaznacheyev and L. P. Mikhailova, Ultraweak Radiation in Intercellular Interactions, [in Russian], Novosibirsk, 1981.  An English exposition of much of the Kaznacheyev work is given in Vlail Kaznacheyev, "Electromagnetic Bioinformation in Intercellular Interactions," Psi Research, 1(1), Mar. 1982, p. 47-76.  See also Vlail Kaznacheyev, "Apparent information transfer between two groups of cells," Psychoenergetic Systems, 1(1), Dec. 1974;  Vlail Kaznacheyev et al., "Distant intercellular interactions in a system of two tissue cultures," Psychoenergetic Systems, 1(3), Mar. 1976, p. 141-142.  In the same issue, see "A Comment" by William A. McGarey, p. 143; "A Comment" by Arthur C. Hastings, p. 143-144.

Seven or eight nations now have longitudinal EM wave interferometer weapons, capable of beaming right through the earth and ocean to the other side of the planet.  At least two of these nations—Russia and China—are capable of adding engine structures to these interferometers, and sweeping a targeted population area to generate that specific disease condition in that target.  A sophisticated use would be to have agents (such as terrorist teams already in the United States and with biological agents in hand) release a small quantity of smallpox in the area previously targeted.  The LWIs have swept the entire area continuously for a period, slowly kindling (especially at night) the exact form of the disease within the bodies of the populace.  A curious thing happens if the level of kindling of the smallpox state has been kept just beneath the observable state, within what is sometimes called the "shadow state" (just barely virtual).  A smallpox pandemic will explode in that populace with a ferocity never seen in modern times, and at an unparalleled rate.  This is further exacerbated by "spreading the immune system" prior to the attack (term and discussion to be added), which seriously weakens the immune system's ability to resist any single pathogenic attack.

There are hardly any supplies of smallpox vaccine left that are viable.  Even where there are, the Russian laboratories developed strains of smallpox resistant to the normal vaccine, and after the collapse of the Russian economy and the former Soviet state, these strains were sold on the black market to the highest bidder.  Further, most of the Soviet scientists employed in those secret biowar facilities wound up employed in several other nations, most hostile to the United States.

The point is this: Such a strike could in fact kill up to 2 billion people worldwide.  Further, the entire affair would appear to be just a chance breakout of smallpox, and its spread through a nonresistant world populace.

When modern biological warfare is actually analyzed in detail, the "bang for the buck" is greater than it is for nuclear weapons.  Further, a rogue or hostile nation can take its time in advance and develop quantities of smallpox vaccine (for the very strain it will use), then initiate such a clandestine campaign after it has vaccinated its own populace, armed forces, and agents.  Guess who survives after such an attack.

CYTOTOXIC

Toxic (acts as a poison or toxin) to cells.

A toxin is a colloidal proteinaceous poisonous substance that is a specific product of the metabolic activities of a living organism.  The toxin is usually very unstable, and is notably toxic when introduced into the tissues.

DARK ENERGY

The Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component, surrounding every field/charge and potential/charge reaction but unaccounted in present electromagnetic theory after being arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz.

DATUM

Consideration, or data considered, or information considered, or action considered, or result considered.

DEATH

The disintegration of the personal quantum potential's connection to the physical body's atomic nuclei by loss of the mind-body connection mechanism.

Simply put, separation of the quantum potential containing the time-like mind-frame from the body.  Loss of the preferential tuning of a physical body to its mindworld.  This causes loss of the preferential consciousness loop or life channel, resulting in "death" (reversion to inert matter) of the body.  Actually the quantum potential and the mind-frame remains, so the being is unchanging and indestructible, hence consists of all changes and destructions simultaneously, with none separated individually.  Life and death thus are two sides of the same coin, and the coin is immutable, regardless of which side is exposed.

DE BROGLIE WAVE

A matter wave, conceived by Louis de Broglie.

The quantum mechanics wave associated with a particle of matter, which can give rise to interference effects. An orbital electron in an atom is associated with a standing de Broglie wave on a Bohr orbit. De Broglie waves always move faster than the speed of light, the speed being given by c2/v, where c is the velocity of light in vacuum and v is the velocity of the particle of mass. De Broglie wave velocities thus vary from the speed of light to infinite speed (everywhere at once). In his speech accepting the Nobel Prize, de Broglie emphasized that, since these waves produce real physical effects, they are real and must not be regarded simply as mathematical conveniences.

DEBYE, PETER

Dutch-born American physical chemist and Nobelist, 1884-1966, who performed important and fundamental studies in bipole moments and diffractions of X-rays and electrons in gases.

DEDIFFERENTIATION, CELLULAR

The reversion of a cell or cellular structure to a more primitive or generalized condition.

Dedifferentiation is often preliminary to a major change in the cell or cellular structure.  It can also be a reversion of the cell to a previous—even primeval—cell form.  The important point is that dedifferentiation returns the cell to a previous (past) cellular state.  Reversion of a cancer cell, e.g., would cause the cell to return to a normal cell, since that is the nature of its "cellular past."  It is vitally important that Becker has demonstrated that cells can be differentiated (moved forward to a future state) or dedifferentiated (moved backward to a previous state) electrically, by very weak DC currents (picoamperes).  He was nominated for a Nobel Prize for this epochal work.

Actual electromagnetic redifferentiation of terminal tumors in laboratory animals was repeatedly demonstrated by Prioré et al in the late 60s and early 70s and reported in the peer-reviewed French medical journals, as was reversion of depressed immune systems, cures of infectious diseases, and curing of arteriosclerosis.  It is inexplicable that this positively demonstrated cure of cancer—which could also cure infectious diseases and probably can be developed to cure AIDS—was suppressed in the mid-70s and has not been vigorously pursued by present establishment medical science.

DEGENERATE SEMICONDUCTOR

A semiconductor whose conductivity approaches that of a metal.

Noted Spanish neurophysiologist well-known for his research on brain behavioral mechanisms and their control by electrical stimulation; who implanted electrodes in the brains of animals and humans and demonstrated that their responses (both behavioral and emotional) were specific and depended upon the specific localized part of the brain that was stimulated.

A TV tape made by Delgado showed a spectacular demonstration where he stopped a charging bull in mid-stride.  With a small hand-held radio transmitter, he transmitted a radio signal to a receiver implanted in the head of the bull.  This dramatic demonstration caused a world-wide sensation.

The significance of his work is given by Becker:  "Delgado discovered the exact parts of the brain in which electrical stimulation produced fear, anxiety, pleasure, euphoria, or rage in human subjects.  He found that certain sites produced major personality alterations.  For example, stimulation of one such site could cause very proper, reserved young ladies to become flirtatious and sexually aggressive.  Other sites inhibited maternal or aggressive behavior.  In short, Delgado was able to profoundly alter human behavior through electrical stimulation of discrete areas of the brain." electrodes were implanted in the pleasure centers of rats' brains.  The animals were provided with two levers to press.  One of these delivered food, and the other produced electrical stimulation of the pleasure center.  Invariably, the rats chose to press the lever that stimulated the pleasure center, even to the extent that they died of starvation." (Becker, Cross Currents, p. 221-222).

It is known based on a rare OMNI interview that Delgado progressed to detailed study and experimentation for the behavioral and emotional effects in monkeys of specific magnetic field frequencies on monkeys.  These successful experiments involved electrical currents produced in the brain but hundreds of times lower in intensity than those required for direct electrode stimulation.  Since then, some information has been cautiously released from Western military studies showing that microwave pulses can couple to the central nervous system and produce stimulation and behavior alteration similar to Delgado's released experimental results.

Comment: The ultimate and most refined techniques in the field of electromagnetic control of human behavior, volition, emotion, etc. is provided by Russian psychoenergetics, the military version of which is totally under KGB control.  This work has progressed far beyond what Delgado and Becker were discussion so long ago.  The use of the infolded longitudinal EM waves and "engines"—once the technology is developed—allows direct engineering of conscious and unconscious mind, memory including short term and long term, perception, awareness, etc.  The additional advantage of using EM longitudinal waves is that mass is largely a very thin dispersion of particles, with (relatively speaking) very large distances between them, somewhat like the solar system but on different scale.  This "inner space" is filled with EM waves, potentials, and fields—all of which decompose into sets of longitudinal EM waves and their impressed dynamics.  Thus the earth and ocean are readily penetrated by longitudinal EM wave beams, and the Russians (KGB) has developed such LW interferometers since the mid 1950s.  However, by LW interferometry where the patterns and dynamics of the carried LWs are engineered, any desired mapping pattern of precise EM signals, frequencies, phases, and magnitudes can be reproduced in distant interference zones, reaching right through the ocean.  These interferometers could localize the distant interferometry into a 6-inch diameter volume as early as 1985, so from that time forward it gradually became possible to perform all of Delgado's "inserted electrode" EM stimulus in a single selected human brain from the opposite side of the earth.  So approximately 1985 is when I would estimate the beginning of the "golden age" (ugh!) of distant psychoenergetics was initiated.

By 1997, this development would be into at least third generation weapons, just being deployed or just having been deployed, considering an somewhat accelerated weapons development program where 6 years is one generation.  By 1997, very complex individual behavioral and perceptual control should have just arrived in on-site deployed strategic weapons systems.  See discussion under conscious mind.

Some selected useful references are: J.M.R. Delgado et al., Journal of Anatomy, vol. 134, 1982, p. 533 reports that developmental defects occur in chick embryos exposed to various ELF frequencies.  See also J.M.R. Delgado, Physical Control of the Mind: Toward a Psychocivilized Society, Vol. 41, World Perspectives, Harper & Row, New York, 1969.

DEMODULATION

From a carrier containing a modulated signal, recovering the signal that was used to modulate it.

DENSE SIGNAL ENVIRONMENT

For our purposes, when the number of weak EM signals crossing one square meter per second reaches 200,000.

At 500,000 important nonlinear optical type effects of significance—particularly long term cumulative effects—begin to occur in the exposed biological organism.

DEPARTING ORTHOROTATIONS

In space of dimensions greater than four, the rotating of an object or entity away from its line of motion, in the direction of a dimension at right angles to the line of travel in the observer's three-space, by some number of additional 90° rotations.

The Lorentz transform in special relativity, e.g., is just a formula for this kind of rotation.  What we call "velocity" is actually a measure of rotation.  In 4-space, any object in 3-space can only rotate "out" of 3-space in one direction: toward the time-axis.  As the object rotates toward that time-axis, we see the object as having a velocity in 3-space, and its "length along the line of motion" as having diminished.  When the object rotates the full 90°, its "length along the line of motion" has been converted to "time" rather than length.  Hence it has zero length along the line of motion and is moving at c, the speed of light in ambient space.  It is also no longer material, but is a sort of flat plane surface moving at speed c in a direction perpendicular to the plane.

In that 4-space model, it is impossible for anything to move faster than light speed.  So Einstein's postulate dealing with the fact that it is impossible to translate mass, signals, etc. faster than light speed has a built-in assumption that only one orthogonal departing rotation can be made from 3-space.  That postulate need not apply at all if more than one departing orthorotation is permitted—which of course requires a space of 5 dimensions or greater.

The notion is that, if we allow a spacetime of greater than four dimensions, by continuing to rotate ever more orthoturns in a departing direction away from the original line of travel, the rotated object loses one observable dimension for every orthorotation. Hence with three "departing" orthorotations it becomes a "nonobservable point" to the normal observer, but one that would be moving at speed c3.  A single orthorotation would make the 3-dimensional object a two-dimensional plane moving at speed c.

No matter how many rotations are made in a departing manner, the object is still connected to the time dimension common to all dimensions (assuming only a single time dimension for simplicity).  So it exists in an orthorotated space, but in the same time.  To the physical observer in 3-space, it thus appears to be a "time-like" or "mental" object only.  Nonetheless, by affecting the density and structuring of the time domain, it can have an effect on a 3-spatial object.  We discuss that mechanism under the subjects of the mind-to-body coupling mechanism and the body-to-mind coupling mechanism.  Further, with the Sachs-Evans unified field theory approach, the time-domain can be directly engineered.  This means that both "inert" or physical reality and time-like or "mental" reality can be directly engineered by novel electrodynamic means.

In short, a photon is just a particle (such as an electron) that is orthorotated once (toward the time axis). In photon emission, a little bit of the mass-energy turns into orthorotated photon energy.  In photon absorption, the absorbed photon energy turns back into mass-energy.

The higher dimensional orthorotational concept was originally formed to allow a physical modeling grasp on a "mental" object as compared to a "physical" object, and to have a connection mechanism between the two.  Such an approach can be used to model both mind and matter, their interaction, etc.  The present author has used it to solve the old philosophical problem of "intent", of how the perception of self is attained, how the external world is perceived separate from self, etc.  A model for both living and nonliving states does emerge.

This or a very similar approach has been used by the Russian's highly classified weapon science called energetics.  That third branch of energetics is called psychoenergetics and it is the physics of directly engineering mind states, mind operations, memory, etc. by extended electrodynamic means.   We have previously detailed much of this work privately, but with some detailed openly in a few papers.  E.g., see T. E. Bearden, "Mind Control and EM Wave Polarization Transductions, Part I", Explore, 9(2), 1999, p. 59; Part II, Explore, 9(3), 1999, p. 61; Part III, Explore, 9(4,5), 1999, p. 100-108.

DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERENCE

When two waves or wavesets from two different sources superpose to produce a combined waveset that has a lower intensity than the sum of the intensities of the two original waves.

DETERMINISTIC PATTERN OR TEMPLATE

The exact arrangement, by plan and deterministic action, of a group of entities.

E.g., of the photons in a "herd" or "group" of them. Or a set of spacetime curvatures, into a dynamic structure called a "spacetime curvature engine"—or "engine" for short.  Or by the virtual photons in the vacuum flux, or a deterministic set of changes to that vacuum flux (the vacuum flux that is called the "vacuum potential." I have called this function—of a deterministic patterning or templating of the virtual flux (particle view) of the potential—dimensioning the potential.

DIELECTRIC

Literally, "against electric (current),"

...originally coined to mean "opposes the flow or conduct of electric fluid."

In today's language, a dielectric is a non-conducting material used to oppose or prevent the flow of electric charges. Even empty vacuum exhibits some dielectric resistance. "Dielectric" is also used to refer to a nonconducting material (often used between the metal plates of a capacitor or elsewhere) which can (i) sustain a change in potential across a distance (i.e., an E-field), and (ii) serve as an insulator. Space itself is a dielectric, or at least it is said to exhibit certain dielectric qualities.

DIFFERENTIATION, CELLULAR

(1) specialization of body parts or organs in the evolutionary process.  (2)  modification of different parts of the body to perform particular functions.  (3) modification of the cells forming these body parts or organs so as to perform the necessary cellular functions required to support the functioning of the body part or organ.

DIFFRACTION

The bending of light at the edge of an opaque object.

Usually diffraction introduces undesired distortion and is a problem.  However, it can be useful and desirable—for example, in a diffraction grating.

DIMENSION

A certain primary geometrical physical attribute, such as length, used to describe the separational relationships of physical phenomena.

The degree of that separation is known as "length", "time", etc.  By "geometrical" we mean that the "dimension" is considered to "exist" in either the presence or absence of the observable physical phenomenon; however, by understood agreement the dimension itself is not directly observable. It can be inferred ("measured"), however, by comparative operations of simple devices such as clocks and meter sticks, and its simplistic definition is usually given as "that which has measurable magnitude." Prescribed measuring procedures are used to assign magnitudes to these inferred dimensions, using specific scales.

Actually, "dimension" just means "fundamental quantity of separation" and "geometry" in the most general sense. The number of dimensions taken in advanced physics usually represents a somewhat arbitrary choice for good modeling fit. In modern Kaluza-Klein theory, for example, it becomes necessary to accept some 10 or 11 dimensions in the usual particle physics case. General relativity has incorporated the interaction of the abstract geometry (spacetime) with mass.  Until Sachs' extension of Einstein's work into a unified field theory and Evans' incorporation of O(3) electrodynamics as an important subset of Sachs' unified theory, general relativity has largely remained a nonexperimental discipline, at least in the laboratory.  With the new Sachs-Evans approach, however, GR becomes substantially engineerable by novel electromagnetic means, including in the laboratory and in devices.

DIMENSIONING

This is an artificial term I sometimes use to mean "forming an exact pattern or 'template', particularly of nested curvatures of spacetime, where the pattern/template may also be dynamic.  It involves the internal structuring of the "dimensioned" entity.

The use of the term "dimensioning" makes sense in unified field theory, but is awkward in normal EM theory which erroneously considers that EM energy propagates in an uncurved spacetime.  The mere presence of a change in local spatial energy, created by the wave energy itself when present in that local region, curves the local spacetime.  Hence the EM wave rigorously travels in curved spacetime, and in fact identically is a propagating, oscillating curvature of spacetime.

Dimensioning also implies a deliberate form or structure (with dynamics) created in the virtual photon flux of the vacuum or of the virtual photon flux comprising a scalar potential, or in the infolded longitudinal wave EM inside all EM potentials, fields, and waves.  It implies an associated set of spacetime curvatures and their dynamics.  The latter are referred to as "engines", "vacuum engines", "spacetime curvature engines", etc.

Dimensioning potentials or signals or carrier waves also involves adding hidden vacuum engines to them. I chose the descriptive term dimensioning because adding such templates (hidden vacuum engine structures) is equivalent to increasing the EM topology by adding dimensions. Since an EM wave or field or vector potential can be decomposed into two scalar potentials, then by "dimensioning" one or both of the scalar potentials one can "infold" the desired hidden structures or patterns (vacuum engines) inside an EM carrier wave, EM field, or vector potential. So I called this dimensioning those entities. Internally structuring the two scalar potentials via arrays of EM LW emitters, and then applying the necessary dynamics (modulations), is primarily the manner in which dimensioning can be directly engineered.  When dimensioning is present, two identical EM waves as seen on the oscilloscope may have dramatically differing internal structures (dimensioning), and hence the two will produce drastically differing effects when they interact with the same or similar objects.  This of course is the mechanism involved in the Kaznacheyev experiments and in the decades-long microwave radiation of the U.S. Embassy in Moscow, where health changes and diseases were electromagnetically induced in personnel in field-free (stable and nonchanging potentials) areas.

Russian energetics refers to what we are calling "dimensioning" simply as adding the information content of the field.  A very skilled disinformation program (actually, a strategic deception program) has been used to deceive the West into believing the phrase refers to ordinary spectral analysis.  It doesn't.  The importance of the dimensioning concept is that one has not formed mere "signals," instead, one has formed vacuum engines. If a receiving object receives a signal, it may or may not act upon that "signal information."  If it receives a vacuum engine, however, the engine (structured local spacetime flux) directly acts upon it to make the requisite change.  Further, the energy for the interaction's working upon the exposed object or system is furnished continually from the curved spacetime set and their dynamics. The receiving object has absolutely no choice in that action occurring to it, and the action can occur from the gluons and quarks inside the charges in the nuclei, to the lattice structures, to the system dynamics, to the elements so as to transmute them, etc.

Note that when a dimensioned EM field or potential is absorbed by an object, that object also has internal EM fields and potentials which have substructures (usually rather random).  However, the internal structure of the absorbed dimensioned entity and the internal structures of the EM fields, potentials, and waves do mix in a direct diffusion process.  Hence with continued irradiation, the target can be "charged up" with the desired internal dimensioning structure.  This is how the microwave irradiation of the U.S. Embassy accomplished disease induction, using signals with the desired disease dimensioning impressed in their structures, particularly in the potentials.  In the Gulf War Disease, a much more sophisticated use of this mechanism was made, using a quantum potential as the carrier.  All the effects (including the body fluid transmission, the EM fields of the body transmitting and kindling some of the effects in children in proximity to a dimensioned veteran parent, can be explained.

The use of dimensioned EM fields, waves, and potentials—and the use of dimensioned quantum potentials in Bohm's hidden variable theory—allows an entirely new science of EM biological warfare, far more threatening and lethal than the more primitive physical pathogenic kind.  It is also possible to use the techniques for revolutionary healing, as unwittingly shown by Prioré and the scientists working with him, and also as shown by Becker et al.

The only way in which the action of a vacuum engine (dimensioned carrier entity) can be resisted is to create and simultaneously introduce the exact antiengine for it.

Once the action has been completed in the receiving object and it has been changed, the only way it usually can be undone is to form a precise antiengine for that action, amplify the antiengine, and let the antiengine act upon the object for a sufficient time to "time reverse it back to its previous physical state and condition".  The Prioré mechanism utilized that method for reversing the cellular damage due to cancer and infectious diseases, and to restore suppressed immune systems.  The same mechanism, if re-developed, could also be used to reverse aging in living human patients.

The engine and antiengine processes can also be applied by structuring the "time-charging" or "time-excitation charging" of the particles of mass in a body.  The "port-hole" concept even allows ordinary EM radiation to be used to forcibly transduce the input ordinary EM into the extraordinary EM and thereby forcibly accomplish the necessary time-charging actions  for disease and body deterioration reversal.  See discussions under "port hole concept" and "time-charging".

DIPOLE

In the simplest case, two separated charges of (usually equal and) opposite sign.

As a general definition, a localized positive charge or charge distribution, and a localized negative charge or charge distribution, such that the net charge summation is zero, but wherein the positive and negative charge distributions do not superpose. We point out, however, that in regular physics electrical charge has no proper definition. Try looking it up in several physics dictionaries! Then check our proposed definition of electrical charge. As is well-known in particle physics, a dipole is a broken symmetry in the virtual photon flux of the vacuum.  By definition of broken symmetry, this means that some of the virtual energy flux continuously absorbed from the seething vacuum by the charges of the dipole, is not re--radiated as virtual energy.  Instead, it is integrated coherently and re-radiated in 3-space as real emitted EM energy.  The dipole is therefore a true "negative resistor" since it receives EM energy in unusable form, and re-emits it in usable form.  In classical EM theory, the problem of how every charge and dipole can continuously emit EM energy to form all the associated fields and potentials and their energy, is an unsolved problem—sometimes called the most pressing problem in electrodynamics, both classical and quantal.  For the solution and a discussion, see my paper "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23.

Because of the broken 3-symmetry of the dipole, the EM energy flow is not conserved in three dimensions (symmetry represents a conservation law, and broken symmetry represents the violation of that conservation law—in this case, violation of conservation of 3-space EM energy flow).  Instead, EM energy flow is conserved in 4-dimensions, and the hidden inflow of EM energy  to the dipole is actually from the complex plane (time domain).  Thus all EM energy is actually received from the time-domain, and so the importance can be seen of the internal structuring of time-flow and of longitudinal EM waves in the time domain.  Such time-domain energy flows appear naturally in O(3) electrodynamics; see M. W. Evans and  T. E. Bearden, "The Most General form of the Vector Potential in Electrodynamics," Optik (in review).

DIRAC, PAUL A. M.

Noted English physicist, 1902-1984, who shared the Nobel Prize for developing wave mechanics and predicting the existence of the positron.

DIRAC SEA

Considering the vacuum as containing—amongst other things— a "sea" of an infinite negative energy conditions or states ("holes") for electrons, almost all of which are filled with electrons.

In Dirac electron theory, the relativistic wave equation for the electron has four components, which correspond to two spin orientations and two energy conditions: positive and negative.  Thus the vacuum possesses a "sea" of negative energy conditions for electrons.  These are called "holes" and are considered to ordinarily be filled or mostly filled with electrons which have fallen into these negative energy states.  The Dirac sea thus is this vacuum sea of negative energy electrons.  In forward time, if energy is added, electrons can be lifted from this sea.  If spacetime is locally curved, additional holes may be created so that normal positive energy electrons fall in and disappear, creating the appearance of an "electrical energy sink."  If the curvature is in the opposite direction, electrons may be lifted from the Dirac sea by the curvature, thus producing a flow of electrons and creating the appearance of an "electrical energy source."

DISCRETIZED

Occurring in a finite size, fixed as a function of one or more variables.

So long as the same value(s) of the variable(s) are selected, the discretized entity is always the same size. However, if the value(s) of the determining variables are changed, the value of the discretized quantity may change so that it is not a whole number multiple of the former entity. Compare this to a quantized entity, where the values of the variable(s) are held to those wherein the entity will always be a multiple of an entity of fixed size.

DISEQUILIBRIUM

Broken equilibrium, which in turn involves breaking appropriate conservation laws.

DISSOCIATION

Separation of ideas from their affects or feelings, resulting in independent functioning of these components of a person's mental processes.

Simply put, fragmentation of the mind and personality.  Severe dissociation is the definition of insanity.

DISTORTION CORRECTION THEOREM

"If a scalar wave E1(r) propagates from left to right through an arbitrary but lossless dielectric medium, and if we generate in some region of space [say near z = 0] its phase conjugate replica E2(r), then E2 will propagate backward from right to left through the dielectric medium, remaining everywhere the phase conjugate of E1."

Quoted from Amnon Yariv, Optical Electronics, 3rd Edn., Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1985, p. 500-501.

What is missing from the distortion correction theorem is hidden in the phrase "if we generate in some region of space … its phase conjugate replica..".  Since electrodynamicists and optical physicists have been unaware that all EM energy at any point in space comes from the time domain to that point, then the actual phase conjugate wave in the imaginary plane (from the time domain) is not utilized as the phase conjugate replica.  Instead, the interaction of that wave with charges, which actually produces the force-field wave in space, is assumed.  In short, one is looking at the "effect" wave, not the "cause" wave.  However, since time is not an observable even in theory, it is this "effect" wave in 3-space that will be measured by our instruments.

Note also that the distortion correction theorem says nothing about longitudinal EM waves in the time domain.  Interestingly, in nonlinear optical pumping, it appears that the 3-space energy of the pumping 3-space waves is transformed into the time domain by the pumping, and thence flows from the time domain into the 3-space domain to form the progression of the time-reversed replica wave in 3-space.

It is apparent that much more work should be done upon the foundations of phase conjugate optics, in a higher symmetry electrodynamics model such as O(3) electrodynamics and particularly in the unified field theory as in the Sachs-Evans combined approach.

DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID)

Nucleic acid that constitutes the genetic material of cellular organisms and also certain viruses.

DRUDE, PAUL

Important German physicist, 1863-1906, who formulated the theory of the free electron gas inside conductors, using it to formulate a theory of metallic resistance.

DRUDE ELECTRON GAS

The "free" electrons that have broken loose from their atoms in a conductor, and are thus free to "wander around" and "migrate"—or flow as current when exposed to an emf.

Also called the electron gas, or Drude electron gas. Named after the German physicist Paul Drude who died in 1906, who formulated Drude's theory of metallic resistance based on EM theory and his own theory of electrons.  See P. Drude, Ann. Physik, Vol. 1, p. 566; Vol. 3, 1900, p. 370, 869 for the original Drude papers.

DUALITY PRINCIPLE

In quantum mechanics, the principle that photons and other particles propagate like waves and interact like particles, so that their descriptions as only waves or only particles is inadequate.

ECM

Electronic Countermeasures.

Electromagnetic measures taken against targeted electronics or electromagnetics operations in systems, particularly in hostile weapon systems, command and control systems, etc.  There are entire textbooks in the West that are devoted to ECM effects, uses, effectiveness, etc.  A great deal of ECM equipment is also used by any modern military force.  However, in our view what is greatly lacking as yet in Western ECM is the deliberate design and use of novel new kinds of ECM based on the extended higher electrodynamics such as O(3) electrodynamics, and particularly by use of longitudinal EM waves and by use of the infolded electrodynamics inside all EM fields, potentials, and waves.  Longitudinal EM wave interferometers (LWIs), e.g., can reach right through the earth and the ocean to emerge on the other side of the earth.  In the interference zone (IZ), real EM "transverse wave" energy is created readily by the interferometry.  Biasing of the chassis grounds of the distant LWI transmitters can control whether the "normal" EM energy appearing in the target IZ is convergent (cooling) or divergent (heating).  By sharp pulsing of the LWI transmitters, massive cold explosions or hot explosions can be created in the IZ.  Continuous LWI interferometry can produce geometric forms of EM energy, which usually glow due to the ionization of the atmosphere, etc. in the dense EM energy regions.  Since these can also involve general relativistic effects as well as electromagnetics effects in the U(1) CED sense, obviously a dramatic expansion of the entire field of measures and countermeasures is entailed.

We believe these LWI weapons may be what was referred to by U.S. Defense Secretary Cohen as follows: "Others are engaging even in an eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves… So there are plenty of ingenious minds out there that are at work finding ways in which they can wreak terror upon other nations…It's real, and that's the reason why we have to intensify our  efforts."  Secretary of Defense William Cohen at an April 1997 counterterrorism conference sponsored by former Senator Sam Nunn. DoD News Briefing, Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen, Q&A at the Conference on Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction, and U.S. Strategy, University of Georgia, Athens, Apr. 28, 1997.

EDGE WAVES

In electromagnetics, waves that form parallel to a material edge.

EDISON, THOMAS ALVA

Noted American inventor, 1847-1900, whose staggering number of inventions included the storage battery, electric light bulb, phonograph, motion pictures, and carbon microphone.

E-FIELD  (ELECTRIC FIELD)

The electric field or electric intensity E.  That field on a spinning charged mass which produces an electrical force resulting in a linear motion of the charge.

E-FIELD, MOTIONAL

In classical EM theory, the electric field produced by moving a conductor in a magnetic field.  Often called motional inductance of the field.

In the orthodox theory, motional inductance is deemed to be identical to the inductance caused by a time rate of change of the magnetic field, experienced by the moving conductor.

E-FIELD, STATIC

In orthodox theory, the electric field in the space surrounding a static charged particle, induced by the presence of the charged particle.

In classical EM, there is no notion as to the causative mechanism for this static field of and from a charge, which implicitly is assumed to just continuously create and pour out EM energy in all directions, thus grossly violating energy conservation..  Consideration of this anomaly leads to what has been called the most pressing problem in both quantal and classical electrodynamics: the question of the formation of the fields and potentials associated with the "source charge".

For a full solution to this problem, see my "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23.  Also on this website.

EHRENHAFT, FELIX

Scientist who performed numerous experiments believed to demonstrate fractional charges.

EINSTEIN, ALBERT

German (Jewish) physicist, 1879-1955,  who emigrated to the U.S. and formed special and general relativity theory, discovered and formed the theory of Brownian motion, recommended the development of the atomic bomb to President Roosevelt, and profoundly affected the course of science and the modern world.

EINSTEIN-de HAAS EFFECT

The rotation observed in a freely hanging ferromagnet when it becomes magnetized.

It has been used  in the Einstein-de Haas method to determine the gyromagnetic ratio of a ferromagnetic material by suspending a cylinder of the material from a torsion fiber and measuring the angular displacement of the cylinder when its magnetization is reversed.

Thought experiment in 1935 for measuring two correlated photons separated and at distant locations, protesting that quantum mechanics requires that the particles communicate instantly, which is a "spooky action-at-a distance" (Einstein's phrase).

The experiment eventually was performed and it works, just as required by quantum mechanics.  The paradox inspired the development of hidden-variable theories.

EINSTEIN'S POSTULATES

(1) All the laws of physics are equally valid in all inertial frames of reference,

(2) the speed of light is the same to every inertial observer, and

(3) the observable local effects of a gravitational field are indistinguishable from those arising from acceleration of the frame of reference.

The first is called the special relativity principle, the second is called the law of light propagation, and the third is called the equivalence principle. It is now known that postulates (1) and (2) are not independent of each other. Note that the third postulate implies that any local force is due to a "gravitational field" (acceleration of the frame of reference). It also implies that gravitational force has a mechanism, since quantum mechanics assigns a differential operator, operating upon a potential, to create every force. By extended inference, it can be seen that the third postulate also implies that there should exist a method to turn any type of force (field) into gravitational force (field).

The Russian physicist Sakharov has strongly postulated that gravitation is not even a fundamental field of physics, of the kind used by Maxwell in his electrodynamics. Instead, in this view G-field is always comprised of, and made from, other fields and interactions upon them. Indeed, such has always been implicit in general relativity, it just took Sakharov to formally propose it. E. g., see A. D. Sakharov, "Vacuum Quantum Fluctuations in Curved Space and the Theory of Gravitation," Soviet Physics Doklady, Vol. 12, No. 11, 1968, p. 1040-1041 [English translation.] Sakharov's article (in Russian) in Doklady. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Vol. 177, 1967, p. 70-71.

Now let us do a little "tinkering" with Einstein's postulates. For the first one, we point out that in the new approach using dimensioning and subspaces, the notion of an inertial frame now has acquired additional complexity! The "gross translation" effects—which tends to be what physics ultimately focuses upon—can remain the same, and yet vacuum engines can be buried up inside the inertial frame to act upon a mass in non-translating ways. Everything translation-wise can remain the same, but now matter can be transmuted and transformed, etc., still right there in an inertial frame.  So when the infolded electrodynamics inside all fields, potentials, and waves are utilized, the notion of "inertial frame" has acquired a higher topology and then one inertial frame may differ very substantially from another inertial frame. This of course move one from special relativity into full general relativity, and even there into a slight extension.  Special relativity can remain special relativity on the surface, and yet effects occur "within" the objects postulated to exist in this inertial frame. The "inertial frame" concept in the postulates is now just a sort of special "equilibrium case" of a higher topology "inertial frame" notion.

The second postulate now stands as a "special case" of a far more general second postulate. It actually defines (and limits) "light" to bulk changes in the entire vacuum potential magnitude. It only applies to light signals which are "bulk upheaval" disturbances of the vacuum potential (spacetime). Specifically it need not apply to the "inner EM/GR realm" of longitudinal EM waves infolded inside the vacuum potential, other potentials, signal carriers, etc. Superluminal communication is now included in this "hidden variable" communication. The Fogal semiconductor is in fact capable of infolding and outfolding EM signals, including producing the internal longitudinal EM waves, and during their infolded state these signals are permitted to move at superluminal velocity.

So the second postulate needs to be restated to include the present statement as a special case. Notice that the concepts "light" and "speed of light" have now taken on much richer, extended meanings, since there is "outfolded" light and "infolded" light, so to speak. Light now is not just the "external perturbation wave" in the ambient vacuum potential medium (in flat spacetime).  Instead, it can also be an "internal perturbation longitudinal wave" inside a "net flat spacetime" which does not show on the "surface" at all. Indeed, it may move in the time dimension or in 3-space.  It now includes the transmission of an extraordinary "vacuum engine" as well as the usual transmission of just an ordinary signal.

And these infolded vacuum engines can be visualized as very special sets of longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics, consistent with the Whittaker decomposition.  His U(1) symmetry electrodynamics decomposition—particularly when enriched in the higher symmetry O(3) electrodynamics—applies to the ambient vacuum as a potential (it is a potential since it has energy density).  So the "subspace" inside spacetime, so to speak, is just a set of LWs and their dynamics, and that subspace itself is engineerable, just as is the "bulk curvature of spacetime" itself.  Further, we may now consider space itself is just a vast superhighway for such superluminal LWs and their dynamics.  Mass is mostly empty space with only an occasional particle here and there and with fields, potentials, and waves in between.  Hence huge masses such as the ocean and earth are actually superhighways for the direct passage of longitudinal EM waves, "engines", etc.  The degree of "transparency" is a function of the degree of cleanness of the LWs.

The third postulate has also been dramatically extended and requires revision. As presently stated, antigravity effects do not appear to be included in present physics heretofore. The "gravitational effects and external accelerated effects" notion in conventional physics is still founded purely on ordinary bulk translation. Now it need not be. For example, the system can appear to be an ordinary system, as judged by normal "external light" observation. Yet its internal vacuum engines can cause local violation of most so-called "laws of nature."  The reason a "law of nature" can be violated is that one is now able to violate the premises upon which it is postulated, and which are required to hold if the law is to hold.  Or another way to look at it: any conservation law is the result of a symmetry.  Breaking that symmetry allows violation of that specific conservation law.

So as we've said so many times before, the infolded  EM inside the "conventional" EM fields, waves, and potentials—and inside the vacuum potential and spacetime itself—dramatically changes the present theories of electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, and general relativity. Further, for the first time the Sachs unified field theory allows an engineering approach which simultaneously crosses, includes, and extends all three disciplines in the required manner.  The approach can be placed into good engineering models based on the Sachs work, particularly using the O(3) electrodynamics subset spearheaded by Evans, and the models can be tested and verified or falsified.

EINSTEIN'S GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

Mathematical theory of gravitation in which the gravitational force is mathematically described by a curvature in space or spacetime.

In other words, the geometry and its dynamics have become physical agents.

It is important to note that, in general relativity, the curvature of spacetime acts on mass-energy, and changes in or to mass-energy interact back upon spacetime to change its curvature.

Further, we consider that an exact pattern of curvatures of spacetime and their dynamics exists for every mass system and its dynamics.  This is the engine concept.  The most general way to engineer matter is not by brute force translation, but by forming spacetime engines.  Once formed, these engines act upon any mass placed in the engine region, to eliminate the deltas existing in that mass's resident engine and the impressed engine.  The curvature of spacetime itself furnishes the energy for the continuing action upon the mass, once we pay to form the engine.  The mass can be acted upon at any level, from its gluons and quarks to its nuclei, to its atoms, its lattice forces and binding energy, etc.  Significantly, the Sachs theory applies to physical reality from beneath the quarks and gluons to the entire universe, and folds in quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, and general relativity into a single unified field theory that is (in theory) engineerable by higher symmetry electrodynamics means.

ELECTRIC FIELD

The conventional definition is this: "1. a region in space in which a stationary electric charge experiences a force due to its charge. 2. the electric force per unit test charge." Dictionary of Science and Technology, ibid., p. 720. That definition is flawed. Consider the "spatial aspects" of part 1. If an electric field is defined as a force per unit charge, it is not a region in massless space but is an effect of something existing in massless space and interacting with the charged mass.  The electric field prior to interaction is indeed related to a region in space, because it is identically a curved spacetime region.  In the Sachs approach, general relativity and electrodynamics have become one and the same.   So prior to interaction, the field as it independently exists prior to interaction with charge has become a curved spacetime region, and the field is purely a spacetime curvature effect. The interaction with mass to produce a force on and of that mass (mass is a component of force, and there is no such thing as a massless force) is a separate consideration from the field as it exists in space prior to interaction.   The result of this entity's interaction with charged mass has nothing to do with what an electric field is; but with what it does to charged mass. Further, the force evidenced on a charged particle is not due to its charge; it has that charge always, whether or not there is a net force evidenced on it!

Part 2 is a little better. The only problem is, it totally disagrees with the entity existing in space prior to interaction.  In other words, here it's a "force on a charge", which is an effect occurring after the interaction.  Again, it is what the field does or accomplishes, not what it is.  Hopefully the reader can now begin to see what terrible difficulties await anyone who seriously attempts foundations definitions.  Feynman sums it up admirably in one of his famous statements: "Everything we know is only some kind of approximation, therefore, things must be learned only to be unlearned again or, more likely, corrected."  An additional difficulty is that the very notion of a separate massless force independent of the mass on which it operates, is fictitious, yet continues to be widely used.  Recalling that any true definition is an identity and not an equation, let us start with the definition of force:
F
º d/dt(mv). As can be seen, force is a system comprised of (i) a mass component and (ii) a nonmass component. The force is not something separate from the mass, at all! Further, force is not even unitary. It's a system comprised of two coupled components; the mass and a coupled (interacting) gradient in a potential flux. Note that v involves motion through, and interaction with, the virtual flux comprising the vacuum potential. Note that dv/dt involves a gradient in that flux interaction with the mass. Unfortunately mechanics is still using the medieval concept of a "separate force acting upon a separate mass." That is wrong, unless we change the fundamental definition of force itself. See, e.g., Robert Bruce Lindsay and Henry Margenau, Foundations of Physics, Dover Publications, New York, 1963, p. 283, where the authors emphasize that a "field of force" at any point is actually defined only for the case when a unit mass is present at that point.  The reason can be seen: mass is a necessary component of force, and without mass present there cannot be a force present.

ELECTRIC DIPOLE

See Dipole.

ELECTRODYNAMICIST

A specialist in electrodynamics,

...the physics of the relationships between electric, magnetic, and mechanical phenomena—and especially a specialist in electrodynamics theory.

It should be pointed out that essentially all electrodynamicists are versed in U(1) electrodynamics, and a much smaller number are versed in more advanced electrodynamics such as O(3) symmetry electrodynamics, unified field theory electrodynamics, non-Abelian electrodynamics, etc.  The electrodynamics field is actually a very vast field indeed, touching everything in physics.  Very often, when one needs a particular electrodynamics problem solved, it calls for a special category of electrodynamicist and not just an electrodynamicist in general.  One must therefore sometimes examine the background of the electrodynamicist making a statement or a pronouncement: electrodynamicists after all do have differing views and differing disciplines within the field.

ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE (EMP)

A sharp pulse of electromagnetic radiation produced when an explosion occurs in an unsymmetrical environment, especially at or near the earth's surface or at high altitudes.

Essentially the same as an electromagnetic shock wave, a wave of great intensity which results when waves with different intensities propagate with different velocities in a nonlinear optical medium.  An EMP is also produced when two intense longitudinal scalar electrostatic potential wave patterns meet and couple into a sudden flash of vector EM energy.

ELECTROMAGNETIC SMOG

The background of extremely weak EM radiation that fills the normal modern environment, particularly in developed nations.

The individual signals are too weak to individually produce effects of any significance in biological systems.  However, in a dense EM smog environment with 500,000 signals per square meter per second, the signal complex and its nonlinearity begin to produce highly nonlinear effects in biological systems.  These effects also produce damage that may cumulate over a long period of time, including for years.  This bioeffects area has largely not been investigated by EM bioeffects scientists.

It should be pointed out that electric lines, telephone lines, transmission lines, etc. act as long wire antennas to detect and propagate such very weak EM signal noise.  Essentially all the radiators in the environment—including electronics equipment, TV stations, radio stations, factory machinery, etc.—thus produce very weak signals picked up by these long line antennas and piped into every home, factory, neighborhood, etc.

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE (EMF)

A difference of potential created by sources of electrical energy—i.e., by separated charges (dipoles)—which can be utilized to drive electrical currents through external circuits.  Also, open circuit voltage, or the limit of the potential difference between the source's terminals as the current in the external circuit approaches zero.

Poorly named.  Also quite confused in the standard theory and usage.  First, emf is not a force at all.  It is a difference in potential, hence it is measured in volts.  Also, it is not considered an E-field, since that is a field of force.  Yet it is in fact a , restricted to the direction between the two measurement points, and   is considered to be an E-field in the theory!

For this reason the standard theorists say that the term is sometimes used as equivalent to a difference in potential, but that strictly speaking it should be applied only to a source of electrical energy!  The problem is that conventional theorists are unaware that a potential is a bidirectional flow of energy in 3-space, where the energy enters from the time-domain (complex plane).  Since they are unaware that a potential is hidden negentropic energy flow process involving broken 3-symmetry and viable 4-symmetry, the theorists are unable to consider the potential in general as a source of energy flow.  Yet they are forced to consider a potential difference across the terminals of a source as "somehow a flow of energy, that generates forces upon the electrons to propel them through the circuit as current flow."

In the new viewpoint, a resolution is achieved of these incongruities by more accurately defining the E-field with respect to the potential as E [q]/q.  It is noted that [dA/dt]q/q also produces an E-field, so that the full definition of the E-field is as E [(+dA/dt)q]/q.   However, one volt represents one joule (of excess energy) per coulomb of charge.  The energy density flow in an electric circuit is in the voltage, in the emf, and it is not in the current per se.  The electron current (drift current) carries the excess energy that is being dissipated as work in the circuit, but in a nominal circuit the drift current only moves a few inches per hour.  Half the energy is dissipated in the external circuit and external losses, and half is dissipated in forcing spent electrons in the ground return line back up through the back-emf of the source, performing work inside the source to dissipate its separation of charges.  Left alone, any dipole will furnish emf indefinitely, freely receiving the energy from the time domain (complex plane) and outputting it in 3-space.  The free flow of EM energy will continue unabated from the undestroyed dipole, regardless of how many external loads and losses are powered (how much energy is collected and dissipated from the ongoing flows representing the potential).  So electrical circuits should be developed which allow little or no electrons to be forced back up through the dipole to dissipate its separation of charges and destroy the dipole.

ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE, BACK (BACK EMF)

Back emf is a loose term used for the counter-electromotive force.

When the source is powering a circuit or circuit element, the term "back emf" is used to refer to the forcing of current (electrons) back up through the source against its emf, thereby performing work inside the source to dissipate its separation of charges (its dipolarity).  When a potential source of electrical energy—such as a capacitor, an inductor, or a rotating machine—is receiving energy from the source and converting it to dissipative power and work, that "powered" device is said to develop a counter-emf.  A source has a built-in emf a priori, that is holding its charges separated so that it is dipolar.  When electron current is forced backwards through the source through its built-in counter-emf, and backwards against its emf, work is performed against the internal resistance of the source to dissipate its separation of charges, thereby dissipating the source.  If electron current is not allowed to flow back up through the source against its back emf and through its built-in counter-emf, no dissipation of the source occurs, even though energy density (not electron current dq/dt but energy flow d/dt) is flowing from the source and can be collected in collectors in the external circuit to store the energy as a created local energy source. This collected energy can then be shuttled to a separate load circuit and released, to provide a "heat pump" cycling operation and overunity coefficient of performance.

Nikola Tesla in fact knew how to shuttle energy in a circuit in such fashion, as Barrett's quaternion analysis of Tesla's actual patented circuits has revealed.  [See T.W. Barrett, "Tesla's Nonlinear Oscillator-Shuttle-Circuit (OSC) Theory," Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, 16(1), 1991, p. 23-41.]  Note that a rigorous analysis of those same circuits, using tensors or vectors, will not show the effect.

When the original source dipole is not dissipated because electron current is not passed back up through its back-emf to scatter the charges, the original source dipole will continue to furnish emf indefinitely.

The terms emf and counter-emf are normally applied only to recognized sources of electricity.  Emf is applied as the algebraic sum of the potential differences acting in a circuit attached to a source.  Back-emf (counter-emf) is applied as the potential difference internally through the source, between its terminals.  Its main application is thought to be a powered device or component in the circuit.  Actually, its main application is to prevent COP>1.0 electrical power systems from being developed and utilized.

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY (EMG)

A diagnostic application which detects changes in electrical potentials associated with muscle contractions.

Specific electrical patterns have been associated with specific abnormal states (e.g., denervated muscle), but the method has not yet been systematically developed beyond this application.

ELECTRON

Stable elementary particle in all atoms, and having a negative charge of 1.602´10-19 coulombs, spin ½, and mass of 9.11´10-31 kilograms.

ELECTRON GAS

A system of electrons with only weak interactions so that the electrons may be regarded as moving independently.

Thus, in many ways, that collection of electrons can be treated as a gas.  Also see discussion under Drude Electron Gas.

ELECTRO-OPTICS

A technology in which electrons are focused and steered as if they were light.  Examples are the cathode ray tube (CRT) and the electron microscope.

ELECTRO-POLLUTION

Also called electromagnetic smog and electronic smog.  The conglomerate or maze of EM fields and radiations that are produced by technologies such as electric power transmission and radio transmission, and that can have long term cumulative harmful effects on humans.

The new viewpoint dramatically extends the types of fields and effects involved, and gives entirely new mechanisms for the interaction of EM fields and radiation with biological systems, including cumulative effects, signal-density effects, and vacuum engine effects.  A mechanism for long term causation of cancer and leukemia by electro-pollution is derivable in the new approach.

As an example, even though the myriad of very weak EM signals comprising the electro-pollution are individually tiny, each when interacting at a local site with the body or its cells involves a broken 3-symmetry and thus an involvement of 4-symmetry, with corresponding giant negentropy.  Further, the Heaviside dark energy component accompanying that local field interaction will in turn interact with essentially all the other locations of the body.  Each of these interactions involves broken 3-symmetry and involvement of 4-symmetry.  The result of the large complex of broken 4-symmetries constitutes a direct structuring in the time domain, hence weak time-pumping and weak time-charging.  Time charge excitation decays only very slowly, emitting longitudinal EM waves inside the body as the charge decays.

Over a long period of time (sometimes years), this "time-hash" or "time-jamming" upon the operation of the master cellular control system, the immune system, and the cellular regeneration system is cumulatively detrimental.  In this way, effects such as leukemia, cancer, etc. may be gradually "kindled".  However, there have been no real scientific laboratory "cause and effect" investigations of this phenomenology at all.  Nonetheless, the results will and do show in epidemiology studies, which are then attacked by orthodox scientists (many employed directly or indirectly by the power industry, etc.) on the grounds that no laboratory cause and effect evidence has been shown.

In short, this is one of the areas where the lack of scientific cause and effect laboratory evidence—because such experiments have not even been done—is improperly used to negate real scientific work showing deleterious effects that powerful interests do not wish shown.

ELECTRO-RETINOGRAPHY (ERG)

A diagnostic application that monitors changes in electrical potentials across the retina to assess eye movements.

This is almost the only method available for noninvasive monitoring of Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep.

ELECTROSTATIC COOLING

ELECTROSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

A static (stationary) ordering in the virtual photon flux of vacuum.

The word "static" is unfortunate and should be replaced by "stationary", since the underlying active vacuum medium is always in violent motion, and there is nothing truly "static" in the universe.  But an equilibrium condition can exist, even in violent motion, so that a stationary entity persists.  An example is a perfect whirlpool in a river.

ELF

Extremely Low Frequency.

Used to describe EM fields whose frequencies lie in the range from just above 0 Hz (direct current) to 300 Hz.  This includes power line frequencies (60 Hz in U.S. and 50 Hz in Europe) and frequencies used by certain U.S. military ELF communication systems such as for submerged submarines.

EM

Electromagnetics.

EMF

Electromotive force.  See discussion under that term.

EM FIELD

Electromagnetic field.  In its loose usage, it refers in a very broad way to any field, force, or energy associated with electromagnetic interactions, charges and currents.

Thus "EM field" includes electrostatic fields, magnetostatic fields, electromagnetic fields (including radiation and induction), vector-potential and scalar-potential fields, Hertz potentials, Fitzgerald potentials, Whittaker potentials, etc.

In its precise usage, "EM field" conventionally refers to an EM "force" field, such as the
E-field, D-field, B-field, H-field.  In classical electromagnetics (CEM), as a holdover from the old assumption of a material ether, the force fields are considered (erroneously) to exist in mass-free space, and they are also considered to be the primary causes of electromagnetic phenomena.  This is a non sequitur, and it involves substituting the effect for the cause.

In the new viewpoint, the force fields do not exist in vacuum, but only in and on and of the charged particles themselves, where mass is present to form one component of the force.  The force fields are therefore effects and not primary causes.  The primary causes of all electromagnetic phenomena is taken to be the potentials; however, the hidden Stoney/Whittaker/Ziolkowski internal structures of gradient-free scalar potentials may interfere to cause potential gradients in and on charged particle systems.  This therefore includes distance-free scalar potential interferometry and action at a distance, as well as vacuum engines.

The new view uses Sachs' unified field theory, and considers that the EM field in the vacuum, or an EM potential in the vacuum, is a curvature of spacetime function.  Thus the new view is a unified field theory where GR has become EM and EM has become GR, and where EM can involve or produce gravitational, temporal, and inertial effects as well.

EM FORCE FIELD IN THE VACUUM (A FALSE CONCEPT)

The erroneous notion that there exist forces in the vacuum, so that the set of forces at a set of spatial points forms a force field.

This ignores the fact that mass is a component of force, and the presence of a force requires the presence of a mass. When Maxwell formed his electrodynamics theory, he and almost everyone else believed that a thin material ether pervaded empty space. Thus there was a "material medium" in which electromagnetic fields existed, and so it followed that real forces existed in this material medium, from point to point. Indeed, to the early electrodynamicists there was no point in all the universe where mass was absent.

Heaviside, Hertz, and Gibbs reduced Maxwell's 20 quaternion equations to the present four vector equations, but did not change the force field in space assumption used by Maxwell. Heaviside detested the "mystical" potentials favored by Maxwell, and believed they were figments of one's imagination. He regarded the forces as the primary EM causes.

Yet even while Heaviside et al. were retranslating and topologically reducing Maxwell's theory dramatically, the Michelson-Morley experiment in the 1880s had already destroyed the material ether on which those same force fields were based.

Physicists, however, have continued to use the notion of a separate force acting on a separate mass, which of course is also a non sequitur, substituting effect for cause yet again.  Hence the foundations of physics remain fundamentally fouled.

For a succinct discussion of potentials versus forcefields as the primary EM causes, see Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Significance of Electromagnetic Potentials in the Quantum Theory," Physical Review, Second Series, 115(3), 1959, p. 485-491. See also Y. Aharonov and D. Bohm, "Further considerations on electromagnetic potentials in the quantum theory," Physical Review, 123(4), Aug. 15, 1961, p. 1511-1524.

EM GENERATRIX

Whatever generates electromagnetics, particularly the fields.  Time is the ultimate EM generatrix.

Whittaker showed in 1904 that the interferometry of two scalar potentials (i.e., of their hidden multiwave structures) can create all classical EM fields, no matter how complex, thereby starting a branch of electrodynamics known as superpotential theory.  See E. T. Whittaker,  “On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions,” Proc. Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367-372.  The paper was published in 1904 and orally delivered in 1903.

In 1903 Whittaker showed that any scalar potential (e.g. between the ends of a dipole) can be decomposed into a harmonic set of phase conjugate EM longitudinal wavepairs.  The present author applied the Whittaker decomposition to the scalar potential between the ends of a dipole, and pointed out that the conjugate half-set may be taken as converging EM waves from the complex plane (the time domain), while the real half-set may be taken as diverging EM longitudinal waves emitted from the dipole in all directions in 3-space.  The dipole is a known broken 3-symmetry in the dipole's violent virtual energy exchange with the vacuum; hence this shows that breaking 3-spatial symmetry allows nature to fall back to a more primary 4-symmetry.  Hence energy flow conservation is violated in 3-space, but is rigorously obeyed in 4-space.  Further, the free flow of 3-spatial energy from the dipole continues so long as the dipole exists.

The dipole thus is a true negative resistor, receiving EM energy in unusable form (from the complex plane; i.e., the time domain), transforming it into usable energy, and outputting the usable energy.  This is also the fundamental mechanism for extracting unlimited EM energy from the seething vacuum, taking the energy from the time domain via the giant negentropy mechanism.  See my paper, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," ibid.

This also means that the source of all EM 3-spatial energy is from the time domain, and is due to broken 3-symmetry.  The ultimate EM generatrix is thus time.  The ability of a bit of broken 3-symmetry (such as formation of a simple dipole)  to initiate a continuing and ongoing flow of free EM energy via the 4-symmetry between time-energy and spatial energy, means that negentropic engineering, once we get the hang of it, is far easier than our present entropic engineering.  In essence, we have to learn how to do electrical engineering all over again, from a much more fundamental point of departure.

EMI (ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE)

Disturbances of electronic equipment's operation by intrusion of extraneous EM signals from outside sources.  Also, disturbances of the operation of one or more subsystems of an electronic system by intrusion of undesired signals from other subsystems.

EMI, ANOMALOUS

An "ad hoc" term denoting an unexpected nonlinear optical functioning process in a dense signal environment whereby nonlinearities on the skin of a vehicle or cover of an equipment become pumped phase conjugate mirrors, so that they emit amplified phase conjugate replicas (PCRs)—of signals and fields impinging upon the skin or covering and the nonlinearity from electronic circuitry operating inside.

By the distortion correction theorem, these amplified PCRs precisely backtrack the signal waves that impinged upon the phase conjugate mirror from inside the vehicle or electronics, back to the original source of the internal signal.   The result is the scavenging of energy from the dense electronic signal environment and sharply focusing and directing it into the operating circuits of the internal electronics.  Thus internal signals, often amplified, start sporadically appearing through the circuits.  These sporadic jamming signals due to the anomalous EMI effect are known as EMI fireflies.

Such EMI fireflies were resoundingly experienced in U.S. missiles and aircraft in the U.S. air attack on Libya in 1986.  Although some of the anomalous EMI effects could have been produced by the unusually dense EM signal environment and poor hardening of circuits and electronics, it is believed that the weak jamming was also a test being conducted of a laboratory prototype Russian quantum potential weapon.

This weapon appears to have been finished and deployed at the end of 1989, and then utilized against Allied forces in the Gulf War, accounting for the Gulf War Disease.  We have previously explained why British, Canadian, and American soldiers acquired the disease, why the native populace did not, and why the French troops did not.

Inside the human body, the anomalous EMI effects may be used to produce time-charging and delayed interference with the immune system, the master cellular control system, and the cellular regeneration system.  By using dimensioned signals, the targeted systems can be specifically and deterministically affected as desired, for any set of disease damage types and symptomology desired.  So the technology may be used to induce a "cocktail" mix of various infectious disease damage types.  The induced time-charging effects—where the time-charge is dimensioned—followed by longitudinal EM wave emissions from the time-charges as they decay in the veteran's body, can induce the same or similar symptoms and damage in close family members exposed to the weak but dimensioned longitudinal EM radiation.  This applies not only to wives but also to family members such as children often in close proximity to the veteran.  In addition, exchange of bodily fluids from the veteran to his spouse can directly induce the symptoms in the spouse since those fluids are themselves still time-charged (with dimensioned time charge) and slowly decaying.

ENDOTHERMIC EXPLOSION

An EM implosion, resulting in explosive electrostatic cooling.  The sudden, explosive reversal of electromagnetic energy scattering in a spacetime area so that the local EM heat energy is converted back to a negative potential.  In this manner, explosive electrostatic cooling occurs in the area.

Endothermic EM explosion occurs by pulsed scalar Whittaker interference of two longitudinal  EM wavesets  beamed from two LW EM transmitters.  The distant transmitters of the LW interferometer must have their local electrical grounds biased well below the ambient zero potential in the distant interference zone (IZ).  Whittaker internal EM waves radiate through subspace (the LW superhighways inside EM fields, potentials, and waves in mass) from the transmitter to the interference zone, and also from the interference zone back to the negatively biased transmitter/receiver, emerging there as ordinary electromagnetic scattering energy or heat.  All normal explosions are exothermic in nature, and ordinary electromagnetic heat energy is radiated away. A scalar EM interferometer/howitzer, however, may produce an endothermic explosion (an energy implosion) at a distance, explosively extracting the heat energy at the implosion site and receiving the energy back at the transmitter site for disposal.

The same LW interferometer can also produce an exothermic explosion in the distant interference zone, merely by positively biasing the electrical chassis grounds of the scalar EM potential transmitters and pulsing the transmission.  Negative biasing of the transmitters' electrical chassis grounds and a pulsed transmission result in an endothermic explosion in the distant interference zone.

ENDOTHERMIC LONGITUDINAL EM WAVE INTERFEROMETRY

Extraction of EM energy from a distant intersection area by a scalar interferometry whose electrical grounding is biased well below the ambient potential in the distant interference zone.

The result is a cooling of the interference zone, and heat energy emerging at the transmitters.

ENERGETICS

The Russian term for what I have called advanced higher-symmetry electromagnetics,

...using artificially constructed Whittaker internal biwave structures to make activated potentials that have specific, desired "vacuum engines", where the EM field is a curvature of spacetime function, and thus involving a unified field theory that is engineerable by novel electrodynamic means.

I believe that the closest Western work approaching the Russian energetics science is the O(3) higher symmetry electrodynamics pioneered by Evans, particularly when combined with Sachs' unified field theory as an important subset.  The other closest Western work would seem to be the important work of Barrett in SU(2)´SU(2) symmetry electrodynamics.

The activated potential containing the infolded vacuum engine structures is said to have been dimensioned. These dimensioned potentials can be combined to form EM carrier waves which contain the hidden vacuum engines. These vacuum engines, scalar Whittaker EM interferometry, and activation of vacua and matter are used to perform unified field engineering.

Russian energetics also adds the formation and use of the quantum potential, enabling
(i) instantaneous action at a distance with multiple separated target nodes, (ii) essentially limitless direct energy amplification in the assembly of receiving nodes, without additional energy input at the initiating node, and (iii) engineering of hidden variables inside distant targets, instantaneously, without transmission as such through space. The quantum potential itself can be dimensioned, so that vacuum engines can be instantaneously transmitted into distant targets, altering their local spacetimes to contain the desired engine(s). Note that no intervening barrier can "impede" or "shield" a quantum potential because it does not travel through space as such; it just appears everywhere at once in the space where it will be.

Adding to classical EM theory, general relativity, and quantum mechanics the internal EM energy in the scalar EM potential will generate a superset of each discipline. These three new supersets are unified in their common internal EM energy subset. As a bonus mind, personality, memory, and deep biological cellular and system control are also available, since the internal time-energy domain is used by biological systems for these living functions. Energetics thus is an engineerable, unified field theory of physics and metaphysics.

Russian energetics is largely still a "secret" science, developed over the last five decades and highly weaponized. In the Russian scheme the overall area is called energetics. It consists of three subsets: (i) energetics, which applies to nonliving systems, (ii) bioenergetics, which applies to the physical bodies, cells, chemistry, genetics, etc. of living organisms, and
(iii) psychoenergetics, which applies directly to the minds, personalities, memories, emotions, and perceptions of living systems.  Russian energetics research, development, weapons, and weapon sites are under the rigid control and operation of the KGB, by whatever name it may use from time to time.  The energetics weapons are not in the regular Russian armed forces.  Energetics weapons have been tested worldwide for several decades, and this testing has been documented elsewhere by the present author.

ENERGY

Usually erroneously defined as the "capacity to do work".

The closest definition is: The invariance of that which is varying.  Note that this is a 5-law logic definition and not an Aristotelian definition.

Here we have a real bucket of worms. This term is usually totally misdefined (as in the nostrum that "energy is the capacity to work") in physics, which defines energy as the "ability to scatter itself or change its own form" which obviously are not identities! A common definition is given as "a quantity that describes the capacity to do work; commonly divided into three major classifications: kinetic (dynamic) energy, potential (static) energy, and radiant (electromagnetic) energy.  Well, energy can be changed in form and that is work.  But energy is not the "capacity to change its own form", but is its own form, as can be seen.

Anyway, we'll have a go at a definition perhaps a little more acceptable, though still imperfect.  Then we'll discuss things a bit.

Rigorously, energy is any deterministic or coherent structuring, either dynamic or stationary, existing in the virtual particle flux of vacuum.  While that sounds good, it is still "the invariance of that which is varying."  Ultimately, a thing is defined in terms of its appositive.

The type of energy depends upon the type of virtual particle(s) whose flux is selected.  E.g., electromagnetic energy is a deterministic or coherent structuring, either dynamic or stationary, in the virtual photon flux of vacuum.  Any trapped energy (ordering in the vacuum virtual particle flux) is gravitational in nature, since trapped energy is gravitational.  In a mass, e.g., it is the trapped energy that is gravitational, not the mass per se, in the modern view.  Contrast the definition of electromagnetic energy to the definition of an electrostatic scalar potential (ESSP): The electrostatic scalar potential is a stationary  trapped deterministic or coherent dynamic wave-structuring of the virtual photon flux of vacuum.  Thus it can be seen that the ESSP is a special case of EM energy: the stationary trapped case.   For this reason, a mass—which is an enormous amount of statically trapped EM energy—may properly be considered as an extremely dense EM potential, which we refer to as the mass potential.

A potential is any trapped ordering or coherence, either static or dynamic, in the virtual particle flux of vacuum.  A specific type of potential represents a selection of a particular virtual particle's flux in the vacuum, and an ordering—either static or dynamic—imposed in that flux.

However, since the scalar potential is just the static ordering in the virtual particle flux of vacuum, it follows that the scalar potential must contain—and in fact be totally composed of—internal order. E. T. Whittaker showed the form of that order in 1904.  (See entry under Whittaker, E. T.)  The scalar potential is composed of a harmonic series of pairs of antiparallel transverse waves.  The antiwave of each wave/antiwave pair is a time reversed replica of the wave in that pair.  In other words, the scalar potential is a special type of Fourier harmonic frequency expansion, coupled with its own phase conjugate present simultaneously.

Feynman said it bluntly: "It is important to realize that in physics today, we have no knowledge of what energy is."  [Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands,  Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, Vol. 1, 1964, p. 4-2.]

E.g., particularly see R. B. Lindsay, "The concept of energy and its early historical development." Foundations of Physics, 1(4), 1971, p. 383-393. Lindsay investigates the concept of energy from its early historical origin. The root of the concept is the notion of invariance in the midst of change. Lindsay covers the concept and its evolvement (or lack thereof!) from ancient times through the 18th century.

The real problem is that the notion of energy implicitly involves the age-old unresolved philosophical problem of change, posed by Heraclitus over 3,000 years ago and unresolved to this day. It cannot be solved within the realm of 3-law Aristotelian logic!  One way of posing it is something like this, after Heraclitus: "For a thing to change, it must turn into something else. How can a thing be itself and something else also? How can a thing have changed, and yet not have changed?"

The problem is that Aristotelian logic has a serious flaw of omission; it actually implicitly assumes a fourth law, which is the age-old philosopher's nightmare that, when a thing is pursued to the limit, it invariably turns into its own opposite. So in anguish the philosophers spoke of this nightmare as the "accursed necessity for the identity of opposites."

I did resolve the philosophers' nightmare some years ago, by adding a fourth law of logic to the Aristotelian three, which completes and extends Aristotelian logic, and an application rule which can be taken as a fifth law.   E.g., see Appendix III: "A Conditional Criterion for Identity, Leading to a Fourth Law of Logic," in T. E. Bearden, AIDS: Biological Warfare, Tesla Book Company, Chula Vista, California, 1988, p. 428-443. A simple proof of the fourth law is given in that paper. For a much more elegant treatment of a higher topology logic, which is also practical and useful beyond the limitations of Aristotelian logic, see G. Spencer Brown, Laws of Form. Julian Press, New York, 1972. For a proper perspective on mathematics and on Aristotelian logic, see Morris Kline, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty, Oxford University Press, New York, 1980.

It may be that, since by "identity" we mean at least the identity of "left" and "right" different observations, considering the left and right sides of the identity statement.  If so, then already we involve a violation of Aristotelian logic in the very notion of "definition".  In short, ultimately we can only define a thing in terms of an appositive in the first place.  So we write an identity statement where left and right are different sides, then state "Oh, no, they are the same thing after all!"  Said in that manner, the problem can clearly be seen.  In one sense a definition is pure Zen, where no truth can be stated at all unless the speaker says two exactly opposing things, and then waits for the recipient to realize the truth that has been stated.

What this all means is that, since "energy" (and any other definition, ultimately) involves a logical contradiction in Aristotelian logic, we must "define" energy simultaneously in an appositive ways: (i) in the wave view and (ii) in the particle view. However, we point out that the notion of a "moving particle" is the notion of something considered momentarily as fixed (i.e., the particle), but which is immediately thereafter (in time snapshot #2) considered as moving. Notice that "moving" is changing, and so it involves Heraclitus' problem of change a priori.  The notion of a "moving wave" is also a similar thing; i.e., "a wave" momentarily considers the entity as static and not changing (in time snapshot #1), and in the next moment (time snapshot #2) considers it as moving (changing). We can only point out this dichotomy for the reader to reflect upon and hopefully to grasp. The conscious mind is a serial processor; it is extremely fast but still perceives snapshot by snapshot, serially.  It essentially has been fitted to the single photon interaction, as has Aristotle's three laws of logic. The problem is in the operation of conscious perception itself, not in nature which is not limited to just serial processing.

The unconscious mind is a massively parallel processor, so it can have many "different slides or snapshots in the slide projector" at the same time. So with our conscious mind's perception (Aristotelian logic is just a model of that, using single photon interaction as the physical observation mechanism) we see in terms of "either-or". On the other hand, with our unconscious we can also grasp the fact that single snapshot A can be the same thing as a totally different snapshot B, if the rules of "decision as to identity" are changed between snapshot A and snapshot B. Suppose that by "identity" we mean "incapable of being discriminated between." Is a black marble identical to a red marble, e.g.?  It is perceived so if you are color blind. It is perceived not to be identical if you are not color blind.  The point is something that most philosophers missed or brushed aside: identity is not absolute, but is "perceived identity".  Identity is the result of a decision operation, based on multiple perceptions, recall from memory, and comparison of two remembered perceptions.   The most simple form of comparison is simple subtraction.

The unconscious (massively parallel) perception can handle both snapshots simultaneously. The conscious mind only can see a single marble at a time, so it will see one or the other. In a third time interval it will recall from memory the first perception, compare it with the memory of the second perception (say, by simple detailed subtraction), and then decide whether object A is perceived to be identical to object B. The unconscious (massively parallel processor) can handle both the marble snapshots at the same time. It can see both the identity of the two, to a color-blind "identity decision process" and also the nonidentity of the two, to a color-sensitive "identity decision process." Again, nature is not limited to the single-snapshot, serial perception process of our conscious (serial) processor!

Unfortunately, in physics and mathematics we seem to still be thoroughly confused on this very perception issue. Brown's work may be the first work to straighten out the area of the topology of the logic utilized. My own independent effort was successful but far cruder than Brown's; Brown did it elegantly. We bring all this out because when one deeply looks into foundations and true definitions, one will directly confront the philosopher's nightmare and one's own conscious mind will never be able to resolve the problem. One's unconscious can resolve it, but it requires a certain "stretching of the realization" to harmonize monocular perception of the conscious mind with multiocular perception of the unconscious mind.

Just as a small example, the question of "is it a wave or a particle" once raged as a great debate in physics, and was never resolved.  Instead, physicists just finally shook hands and agreed to quit arguing and fighting about it, and agreed to accept that the same entity could sometimes act as a particle, and in other cases it could act as a wave, and that as it existed in the present, before observation, it was somehow both a wave and a particle but we couldn't see its true nation (in that fashion). The key, of course, is that the question was posed in "either-or" form (Aristotelian logic form), and it cannot be answered in that reduced logic. Instead, a higher topology logic is required. Brown's logic answers it easily, as does my own four law superset of Aristotelian logic (five law superset if we count the application rule as a separate law). In the present, e.g., we have masstime and not mass. Just after a photon is emitted, we have mass and not masstime. The latter photon emission process consummates "observation." The point is, the true entity does exist in zero time as a spatial entity.  It is not a spatial entity but is a spatiotemporal entity. If the "interaction" process tears off its "time-tail," it is converted to a "spatial entity" (frozen snapshot) and therefore seems to be a particle. If the "interaction" process does not remove the time-tail, it remains a spatiotemporal entity and therefore seems to be a wave. The concept of particle is 3-spatial concept. The concept of wave involves time also. No wave can exist and "be a wave or wavelike" unless it has some time extension to "be waving" in!

The physicists debating the wave-particle duality, you see, missed the most important point that no observable exists in time or persists, a priori.  Hence rigorously no particle exists in time.

So we define energy (particle view) as any virtual particle flux pattern, where that definition automatically considers a single particle in translation as well as multiple particles in their myriad of translations. We define energy (wave view) as any wave flux, where that automatically considers a single wave in translation as well as multiple waves in their myriad of translations. Now note that one is going to have to deal with, and discriminate between, energy, energy flow, energy collection, and collected-energy dissipation.

As the reader can see, whenever one struggles with foundations issues, the problems get very complicated.  We've beat this dead horse quite enough, and leave the further beating to the reader!

ENERGY AMPLIFYING COIL

A coil whose magnetic energy flow input is first split into two energy flow inputs, each equal to the original energy flow available from a magnetic source.  Both the split energy flows then interact simultaneously with the coil, amplifying its electrical energy output compared to the conventional case where only a single energy flow interacts with the coil.

In the motionless electromagnetic generator (MEG), the curl of the magnetic vector potential of a permanent magnet (i.e., its magnetic field), is extracted and held within the core material of a special transformer, while the magnetic vector potential of the permanent magnet is freely replenished in uncurled (field-free) magnetic vector potential form in space around the core material.  Both the full magnetic field in the core and the full uncurled magnetic vector potential in space adjacent to the core interact with each output coil of the transformer.  Hence a single potential energy flow is "split" into two flows each equal to the original EM energy flow, and both the parallel flows energetically interact with the output coil.  This increases the energy interacting with the coil by this "dual interaction", so that the coil is said to be an "energy amplifying coil".

ENERGY COLLECTION/COLLECTING

In electromagnetics, exposure of an interceptor/collector, e.g., a charged particle, into an impinging EM energy flow, so that some of the flow is diverted around the intercepting particle.  We may say that the flow of energy has been "reordered" in a stream around the diverting charge.

Energy collection is not a thing which "has been accomplished" and finished; instead, it is an ongoing process.

Note now that, if you perform or consider or impose any sort of ordering at all in the energy flow/flux, rigorously you have just implied an energy collection/collecting process. The energy part of a photon, e.g., would seem not to be "energy" per se. Instead, it is an energy collection/collecting, and a time collection/collecting as well. Yet that energy part is energy also! [Not to worry! Energy and energy-collecting, contrasted as appositives, become identities at the extreme boundary separating the two concepts. That boundary is the photon concept. Aristotelian logic does not apply on the boundary, which violates the Aristotelian law of the excluded middle.] More reasonably, a charged capacitor does not have "stored energy" per se in it, in the sense of "so many chunks of energy called joules".  Instead, it has an ongoing energy collection/collecting process, where the asymmetry in the local vacuum flux exchange, of the dipole across the capacitor plates, continually extracts and "gates" a flow of EM energy from the capacitor dipole. That energy-flow bathes all the trapped charges in the capacitor. The energy-flow interaction with the trapped charges creates the
E-field and all the rest.

The diverted part of the total energy flow, is what is calculated in the "Poynting flow" or
S-flow.

ENERGY, DISINTEGRATED

An ad hoc term for the energy of the incoherent virtual particles in the virtual particle flux.

ENERGY DISSIPATION

Refers to the scattering or disordering of energy.

This is somewhat of a misnomer, broadly used in physics and somewhat erroneous.

Energy dissipation" per se does not mean that the energy is destroyed.  Instead, there is the dissipation of the ordering (collected/collecting) of energy in which the diversion (local ordering) process disappears. What we call the "dissipation in space" of energy is rigorously the dissipation of the collection/collecting in space of the energy.  In short, the energy is scattered, as in a resistive load, in all directions.  But it is still there in space, just disordered.

Recall that all EM energy at a dipolarity comes directly from the time domain.  It is the collecting process, not the energy, that is dissipated from a point or a region. Only collected/collecting of energy can be truly dissipated. With that understood, then dissipation of collected energy is simply removing the "collector" from the energy density flow impinging upon it to cause the collecting process to occur, or removing the flow of energy impinging upon the collector so that it intercepts and diverges some of it around itself.

So there are two ways in which this "collected energy" dissipation can occur: (i) the collector is moved out of the impinging energy-flow-stream, or (ii) the energy-flow-stream impinging on the collector is reduced to zero. Note that "changing the form" of the energy—i.e., changing the collector and the type of collecting—involves both conditions (i) and (ii). Thus energy is dissipated when the collector/collecting form is changed. In the conventional, less accurate statement, work is performed when "the form of the energy is changed." That now should be stated as "work is performed when the collector in the energy-flow-stream is changed to a different collector, because the first collector must be removed from the energy-flow-stream or the energy-flow-stream must be removed from it.

In physics we also consider that "positive" work by a body is work it does on something else, while "negative" work is work done upon the body by something else. We specifically emphasize that collection/collecting need not be a unitary, one-time occurrence! The EM energy-flow impinging upon a collector roars on by it at something like the speed of light. The entire flow is diminished by only about 10-13 (the nominal energy collecting fraction) as it flows onto, and on beyond a coulomb of charge. If that departing energy-flow is then retroreflected or otherwise returned to pass back through again, additional energy collection/collecting can and does occur from it. This can be repeated many times, particularly in an intensely-scattering, optically active material.  Also, after the collected fraction of energy is dissipated, we can also retroreflect the scattered energy flow back and reuse it again. This too can be repeated many times.

So we must be careful of the present work-energy theorem, which is a special case and assumes only a single pass of the energy-flow in the "collection/collection" of energy that "changes form." If we institute additional passes, with additional "collection/collecting of energy, then we can collect and "use" a little more energy from all that enormous energy-flow that otherwise would escape us. If we dissipate some of the collected energy, then also intercept the departing dissipated energy flow and return it, we can collect some of the energy flow again and then dissipate that new collection again. And so on.

One can permissibly get many joules of "work" from a single joule of energy by iterative retroreflection, iterative re-collection, and iterative dissipation, without violating the conservation of energy law. This is one of the major secrets of overunity energy processes. It is proven by the overunity or excess emission (Letokhov was forced to call it "negative absorption of the medium" from an intensely scattering, optically active medium, as in the Lawandy experiment and in his patented process for lasing without population inversion. It is also proven by Patterson's adaptation of anti-Stokes emission.

Let's do a gedanken (thought) experiment, where we do not even apply the nominal 10-13 energy collection fraction. Let's just conventionally say "energy flow," "energy collection," and "energy dissipation," and ignore the "collection fraction." Since we are talking theoretically, we can have a perfect system.  So we have a closed system, which we open to input some energy into. The system then opens in the load to dissipate all the energy back to the environment, thereby doing work. Now suppose I passively (i.e., without any input energy of my own, by perfect retroreflection) return all the dissipated energy back to the input once again. We simply let it flow back in, the system collects it again, and then dissipates it again—giving us the same amount of work we had the first time. Then we do it again. And again. I think you get the picture. The fact that energy can neither be created or destroyed, but only changed, means that the "same energy" can be recycled over and over. One has to have two different actions: one that changes the form of the energy so we get some work, and the other that retroreflects and recovers the dissipated energy (does negative work!) so that we can recycle it and dissipate it again. In principle, by recycling of energy one can get many joules of work from a single joule of energy. Nature does it every day! Every joule of energy formed at the initial "Big Bang," is still with us. Every joule of it has on the average already performed many joules of work since then. And as we stated, the anti-Stokes emission process is a concrete example and demonstration that the energy recycling process can be accomplished in physical systems, so that the systems permissibly exhibit COP>1.0.

A most common example is the replenishment of a potential.  E.g., the magnetic vector potential can be curled as a B-field, and that B-field can be totally confined inside a toroid, inside a long coil, or in certain magnetic core materials (as in the motionless electromagnetic generator or MEG for short).  The A-potential will be replenished as fast as you withdraw the "total B-field" from it.  So outside the toroid or the long solenoid, you will have as much
A-potential energy as you started with, and the Aharonov-Bohm effect proves that the energy is there and will interact with electrons.  Meanwhile, in the trapped B-field you also have drawn off as much energy as ostensibly the A-potential contained in the first place.

ENERGY, ELECTROMAGNETIC

Any deterministic or coherent structuring, either dynamic or static, existing in the virtual photon or charged particle flux of vacuum.

Note that, since a photon may also be considered a positron-electron pair, the flux of charged virtual electrons and positrons is included in the flux of photons.

ENERGY FLOW

The passage of energy, in any form, in one direction or generally in one direction.

Even though this "definition" is in error, we now just bypass the unresolved "observables do not persist" problem and the 4th law nature of change (e.g., motion) problem and proceed.

Note that this energy flow may be the overall movement of an omnidirectional energy flux, or it may be the movement of waves, or both. It may be in the kinetic energy of a moving mass.  If the flow is everywhere the same, or even approximately the same, we often speak of the entire "flow" as just "energy." Often energy flow is also considered to have occurred from a region of more intense energy flux to a region of less intense energy flux, and vice versa. In other words, energy divergence or convergence is also considered as energy flow. As can be seen, the usage of the term "energy flow" is not precisely defined in physics! It isn't going to be, at least not in ordinary Aristotelian logic terms.

ENERGY FLUX

The passage of energy flow, in any form, through a unit area, and in any direction (usually all directions).

This includes both passage in a single direction, or passage in multiple directions at once.

ENERGY, FREE

Any environment or entity which freely emits, furnishes, or makes available energy which can be either collected and used as furnished or transduced into usable form and collected and used to power loads and do useful work.

The word "free" does not apply to costs, but rather to the source of the energy.  Of course the ideal is energy that is both free for the taking (collecting and using) and also inexpensively taken and used.

Implicit in the notion of free EM energy from the vacuum are five key concepts: (1) the local vacuum/spacetime itself is filled with EM energy of generally unusable form, (2) some sort of organizing principle is utilized in one part of the circuit or system to cohere the vacuum energy and transduce it into usable EM form, (3) a gating mechanism is utilized to divert the vacuum energy in transduced usable EM form from the active vacuum to the external circuits or load parts of a device, (4) the coherent gated extra energy available in the external circuits or load parts is intercepted by those circuits or load parts, couples to them, and potentializes them with extra EM energy, so that the energy is collected by the system and regauges the system asymmetrically, and (5) the external circuits or load parts then scatter or dissipate the coupled extra energy to produce useful work, without destroying the organizing and gating mechanism that is extracting and furnishing usable EM energy from the vacuum.

ENERGY SOURCE

A function or entity which furnished energy.

Since energy cannot be created or destroyed, there is really no such thing as a "source", though it is a term commonly used.  So called "energy sources" actually gate energy, changing it from one form to another.  As an example, all 3-space EM energy is gated into 3-3-space from the time-domain.  To the gating entity or "source" of the 3-space EM energy, there is an input of EM energy flow from the time domain (complex plane).  The source must be a broken 3-symmetry in energy flow, so that  more primary 4-symmetry energy flow applies.  Hence the conservation law applies to the inflow of energy from the time dimension and the outflow of energy in 3-space.

ENGINEERING, ENTROPIC

Engineering or designing systems and processes whose operation "spills" or wastes some energy.

Entropic systems—which are the products of entropic engineering—thus have COP<1.0 and function in forward-time.

ENGINEERING, NEGENTROPIC

Engineering or designing systems and processes whose operation freely "receives" excess energy, so that they output more energy than the operator inputs, the excess being received from the external environment or other source.

ENTROPY

Thermodynamics term representing a measure of a system's capacity to undergo spontaneous change.  In short, a quantity which measures the extent to which the energy of a system is unavailable to do work.

Entropy is given by dS = dQ/T, where dS is an infinitesimal change in entropy for a system absorbing an infinitesimal quantity of head dQ at absolute temperature T. In statistical mechanics, entropy is a measure of the disorder in a system and is given by S = k lnP + C, where S is the value of entropy (disorder) for a system in a given state, P is the probability of that state's occurrence, k is a fixed constant, and C is an arbitrary constant. Intuitively, the concept of entropy corresponds to the concept of disorder. We specifically call attention to the fact that the "S" used in representing entropy is not at all the S used for Poynting flow.

In physics, a measure of the randomness or disorder of a system.  Given by S = k ln g, where S is the entropy, k is the Boltzmann constant, and g is the total number of microstates available to the system.  Sometimes stated as S = k ln (multiplicity).

Intimately connected with the Second Law of thermodynamics, which may be stated for the macroscopic case (after Baierlein) as follows: "If a system with many molecules is permitted to change, then—with overwhelming probability—the system will evolve to the macrostate of largest multiplicity and will subsequently remain in that macrostate.  Stipulation: allow the system to evolve in isolation.  (The stipulation includes the injunction, do not transfer energy to or from the system." [Ralph Baierlein, Thermal Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999, p. 29].

ENTROPY, NEGATIVE (NEGENTROPY)

In a sense, the reversal of disorder, or reversal of entropy.

Since the normal or forward flow of time is entropic, negentropy is intimately related with time-reversal.  This can be seen crudely this way: As a physical thing exists in time, it decays, ages, deteriorates, etc.  In short, its ordering as a viable separate thing gets more and more disrupted.  If it is then "reordered" precisely back to its original state, that is obviously a time-reversal of that entity.

Since the production of energy is connected to the production of more ordering, then it would seem to follow that any negentropic process also produces more energy.  Or, that production of excess energy accompanies a negentropic process, and vice versa.

When we factor in the giant negentropy process, it is seen that all EM spatial energy comes from the time domain, via the broken 3-symmetry of the source charge or source dipole.  Here we have a pure negentropic process.  Hence we may now advance a new definition of negentropy for electrodynamics: negentropy is the direct and ongoing conversion of time-energy (time-structuring and time-ordering) into 3-space EM energy.  Dipolarity (polarization) is the process initiating and producing the negentropy.  Polarization is accompanied by ongoing negentropy so long as the polarization persists.

Another way of defining negentropy even more rigorously—for electrodynamics—is to define it in spacetime as a broken 3-symmetry in EM energy flow with concomitant relaxation to a more primary 4-symmetry between time-energy flow and 3-spatial EM energy flow, where time-energy flow is transduced into 3-spatial EM energy flow.

When a system with one measure of multiplicity progresses to a state with a decreased measure of multiplicity; i.e., when its total number of microstates decreases in the transition.  A nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) system can exhibit negative entropy, and the entropy can further decrease progressively toward negative infinity as time passes.  [D. J. Evans and Lamberto Rondoni, "Comments on the Entropy of Nonequilibrium Steady States," J. Stat. Phys., 109(3-4), Nov. 2002, p. 895-920].  Note that the Second Law of thermodynamics only rigorously applies to an isolates system, where neither mass nor energy crosses the boundary of the system.  In the NESS system, that prohibition is violated, hence the second law need not apply.  The common source charge is an example of such a NESS system continuously producing negative entropy, because it absorbs virtual energy from the vacuum, transduces it into observable energy, and re-emits the energy as observable photons radiating at light speed in all directions and forming the associated EM fields and potentials and their energy.

ENTROPY (POSITIVE)

When a system in a state with ordering progresses to a state with less ordering, i.e., when its total number of microstates increases in the transition.

ENZYME

Any of various proteins or conjugated proteins (compound of a protein and a nonprotein) produced by living cells, that serves as a catalyst for specific biochemical reactions at body temperatures.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

The study of the various factors influencing the occurrence, distribution, prevention, and control of disease, injury, and other health-related events in a defined human population.

EQUILIBRIUM

In physics, the state of a system in which opposing forces balance each other; i.e., sum to a vector zero.

In mechanics, a system of particles where the net force acting upon each constitutent particle is zero.

In chemistry, the state of a solution where the forward and reverse reactions are equal and balance each other, so that the chemical reactants and products maintain the same amounts.

EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE (PHYSICS)

One of the principles of relativity theory.  The mass of the body determined by using the gravitational force on it to measure the mass, and the mass of the body determined by using inertial force on it to measure the mass, yield equal measurements for the mass.

ETHER

An extremely fine substance theorized to exist in space in lieu of sheer emptiness.

Discussed by Tesla, Einstein, Whittaker, and others.  Originally conceived as the luminiferous ether, a thin material fluid pervading all space. Maxwell, e.g., believed in this material ether, and formulated his theory accordingly. Thus he mistakenly provided forces in the vacuum, which forces require a material vacuum. I.e., mass is a component of force; there is no force without mass, since F º d/dt(mv). The hoary old medieval notion that a separate force acts upon a separate mass that it affects, is completely in error, though still utilized in mechanics! Modern field theorists know better, but correction of this massive error in physics has not been widely accomplished.

Originally, the ether was seen as a ghostly-thin, material, fluid medium postulated to fill space and carry electromagnetic waves, similar to the way in which a gas carries sound waves. Faraday and Maxwell added the assumption that EM fields existed as material taut strings (Faraday's lines of force) with conveniently missing endholders to provide the tension on the strings. The Michelson-Morley experiments eliminated any such material ether, but not a Lorentz-invariant nonmaterial ether (of which vacuum itself is one example, in the modern view). Maxwell's equations were derived from a mechanical ether theory. Einstein once proposed that the vacuum, complete with its electromagnetic fields, should be called the  new ether. In our own approach we have come full circle back to Einstein's suggestion, since the so-called "fields" are really just curvatures of spacetime and are included in our use of the vacuum as a giant potential comprised of virtual particle flux.  The Sachs unified field theory, I believe, is the best available, particularly when the Evans O(3) symmetry electrodynamics is included as a special subset of it.  In my own view, I regard "vacuum potential" and "spacetime" as essentially identities.  Thus both the vacuum potential and spacetime have further internal structuring and dynamics.  In relativity, this view is akin somewhat to the notion of "subspace" used on the Star Trek series.

Today the word "ether" is again acceptable in the literature when used in context of its modern quantum mechanical meaning. The "ether gas"—the quantum mechanical vacuum—is considered to be composed of virtual particles. The particles spontaneously come into being and then vanish so quickly they cannot be individually detected. That is, today the ether is regarded as a sort of specialized virtual particle gas—sort of a gas of "effervescent energy bubbles", so to speak—where the individual particles are continually being created and annihilated at a fantastic rate.

A good reference on the modern view of the vacuum is I. J. R. Aitchison, “Nothing’s plenty: The vacuum in modern quantum field theory,” Contemporary Physics, 26(4), 1985, p. 333-391.    For an O(3) treatise, see M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Derivation of the Lehnert field equations from gauge theory in vacuum: Space charge and current," Foundations Of Physics Letters, 13(2), Apr 2000, p.179-184.  It is shown that the Lehnert field equations in vacuum, with concomitant space charge and current, can be derived straightforwardly from standard gauge theory applied in vacuum, using the concept of covariant derivative and Feynman's universal influence.  The Lehnert and Proca field equations are shown to be inter-related through the well-known de Broglie theorem, in which the photon mass can be interpreted as finite. These ideas go some way towards addressing the inconsistency inherent, in Maxwell's famous displacement current, which has no concomitant vacuum space charge.

For technical insight into the attributes for extracting EM energy from the vacuum, see particularly M. W. Evans, P. K. Anastasovski, T. E. Bearden et al., "Classical electrodynamics without the Lorentz condition: Extracting energy from the vacuum," Physica Scripta 61(5), May 2000, p.513-517.  It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is discarded, the Maxwell-Heaviside field equations become the Lehnert equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3) Yang-Mills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell's displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) Yang-Mills theory of classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations are superior to the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in being able to describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and current.  More than a dozen ways to approach extracting EM energy from the vacuum are presented.

EVANS, MYRON W.

Noted chemical physicist, primary developer of O(3) symmetry electrodynamics, and Director of the Alpha Foundation's Institute for Advanced Study (AIAS).

Under Evans, the work of the AIAS has made enormous contributions to physics and particularly to the extraction of usable EM energy from the vacuum.  In the opinion of the present author, Evans is perhaps the single most important scientist in the Western world in the emerging field of electrical energy from the vacuum  and in solving the world energy crisis.

EVIL

Refers to an act or acts perceived to be detrimental to the receiver or referent, in the positive time stream.

Oddly, the chain of events perceived to involve "evil" to a referent in the forward time stream, would be perceived to be equally beneficial to the referent, viewed in the negative time stream.  In other words, evil in general is a synthesis of the results of observed actions or acts in the forward time motion, hence it is conjugated when time flow is reversed.

This is not just an idle question.  In our physical body, the photon interaction with the electron shells of the atoms in the body largely determines the observed forward movement of one's material body through time.  The conscious mind, fitted to the single photon interaction, thus perceives its "existence" in such terms.  Meanwhile, in the nuclei of the atoms of our material body, the charge and hence the field interactions are reversed (giving Newton's third law reactions).  That of course is a time-reversed flow of events, not sensed by our conscious mind, but possibly sensed by our deep unconscious mind.  The question then arises, "Do we then actually exist both forwards and backwards in time?"  In terms of good and evil, if the answer is yes, then this would have profound implications to theology and to the study of human consciousness.

Theologians (and philosophers) have pondered the "nature" of good and evil for literally thousands of years, and have reached no truly firm conclusion to date.  The sticking point (theologically) seems to be the puzzle of a perfect, "all good" creator who had to have created evil also (since the Creator is axiomized to have created all).  To the question, "How could a perfect Creator have created—or even tolerated—evil?", theologians have yet to find a satisfactory answer.  Neither could they find a satisfactory answer to the question of, "How can the Creator, being all-just, and being all-powerful, then allow any evil act to occur?"  In short, why does the Creator seemingly not "police up our perceived imperfections in the creation?"  In short, theologians struggled with a formidable problem of how to justify the Creator's continued tolerance of evil, even for a moment.

There is no satisfactory answer to such questions, of course, in 3-law Aristotelian logic, because they are four-law logic situations.  However, since the 3-logic is incomplete, one should examine the question in 4-law logic, and also in light of one's assumptions regarding the existence of the Creator.  The question is unresolvable in 3-law logic and with the assumption of a Creator traveling through time, as we perceive ourselves to do.  However, if time itself is a creation, then the axiomized Creator may be more properly axiomized as existing both in and outside time, and "everywhere in time at once" as well.  The unlimited Creator must even be postulated to be able to "both be and not be simultaneously; if He cannot do that little trick, He has a limit."  That trick must be allowed, else the Creator has a limit and is thus imperfect.  But to such an axiomized Creator "permeating time everywhere at once, from beginning to end, which shall be the "beginning" and which shall be the "end?"  And if we pick a beginning and an end, what shall be the "intermediate ordering" that we pick?   There is no absolute position in either space or time to the "everywhere and everywhen at once" axiomized Creator.

The problem of good and evil then becomes a similar problem to the "wave or particle" question.  Good and evil are two sides of the same coin, transposed one into the other by time-reversal.   With respect to finite creatures perceiving themselves moving forward in time, not existing in the future and not existing in the past, the question merely demonstrates that our perception itself is in error.

It may be, then, that there is a solution (whether one prefers it or not!) to such profound and ancient philosophical and theological problems in four-law or five-law logic.  However, we will leave that question to the logicians and to the theologians to more properly decide.

EXCESS COLLECTED ENERGY

Collection by an interceptor/collector of a greater fraction of the EM energy flow impinging upon it, than is normal.

Any static electric or magnetic charge, e.g., with an EM energy density flow impinging upon it, has excess "energy collection" or "energy collecting" upon it, due to the altered vacuum virtual photon flux that is now exchanging with it. In a nominal electric circuit, e.g., a single "pass" of the EM energy flow from the source dipole, along the circuit conductors and across the conduction electrons, causes an "excess energy collection" upon the intercepting surface charges in the conductors.  This potentializes the Drude electrons in the circuit and leads to subsequent dissipation in the loads (and losses) of about 10-13 of the EM nondiverged  Heaviside energy flow that actually was extracted by the source dipole from the vacuum and sent down through space surrounding the conductors of the external circuit.

That is a single-pass energy collection fraction for a static charge. Almost all the Heaviside energy flow missed the circuit and passed on beyond the circuit "collectors" in one pass-by at essentially the speed of light, on out into deep space and beyond. On the other hand, if the already-passed EM energy flow is retroreflected, so that it returns for another pass along the circuit, then an additional amount of the repassing energy can be collected by those sluggish electrons.  In a nominal circuit being used as an example, the electrons travel only about 5 or 6 inches per hour longitudinally down the conductors, restrained by the repulsion of the electrons beyond them. So multiretroreflection, multipass, multicollection can be used to provide excess energy and overunity efficiency. This is a change to the present statement of the work-energy theorem, which up to now has assumed single pass, single energy collection. The well-known anti-Stokes emission from certain highly scattering, optically active media, e.g., produces more energy radiating back out of the media than the amount of stimulating radiation energy input into the media.  This is Letokhov's "negative absorption of the medium", which is really the excess emission from the medium due to retroreflection and multiple re-collections.

Also, if the intercepting charge is resonated, it sweeps out a greater geometrical cross section in the streaming energy flow, thereby diverging more and thus "collecting" more energy.  In the Bohren experiment, e.g., this effect yields collection of some 18 times as much energy by the resonant charge as the same charge collects in static mode.

EXOTHERMIC

Giving off heat, or emitting scattered EM energy.  Producing forward time energy.

Noted English physicist and chemist, 1791-1867, who discovered field theory and electromagnetic induction.  Faraday invented the dynamo also and formulated his laws of electrolysis.

His work directly inspired Maxwell, who vowed to study no other electromagnetics theory until he had captured Faraday's work in a mathematical theory.

FIELD

In mathematics, a set with two binary operations.  In electromagnetics in more common terms, it is a region consisting of magnitudes and/or vector directions assigned to some active entity (spacetime itself) at each point in the region.

Designated addition and multiplication, satisfying the conditions that the set is a commutative group with respect to addition, that the set with the identity of the additive group omitted is a commutative group with respect to multiplication, and that multiplication distributes over addition for all elements in the set.

For our purposes, in plain language the fundamental notion is that a "field" is a sort of cleared, level space or region (e.g., in spacetime) where things can be placed and actions can occur amongst them, to them, on them, and of them. What the "place or space" is, can get a bit complicated, as can what is placed there and what actions are permitted.  In short, we view a field as an altered (curved) region in spacetime, and this special curvature interacts with certain kinds of entities placed in that region.  In return, those entities also interact back upon the spacetime curvature to alter it.  Hence there is a dynamic two-way interaction between field and matter, where half of this interaction (the back-interaction of charge or matter) is missing from present classical electrodynamics.

EXOTHERMIC EXPLOSION

An explosion where ordinary heat and electromagnetic energy are released and radiate away from the explosive site.  All normal explosions are exothermic.

Particularly used for a pulsed longitudinal EM wave interferometer, which in the distant interference zone (IZ) will produce a sudden eruption of scattering EM energy from the local spacetime curvature suddenly induced, when the interferometry transmitter chassis grounds are biased well above the ambient potential in the distant IZ.

FERMI LIQUID

A liquid where the individual particles or molecules comprising it are basically non-interacting, so that they can roam freely.

In an electron gas in a conductor, e.g., treatment of the free conduction electrons as a gas allows a theoretical modeling and explanation of conduction and resistance.  Contrast to a Luttinger liquid, where the electrons interact with each other and thus enable the formation of collective phenomena.

FEYNMAN, RICHARD

Noted physicist, Nobelist, and co-developer of quantum electrodynamics.

Feynman is particularly noted for his refreshing three volumes of physics:  See Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1963.  The book is particularly noteworthy in that it gives the student some insight into foundations problems in physics.  E.g., in Vol. I on  p. 2-4, Feynman defines the electric field not in terms of force per unit charge per se, but in terms of its potentiality for producing a force only when a charge is present for the force to be developed upon.

FEYNMAN DIAGRAM

A two-dimensional diagram of particle interactions, both in the virtual and observable levels, and both backward and forward in time and named after Richard Feynman who first employed them.

FIBER FUSE

Effect in fibers or fiber optic cable, whose core contains germanium, whereby heating the cable at one spot with a small flame will launch a focused traveling heat energy effect which melts a small hole in the core about every centimeter, and marches down the cable at about a meter per second to the end of the cable, destroying the optical transmission capability and ruining the cable.

Oddly, by igniting the fiber fuse from the other end of the damaged cable, a reverse fiber fuse effect will often march back down the cable in similar fashion except that it fills in the melted holes in the core, restoring the transmission capability of the cable.

If the energy required to melt all the holes (or fill them again) is taken into account, the amount of energy required to launch the fiber fuse is much less.  This phenomenon does not appear to have an adequate technical explanation at present.

For an excellent description with photographs, see Ivars Peterson, “Fibers With Flare,” Science News, 140(13), Sep. 28, 1991, p. 200-201.  For technical information and analysis, see D. P. Hand and P. St. J. Russell, “Solitary thermal shock-waves and optical damage in optical fibers,” IEE Colloquium on ‘Non-Linear Optical Waveguides’,” IEE Digest No. 88, London, England, 1988, p. 101-103; — Soliton-like thermal shock-waves in optical fibres: origin of periodic damage tracks," Fourteenth European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC 1988), Sep. 11-15, 1988, Publication No. 292, 1(2), 1988, p. 111-114; — “Solitary thermal shock waves and optical damage in optical fibers: the fiber fuse,” Optics Letters, 13(9), Sep. 1988, p. 767-769;  D. P. Hand and T. A. Birks, “Single-mode tapers as ‘fibre fuse’ damage circuit-breakers,” Electronics Letters, 25(1), Jan. 5, 1989, p. 33-34.

See P. St. J. Russell, “Power Conservation and Field Structures in Uniform Dielectric Gratings,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 1(3), Mar. 3, 1984, p. 293-299.  Russell is actually referring to apparent violation of local conservation of energy.  This would be indicated if the vacuum-to-mass interaction is not taken into account.  Russell’s analysis therefore supports the fact that (i) the vacuum-mass interaction is required, (ii) the fiber fuse does utilize some of its gated vacuum energy (i.e., the usually non-diverged portion of the Poynting flow), and (iii) the fiber fuse is a legitimate, repeatable overunity process, although a "runaway" process, uncontrolled, and not sustainable.

FIELD

In physics, "a region of space marked by a physical property, as gravitational or electromagnetic force or fluid pressure, having a determinable value at every point in the region."

[Thanks to Webster's II New Riverside University Dictionary.]

Here one must not think of "space" as emptiness, as mathematicians do, but as a virtual particle flux, a dynamic entity, and as dynamic spacetime. A field then is a set of entities and their relationships and operations in a region of that kind of space, where the entities and operations are themselves "space stuff". They are all "virtual" in that they are not individually observable. However, their impact upon or interaction with mass—particularly charged mass—can be and often is observable, in that we can see some change of the mass (its direction of travel, translation, acceleration, deceleration, rotation, generation of current, etc.). If the entities are point-like and are naively supposed to have magnitude only, or if we only specify their energy density magnitude at each point, then that "marked space region" is said to be a scalar field. If the entities are point-like but have both magnitude and direction, they are said to be a vector field.

Further the deponent saith not because even the foundations physicists are in hot water in trying to define the field, and if the deponent saith more he will surely deep-fry in hot oil!

FIELD, SCALAR

A field, to any point of which is assigned a magnitude only.

FIELD, VECTOR

A field, to any point of which is assigned both a magnitude and a direction.

FLAT (UNCURVED) SPACETIME

A vacuum/spacetime whose virtual particle flux intensity—and therefore its local energy density—does not change as a function of spatial position or averaged time.

That is, a flat spacetime in my view is a quantum mechanical vacuum whose virtual particle flux and energy density are constant in magnitude and internal constitution with respect to spatial position and in averaged time. Note that a flat spacetime (vacuum potential) can still contain vacuum engines, and thus still be dimensioned. In that case, contrary to normal physics, the flat spacetime itself will still interact with an embedded object and change it, even though it may not translate it. To perform transmutation of elements, e.g., one is interested in just such engines and not in translating through space the element being treated.  This dimensioning or activation of the local flat spacetime can result in an otherwise unexpected, seeming violation of one or more laws of nature in the dimensioned region.

FISSIONING, ACTION

The splitting of the action quantum into two canonical variables (for example, energy and time), only one of which can normally be completely detected or measured.  ("Action" has the dimensions of angular momentum—energy x time, momentum x length, etc.)

Fissioning produces length, discrete bit by discrete bit, and time likewise.  The physical reality of separated physical objects is thus continually created, discrete bit by discrete bit, monocularly.  All that ever observably exists in the "present" is a single quantum change, just occurring.  Recombining of the two canonical action fission fragments is called "fusion."  Fusion also occurs monocularly, quantum by quantum.  Rigorously, the physical world of separated objects never exists as such except in memory recall of vast numbers of past ordered quantum changes that occurred one by one.

FLUX

The amount of some quantity (such as energy, particles, volume of fluid, etc.) flowing across a given area (usually a unit area perpendicular to the flow) per unit of time.

The term flux density is now more commonly used. Loosely, "flux" refers to the perpendicular flow through an area, while "flux density" refers to the magnitude or intensity (rate) of the flux. In some cases such as a flux of particles of different velocities, the number of particles may be multiplied by the average velocity to give an average flux density that is weighted.

FLUX DENSITY

The amount of some quantity (such as energy, particles, volume of fluid, etc.) flowing across a given area (usually a unit area perpendicular to the flow) per unit of time.

FOGAL, WILLIAM (BILL)

Soon-to-be-noted researcher and inventor of the Fogal semiconductor (two patents so far), as well as a superluminal infolding-outfolding communication system and other remarkable longitudinal EM wave processes.

I am happy to be a friend and colleague of Bill Fogal.

FOGAL SEMICONDUCTOR

A special semiconductor invented by Bill Fogal which, in its operational regime, utilizes an integrated semiconductor, tantalum capacitor, and feedback resistor to accomplish charge blocking (blocking of electron current flow dq/dt) while passing displacement current d/dt

The Fogal semiconductor can also accomplish amplified phase conjugation of signals as well as infolding (translation of input transverse EM waves to output longitudinal EM waves) and outfolding (translation of received input longitudinal EM waves to output transverse EM waves).  Used in communication systems, it opens the use of the unlimited "infolded" electromagnetics bandwidth.  Since it may communicate using longitudinal EM waves, it is also usable for superluminal or a specialized "tunneling" communication through the "interior" of normal EM waves, potentials, and fields.

See William J. Fogal, "High Gain, Low distortion, Faster Switching Transistor," U.S. Patent No. 5,196,809, Mar. 23, 1993; — "High Gain, Low Distortion, Faster Switching Transistor," U.S. Patent No. 5,430,413, July 4, 1995, a continuation of his earlier patent.

FORCE

In mechanics, identically the time derivative of momentum, or F º d/dt(mv).

Simply, changing of the old concept of mass-motion. One must realize that it is not the mass in motion, but the single undivided quantity "mass-motion" or "mass-velocity" (momentum) that is changed. In short, F º d/dt(mv).  In present EM theory, force fields are erroneously taken to exist in empty, massless vacuum. However, the mechanical definition is an identity, not an equality. Thus force does not separately exist in contact with a mass, but consists of a changing "mass-motion." Since this force can be induced into and of the mass-motion target at a distance, in the new approach one is confronted with the fact that there is a more fundamental mechanism that produces force itself, and that is a curvature of spacetime.

Distant curvatures of spacetime to produce forces on exposed charged mass systems are also engineered by longitudinal EM wave interferometry.

FORCE FIELD

An effect that exists as a local vacuum virtual particle flux interaction upon and with a unit mass or unit charge whereby a particular type of matter is affected.

The force field has two components, one the mass and the other massless. In electrodynamics, one normally thinks (erroneously!) of the massless component, and refers to that component alone as "the force field." This considers the "force field" as a separate entity, acting upon a separate "mass." Whether it is logically correct or not, that is the prevailing way physics and electrodynamics uses it! So in this definition, let us momentarily accept the common incorrect usage, for convenience, while pointing out the real definition as we need to.

For example, conventionally the EM force fields can affect and change the state of motion of any charged particle or any magnetic particle. In classical physics, the force fields are considered the primary causative agents; when these fields are zero, then the motion of the particle or system is unaffected. Consequently, conventional EM theory assumes that all the EM phenomenology ceases once the force fields are absent. Today we know that is not true at all, as we explain in this glossary.

FORCE-FREE PROPAGATION

Propagation of force-free disturbances in the vacuum flux

(i.e., infolded inside the ambient vacuum potential, or inside a constant DC voltage.) Such "infolded" propagation is not limited to the speed of light, but may even travel in the Coulomb gauge so that it is instantaneous. More usually, it can travel superluminally.  It may be regarded as a special form of "tunneling", which is known (both theoretically and experimentally) to produce superluminal propagation to the external observer.  The music of Beethoven's 40th symphony, e.g., has been experimentally transferred between two points in a physical waveguide by such "quantum tunneling" at over four times the speed of light in vacuum.

We regard tunneling as moving in a sort of "subspace", i.e., within the internal structuring of spacetime itself.  It is not limited by the speed of light and Einstein's postulate, which we believe only applies to signals moving in spacetime in bulk, and not to signals moving within substructuring inside that spacetime.

FOUNDATIONS OF MATHEMATICS

The concepts, operations, assumptions, postulates, logic, definitions, and axioms of algebra systems.

FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICS

The postulates, assumptions, concepts, and definitions upon which a scientific physics model rests.  Included are the postulates, concepts, assumptions, definitions, and operations of the mathematics in which the scientific model is expressed, as well as the postulates, concepts, assumptions, definitions, and operations of the physics entities and functions assigned to the mathematical symbols.

Thus "scientific truth"—even mathematical truth (see Morris Kline's Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty—is actually a qualified truth.  What is true in one model (one set of postulates, assumptions, concepts, and definitions, including those in the algebra) may not be always true when one or more of the postulates, assumptions, concepts, and definitions is/are changed, and/or when the topology of the mathematics in which the model is expressed is changed, etc.

The major flaws in present physics models involve errors in the foundations.  However, a successful physics model is rather quickly dogmatized and often turned into a belief structure by many scientists rather than being regarded as a tentative model.  Consequently, scientists who attempt to do serious work in foundations are generally ignored or ostracized and rather vehemently attacked if they propose any significant changes to one of the dogmatized models.  Particularly, all funding and "benefits" of the scientific bureaucracy are denied the heretical foundations scientist, unless he or someone can rather quickly come forth with an iron-tight experimental proof of the heresy.  Any attempted change in foundations is usually met with ad hominem attack, a barrage of criticism, loss of position, and denial of research funding.  Science has a long history of just such dogmatic oppression of great scientific discoveries.  To name a few (there are hundreds):  The first laser paper was rejected by the journals as being ridiculous.  When Mayer proposed conservation of energy, he was hounded and ridiculed so fiercely that he suffered a nervous breakdown and attempted suicide.  Years later, near the end of his life conservation of energy was adopted because it greatly facilitated understanding and calculation, and the same system now lionized him as a scientific hero.  Ovshinsky suffered personal attack, ridicule, and charges of charlatanism in pushing amorphous semiconductors; everyone knew that only crystalline semiconductors could work. The situation changed when several thousand Xerox machines were observed to now contain amorphous semiconductors which were working just fine!   Louis de Broglie's matter wave hypothesis caused consternation to his thesis advisors; but because he was Prince Louis de Broglie, they felt obligated to send it to the great Einstein so that he would reject it and then they could regretfully reject the thesis of the Prince.  When Einstein replied that it was probably true, they felt they had no choice but to publish it because de Broglie was a Prince of the old French aristocracy, and as such was not to be casually trifled with.  So foundations work is fraught with the greatest peril to the practitioner.  Yet it is the most important work in physics, and it is a continuing black mark against the scientific establishment that they do not openly encourage and fund the most able physicists, grad students, and post-docs to examine and revise the errors in foundations concepts and postulates.  Because of the prevailing dogmatism, science itself continually strangles the new ideas and concepts that would provide the physics of the 22nd century now.  In an eerie turn of events, science has become in a strange way its own worst enemy, and the strongest barrier to the advance of science.

FOUR-SPACE (4-SPACE)

The "normal" spacetime used in physics, consisting of three spatial dimensions and one time dimension.  Minkowski spacetime.

FOURTH LAW OF LOGIC

the law that a thing and its opposite become identical on the boundary, i.e., in multiple simultaneous observation.  Identity is merely the loss of  observational or perceptual distinction; when formerly "two" objects are simultaneously observed by a single observer, two slides have been shown at once in the slide projector.  It does not matter at that point what each was individually observed to be before; now there is no observable distinction or difference.  We previously showed that the law is implicitly assumed in the three laws of Aristotelian logic anyway, and published a simple proof of the fourth law.  Without the fourth law, Aristotelian logic "eats itself".  What results in the four law logic is that either (1) the three laws apply explicitly and the fourth implicitly, or (2) the fourth law applies explicitly and the fourth implicitly.  This application rule itself can be taken as a fifth law of logic.  The fourth law is also the law of the paradox: I.e., when something is true but violates one or more of the Aristotelian laws, it is a case where the fourth law applies explicitly.  The conclusions derivable from a four law logic agree generally with the conclusions derivable from G Spencer Brown's Laws of Form.

FOUR-WAVE MIXING

A nonlinear multiwave mixing effect when four waves mix in a highly nonlinear situation so that wave to wave interaction occurs.

FRACTIONAL CHARGE

A hypothetical particle having a charge less than the electron's charge.  Often called a quark, where its charge is 1/3 or 2/3 the charge of the electron.

A few years ago, Stanford University researchers found evidence of free quarks.  There is also now the fractional Hall effect.  In the 1920's Ehrenhaft reported the discovery and production of fractional charges of all sizes, and his experiments have been replicated by Michailov, with papers by Michailov and Barrett.

In the new approach, when time-energy is utilized, quarks can be freed or nearly freed rather easily in "time-reversal zones".  It would appear that, as the new approach develops, free quarks will become a normal event rather than one intensely sought but terribly difficult to come by experimentally.

FRAME, LORENTZ

A frame of reference which is not accelerated with respect to the laboratory observer.

In this case, the frame may be rotated (moving at a constant velocity) but it is not rotating (the frame is not accelerated with respect to the observer, and spacetime is not curved).  In this case special relativity applies, as do the conservation laws.  If the local spacetime is curved, the frame is accelerated and spacetime is curved.  Locally, then, general relativity applies.  In this case, locally the conservation laws (energy, momentum, charge, and spin) can be violated.  However, in ordinary general relativity, it has been tacitly assumed that locally the curvature of spacetime is negligible.  Hence locally a Lorentz frame is assumed, and the conservation laws are assumed to apply locally also.  In scalar electromagnetics, the local spacetime is always curved and general relativity applies locally.  In this case, the conservation laws need not apply.

FRAME, REFERENCE)

A spatial, organized, measured lattice placed in "emptiness" (space, spacetime).

Normally refers to a 3-dimensional, spatial frame. All objects and points in the "universe" or spatial frame are considered to simultaneously coexist at separate, measured points in the frame. Differs from the vacuum in that, rigorously, vacuum has no existing definite lengths and no existing definite time intervals, as these appear only after measurement or detection, and are relative to the observer and to the interactions ongoing as well as in the detection process itself. The "laboratory frame" is the static reference frame of the observer or measurement. A separate reference frame may be assumed to exist for any fixed or moving object, or centered on any point in another frame. When a type of frame is assumed, the entire class of physical interactions that can occur has been restricted to an assumed set or type. In other words, given the frame, the conventional physics has been assumed. One of the greatest restrictions of an assumed "frame" is to rule out the consideration (existence) of other higher dimensions.

Note that, in the new unified field theory approach, the other higher dimensions are always available and cannot be ruled out in general, but only in some special case. Every curvature of spacetime, and any internal additional curvature to that primary curvature, adds a new dimension.  In our view, a spacetime may be "flat" in overall curvature, but consist of internally structured deterministic curvatures or "engines".  In this view, normal inertial frames, e.g., may still contain vacuum engines, which will not affect the normal bulk translation rules, but may affect any or all of the nontranslation mechanisms, including the very laws of nature in many cases.

FREE ENERGY

Excess energy freely received from its external active environment by an open system that is far from thermodynamic equilibrium in its exchange with that environment.

To use this free excess energy, it must be collected, transported to a load or loads with minimal losses, and then dissipated in the load(s) to power them, without any substantial portion of the free energy being used to close the system's "gate" through which the excess energy is input to it.

There is a separate thermodynamics for such open systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium in their active environmental exchange.  Such a system is permitted to exhibit five "magic" functions:  it is permitted to (1) self-order, (2) self-oscillate or self-rotate, (3) output more energy than the operator himself inputs (the excess energy is freely received from the active environment, (4) power itself and its load simultaneously (all the energy is freely received from the active environment), and (5) exhibit negentropy.

The entropy of such a system cannot even be calculated.  Some useful references are: Ilya Prigogine with D. Kondepudi, Modern Thermodynamics: From Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998; Ilya Prigogine,  The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and the New Laws of Nature, Free Press, New York, 1996, 1997; G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine, Exploring Complexity, Piper, Munich, 1987; Gregoire Nicolis, "Physics of far-from-equilibrium systems and self-organization," Chapter 11 in Paul Davies, Ed., The New Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1989, p. 316-347.

FREE ENERGY SYSTEM

Any open system not in thermodynamic equilibrium, which freely receives excess energy from an external source,

...and collects and utilizes this free excess energy to freely power external loads, so that a permissible system COP>1.0 is achieved, as allowed by the nonlinear thermodynamics of open systems in disequilibrium with their environment.

Implicit in the notion of free electromagnetic energy systems are six key concepts: (1) the local vacuum/spacetime is known to be filled with hidden (i.e., virtual) energy in violent motion, i.e., the local vacuum/spacetime is a violent virtual energy flux and therefore a scalar potential, (2) a broken symmetry—i.e., some sort of organizing and gating mechanism, such as the common dipole—in this hidden (virtual) energy flux of the vacuum is utilized as a source, to cohere the virtual energy and divert it as energy flow S = E´H, from the broken symmetry initiation point onto the external circuits or load parts of a device, (3) the coherent gated extra virtual energy flow available in the external circuits or load parts couples to (interacts with) the mobile charges in those circuits or load parts, so that gradients developed in the interacting virtual flux form force fields on and of the particle masses, driving the mobile charges along the circuit and through current-impeding circuit components such as loads, (4) in the interaction of the driven charges with the driving virtual energy flux, their spin and erratic motions integrate a tiny "coupling fraction" of the driving virtual energy into observable (i.e., macroscopic field) energy, thus creating the E-fields and B-fields, (5) the current-impeding external components or load parts scatter or dissipate the coherence of the driven charges, and thereby dissipate the collected energy or change the form of the collected field energy, thereby producing useful work, and (6) little or none of the excess collected energy in the circuit is split off and dissipated in the gate (asymmetry component serving as the S-flow source) to destroy the gate and thereby destroy its asymmetry in the vacuum flux, which is what is extracting and producing the free energy flow.

FUSION, ACTION

In the new approach, the recombining of two canonical bits of a fissioned action quantum.

The fusion process "cancels" the bits produced by the fission process, and constitutes a negative spacetime operation.  The physical world is thus eliminated, bit by bit, in a monocular fusion operation that produces the "past".  The "mass" of a particle is taken to be proportional to, and identically comprised of, the absolute value of its fission and fusion rate.  When fission and fusion rates of a particle are equal, the particle is unaccelerated; when unequal, the particle is accelerated.  Vice versa, when the particle is unaccelerated, the fission and fusion rates are equal, and when the particle is accelerated, the fission and fusion rates are unequal.

GAIA HYPOTHESIS

The hypothesis by Lovelock that the earth and its biosphere is a living thing, at least in some sense.

In the new viewpoint, there exists a biospheric quantum potential which contains an extended mind and therefore is indeed an extended lifeform—one which includes the earth and the quantum potentia all its creatures and species.  In the new sense, even so-called "inert" matter is alive, being continually bathed by energy flow dimensioned with lifeform templates, and therefore equally alive in all directions and nonpreferential.

GATE

Refers to something (a component or function) which extracts some part of a flux or flow, compacting it into a stream, and "sending it out."

A moving board wall or gate may be swung into a river, e.g., to divert or "gate" some of the river's flow out into a sluice ditch and on to a waterwheel powering a mill. Similarly, a dipole extracts some of the energy from the vacuum virtual photon flux exchange with the end charges of the dipole, and "gates" (diverts) the extracted portion of energy out from the ends of the dipole as energy flows. This creates the scalar potential surrounding each charge, and also the E-fields. Even a "static" dipole does this "gating" of vacuum energy into an energy flow.

The fundamental gate for all EM energy in 3-space is the dipole or dipolarity.  The source of the 3-space EM energy continuously emitted by any charge or dipole is an equal inflow of EM energy from the complex plane (from the time domain).  Thus EM energy flow is conserved in 4 dimensions but not in 3-space.  In particle physics, it is well-known that any dipole or charge is such a broken 3-symmetry in its fierce vacuum energy flux exchange.  However, particle physics considers the input energy to be virtual particle energy from the vacuum and therefore random energy.  Whittaker 1903 shows it is actually from the time domain of spacetime (from the complex plane) and the input energy flow from the vacuum is not random but precisely organized in a harmonic set of longitudinal EM phase conjugate waves.  Of course by wave-particle duality we simply consider the two pictures to be just different and permitted models of the same thing.

GATING EFFECT

The effect of extracting part of a flux or flow, compacting it into a useful stream, and "sending it out."

See gate.

GAUGE

In electromagnetism, usually considered a possible choice for (change of) electric scalar potential and magnetic vector potential, without any net change of force fields so that the change satisfies Maxwell's equations.

Interestingly, gauge field theory includes the axiom of gauge freedom.  In EM systems, this means that one is free to "regauge" or change the potential energy of the system freely and at any time, so long as the change results in a static stress potential energy change.  In the real world, one may have to pay a little bit for switching.  But essentially physics already assumes that one can cause his EM system to take on excess potential energy at will, so long as it is a stress potential energy change only.

In short, only the symmetrical regauging case has been considered in electrodynamics.  Yet every electrical power system must first potentialize the system asymmetrically rather than symmetrically.  In the theoretically perfect system, this asymmetrical regauging is done freely.  Hence every electrical power system first breaks gauge symmetry, in order to take on extra energy so that it can do work.  Further, the source of the potential energy flowing into the asymmetrically regauged electrical system so freely, comes from the source dipole's extraction of EM energy from the time-domain (complex plane) due to its broken 3-symmetry in EM energy flow.

So the highest "gauge" principle is that energy can be freely extracted from the vacuum, anywhere and at any time, freely and easily, by making a dipolarity—which changes a single potential and asymmetrically regauges the system.

It follows that one is in theory free to "dissipate" this excess free energy in external loads to power them.  Again, in the real world one may have to pay some switching costs, but that can be minimized by efficient switching.  However, since no conventional electrical power system accomplishes this free powering of its loads, it rigorously follows that the conventional system must self-enforce symmetry in its discharge of the free potential energy achieved by the initial asymmetrical regauging.

Thus, if we believe gauge field theory—the most modern of physics theories and in many ways the most useful—and also believe its assumption of free asymmetrical regauging that is hidden in its gauge freedom principle, then COP>1.0 electrical power systems are absolutely permitted by nature and by gauge field theory where asymmetrical regauging is deliberately used.

It follows that some feature in electrical power systems as we presently design and build them, must be preventing these systems from exhibiting overunity COP.  And so it is.  The ubiquitous closed current loop circuit results in the circuit forcibly and symmetrically regauging itself while dissipating its excitation energy to power its loads and losses.  This forces half the collected regauging (free) energy to be dissipated in the external circuit's loads and losses, and half of it to be dissipated in the source dipole to scatter the charges and destroy the dipole.  This means that less than half the available free regauging energy is used to power the load, while half is used to destroy the entity—the source dipole—actually furnishing the free regauging energy from the vacuum.

Hence all our present electrical power systems are inherently free energy systems freely extracting their energy from the vacuum, but are fiendishly designed so that they kill themselves (shut off all free asymmetric regauging energy from the vacuum, by destroying the source dipole) faster than they catch some of the free energy from the vacuum to power their loads.

To restore the source dipole requires at least as much energy dissipation as was done to destroy it.  In our conventional self-destructive systems, the generator shaft must thus be continuously powered in order to form the magnetic field inside the generator, so that this magnetic field can then dissipate its available energy to force the scattered charges back apart to form an ordered source dipole.

We pay the power company to have a giant wrestling match inside its own generators and lose.  And in a sense, we do it because our theoreticians love gauge symmetry more than they tolerate broken gauge symmetry.  So they build lovely, symmetry-restoring electrical power systems—and monstrously mangle and destroy the fragile biosphere in the process.

GAUGE FREEDOM

The axiom in gauge theory that one can freely change the potentials of an EM system, so long as the net new forces resulting from the change will sum to a zero vector resultant so that the system remains "symmetrical" in its force-field functioning with respect to the system prior to the change of potentials.

Gauge and gauge freedom are actually formal restrictions of an even more important asymmetrical regauging principle: a potential in a system can be freely changed at any time, thus freely changing the potential energy of the system freely and at will.  Symmetrical regauging is achieved only by multiple application of this asymmetry rule to provide a net symmetry condition again, with a change in locked-in stress potential energy of the system.

GAUGE SYMMETRY

Abstract mathematical symmetry of a field, that relates to the freedom to regauge (change the value of ) potentials, without affecting the values of the field quantities.

In short, the higher principle that the potentials can be changed freely and at will—and hence the potential energy  of the regauged system can be changed freely and at will—is arbitrarily restricted to a very special case:  Each change of potential involves the appearance of an new free force field.  This asymmetrical change can be made freely and at will, at any time.  However, the notion of gauge symmetry restricts any set of such changes to the special case where the new free force fields produced must sum to a net zero force field of opposing forces.  In short, it severely restricts the freedom to change the potentials—to the special case where the resulting change of the system's potential energy must remain a static stress potential energy condition.  Note that this arbitrarily eliminates any overunity functioning of the regauged system in which the altered potential(s) and altered system potential energy exist(s).  See the discussions of gauge and gauge freedom, above.

GAUGE THEORY

A field theory using a field that has one or more gauge symmetries.

Note the accent on gauge symmetry and the net symmetrical regauging restriction.  This restriction is a carry-forward of the old notion that the potentials are not primary, but the fields are primary causes of all EM phenomena.

For the overunity researcher, broken gauge symmetry is the interesting feature which must avidly be sought in his experimental systems.  Hence he must seek out and familiarize himself with a wide variety of broken symmetry effects and phenomenology.  He must also rigorously analyze his circuits with a keen view to where gauge symmetry can be broken, where and how gauge symmetry is automatically restored during excitation discharge, etc.  Unless the automatic self-enforcing of symmetrical gauge transformation during excitation discharge is violated, no EM system can produce COP>1.0.  In addition, without elaboration, the overunity researcher must also learn to consider the time-domain functions of the circuit, and particularly the giant negentropy of the common dipole.  Unless he understands that all EM energy comes from the vacuum and from the complex plane via the broken 3-symmetry of a dipolarity, he cannot understand his own circuits.

Electromagnetics was the first gauge theory.  Gauge theory is widely utilized today, and particularly in particle physics.  In overunity power systems, the system must exhibit a broken gauge symmetry at least twice: (1) in initially potentializing the system to freely increase its potential energy, thus exciting the system so that it has energy with which to do work, and (2) then discharging this free excitation energy in the load without simultaneously destroying the source dipole providing the continual potentializing.

The conventional COP<1.0 electrical power system restores net 3-space symmetry by continually destroying the "free asymmetrical regauging" component: the source dipole, and using more of the energy freely received from the vacuum via dipole asymmetry to destroy the dipole than is used to power the load.  This requires that at least as much 3-space energy be input to the system again, to restore the dipole and thus potentialize the external circuit, as was used to destroy the dipole.  Hence as much 3-space energy has to be input as is dissipated in all the loads and losses, including inside the generator.  For that reason, our scientists and engineers unwittingly but deliberately design and build only COP<1.0 systems.

Without elaboration, we also accent that spacetime curvature is always involved in an overunity EM power system, and the tempic (time) potential of the output end of an overunity system differs from the tempic potential of the input end, so that the gradient (the tempic force) is directed from output to input—exactly the reversal of the case for a COP<1.0 power system.

GAUGE TRANSFORMATION (IN ELECTROMAGNETICS)

In EM, gauge transformation is conventionally taken to be the addition of the gradient of some function of space and time to the magnetic vector potential—and simultaneously the addition of the negative of the partial derivative of the same function with respect to time, divided by the speed of light, to the electric scalar potential.

This procedure gives different potentials but leaves the electric and magnetic fields unchanged.  It restricts gauge transformations to net symmetrical transformations.  However, the increase or decrease in potential energy of the system, due to changing the potentials, results in a change in the stress of the system and a change in its stress energy.  This is because two new antiparallel forces are created, which change the stress of the system.

In essence, gauge symmetry then involves the implicit assumption that a functioning system is the same regardless of how it is stressed, and regardless of the state of its stress energy.  We point out that, gravitationally, this is not true since any change in the local potential energy of the system is a spacetime curvature change, hence a gravitational change.

GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

Einstein's theory of gravity in which the gravitational force is represented by a curvature in spacetime.

GIANT NEGENTROPY (OF THE DIPOLE)

The receipt from the time domain of spacetime (the vacuum), by any dipolarity, of enormous longitudinal EM wave energy flow, transduction of that absorbed energy from the complex plane into real 3-space, and emission of that enormous energy flow in all directions in 3-space, automatically and indefinitely after a little energy has been expended to separate the charges and make the dipole.  The EM waves in the input from the time domain and the output in 3-space are perfectly ordered and correlated, which is a giant ordering of the vacuum/spacetime and is thus a giant negentropy.

In circuits, the source dipole in the generator or battery, once made, performs this function.  Only a minuscule fraction (some 10-13) of the energy pouring out of the generator's or battery's terminals strikes the surface charges of that attached external circuit and is diverged into the conductors to power the Drude electrons and the circuit.  All the rest is just wasted.

See my paper, "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," ibid.

GRAVITON

The quantum (smallest piece) of the gravitational field, with spin 2.

In the quantum theory of general relativity, the graviton is massless and has spin 2. In the new approach, a graviton is considered to be a paired (coupled) photon and antiphoton, each of which has spin one, so that the graviton couplet has spin 2. A scalar potential is comprised of gravitons, not merely photons, since it can be decomposed into a harmonic series of bidirectional wavepairs. In each wavepair, a wave and its antiwave precisely superpose. We insist on a further strong condition: that in the biwave, the photons comprising the wave and the antiphotons comprising the antiwave also must obey the distortion correction theorem. This means that the antiphotons and photons are passing through each other in opposite directions, continually coupling into gravitons and decoupling again.

GRAVITY

The phenomenon characterized by the physical attraction of any two material bodies.

Actually, in modern general relativity it is the trapped energy in the masses that produce the gravity potentials. Ideally, the gravitational force between two masses is proportional to the product of the masses divided by the square of the distance between them. In the new approach, one recognizes that mass itself is defined in terms of, and identically consists of, the time derivative of an action flux. [For a force-free fundamental definition of mass, see T.E. Bearden, Quiton/Perceptron Physics: A Theory of Existence, Perception, and Physical Phenomena, National Technical Information System, Report AD-763210, 1973.] A photon flux is also an action flux. A virtual photon flux is an action flux. So the vacuum consists of a gigantic action flux—which with certain interactions forms mass itself. But since photons are action quanta and photon flux is action flux, and since mass and gravitation are functions imposed on such action flux; then mass, EM, and gravitation become different aspects of the same thing. All of them can be electromagnetically engineered, directly, as indeed can be the flow of time itself. By affecting the flow of time electromagnetically, one is thus able to affect the gravitational force between two objects electromagnetically. Antigravity, for example, can be achieved by a mechanism that is given in this glossary. Hutchinson has demonstrated the levitation of objects weighing up to 60 lbs., albeit sporadically and uncontrollably. At my urgent request, Sweet performed a highly successful antigravity experiment some years ago, reducing the weight of a 6-pound object by 90%, smoothly and controllably, in several smoothly controlled steps. I consider that the experiment tested and validated my approach to an engineerable mechanism for antigravity. For the results of the test, see Floyd Sweet and T.E. Bearden, "Utilizing Scalar Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," Proceedings of the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC '91), Boston, Massachusetts, 1991, p. 370-375.

GROSS PARTICLE TRANSLATION

Refers to translating the entire particle in space, rather than internally structuring the particle's potential (massless charge).

The usual gradient in a scalar potential's gross magnitude, as in -Ñf .

GYROELECTRONS

Spinning electrons considered as gyroscopes, so that when longitudinally perturbed they can and will laterally precess.

Considering (in a gross first order model) the conduction electrons in the Drude gas in a conductor as little gyros, because they are (i) spinning on an axis, (ii) severely restrained in their ability to move forward longitudinally down the conductor as current, and (iii) much more free to precess laterally in the conductor. Thus when the gyroelectrons in the receiving wire antenna, perturbed by an incoming longitudinal EM wave in the vacuum, are longitudinally perturbed, they precess laterally so that our instruments (which detect electron wiggles, not the incoming vacuum EM wave) do detect "transverse waves." However, they are detecting the transverse gyroelectron precession waves. The old electrodynamicists, long before the electron or the atom was discovered, simply envisioned the incoming EM wave as "waves in the thin material fluid ether" which were "intercepted" as electric fluid waves in the antenna. Hence since their instruments reported that the intercepted "electric fluid" was vibrating transversely, they firmly believed (erroneously) that this proved the ether wave to be transverse also, just as those "taut string waves" that Maxwell and Faraday had believed in. That is the total raison d'etre behind the mistaken notion of the transverse EM wave in the vacuum ether!

HARMONIC SERIES

Consisting of a fundamental frequency, its first harmonic, its second harmonic, etc.

HEAVISIDE, OLIVER

Noted English self-taught physicist and brilliant electrodynamicist, 1850-1925, who played a role in discarding Maxwell's quaternions, and also played a role in forming vector mathematics and formulating the vector reduction of Maxwell's theory from 20 quaternion equations in some 20 unknowns to the present 4 vector equations.

What are presently taught as "Maxwell's equations" in university are actually Heaviside's equations.

Lorentz symmetrically regauged the Maxwell-Heaviside equations, again greatly simplifying their mathematical solution—and also unwittingly discarding all permissible overunity Maxwellian systems in the process.

HEAVISIDE ENERGY FLOW COMPONENT

(1)   The enormous nonintercepted and nondiverged energy flow component pouring out of the terminals of the battery or generator, and missing the external circuit entirely so that it is wasted.

(2)   The enormous energy in the EM field, potential, or wave that misses the interaction of the field, potential, or wave with the assumed unit point static electric charge.

HERACLITUS

HERTZ, HEINRICH

Noted German physicist who together with Heaviside and others transformed Maxwell's theory from quaternion algebra to vector algebra, and who also produced EM waves, thus confirming Maxwell's theory.

HIDDEN BIWAVES

Those bidirectional EM wavepairs that comprise the scalar potential are indeed "hidden" with respect to our normal "electron translation" (i.e., electron wiggle) detectors and instruments.

HIDDEN VARIABLE THEORY

A class of quantum mechanical theories which considers that the quantum state of a physical system is not a complete specification after all. The "hidden variables" are those additional components necessary to provide the "complete state" of the system.

The hidden variables are those extra components of the theorized complete state, which are not contained in the quantum state. Bohm's hidden variables theory is the best known of all of these theories, and makes the same predictions as does the conventional quantum mechanics. In addition, it eliminates the terrible problem of the "missing chaos," eliminates the quantum measurement problem, and it suggests that quantum mechanics can be engineered if the hidden variables themselves can be engineered. In the new approach, one goes a step further by considering hidden EM variables infolded inside the potentials themselves, including inside the quantum potential utilized by Bohm. The advantage of this assumption is that it poses an engineerable interpretation, after work by Stoney, Whittaker, and Ziolkowski. Further, the Russians have utilized this type of EM hidden variable theory, along with the quantum potential, to develop secret advanced weapons. The physics of this area is called energetics.

HIERONYMUS, T. GALEN

Founder of the American version of radionics, who patented a radionics machine and process to start the cycle of radionics in this country.

HILBERT, DAVID

Noted German mathematician, 1862-1943, who did advanced work in geometry, theory of invariants, integral equations, and mathematical physicist.

Noted particularly for his development of Hilbert space.

HOLE (ELECTRON HOLE)

An unfilled vacancy in an ordering of electron energy levels, as in a lattice or in the Dirac Sea.

Electron energy levels have two energy states: (1) positive energy state, and (2) negative energy state.  The positive energy states are associated with the positions of normal energy electrons.  The negative energy states are almost all filled, and this is the Dirac sea.

The absence of an electron from either energy state creates a particular kind of hole.  When an electron is absent from an electron positive energy state position in a lattice, that results in an excess of positive charge at that point vacated by the electron.   Note that when an electron then refills that hole (recombination occurs), the electron remains in a positive energy state, does not disappear,  and no radiation occurs.

When an electron is lifted from an electron negative energy state in the Dirac sea, that leaves behind a hole in the negative energy state in the Dirac sea.  When an electron subsequently refills that hole, it "falls" in and disappears, decaying to a lower energy level and emitting radiation due to the difference in the energy levels.

The difference between holes in the Dirac sea and holes in the electron positive energy levels in a lattice, are very different.  In short, they lead to two quite different kinds of "hole and electron" interactions.  In the lattice "hole-filling" (recombination), there is no excess radiation given off and the electron does not disappear from the positive energy continuum.  In the Dirac sea hole-filling, excess radiation is given off and the electron disappears from the positive energy continuum.

Under the influence of an electric field, a positive energy hole in a crystal lattice—where an electron has left and is therefore absent—will effectively propagate through the lattice as a positive charge, but usually much slower than the electron propagates in the opposite direction as an electron current.   The process is actually more complex and involves continuous interaction with the electrons and their physical distribution pattern and location.  The hole current is mathematically treated as a special positive charge current, often referred to as a positron current.  In a current-carrying conductor or semiconductor, one has a current of electrons traveling in one direction and simultaneously a current of holes (hole positrons) traveling in the opposite direction, but recombining.

As stated, in addition to lattice holes, there also can exist unfilled holes in the Dirac negative energy states comprising the vacuum, particularly when fields are present.  In this case, it is a negative energy hole.  A positive energy electron that falls into a Dirac sea hole will emit energy as it falls to that lower energy state.  To lift one of the electrons from the Dirac sea and leave a hole, energy must therefore be added to the negative energy electron in the Dirac hole.

When fields are present, Dirac holes may exist and may move as hole current in circuits under certain conditions.  The situation is complex; see Felix Finster, "Definition of the Dirac Sea in the Presence of External Fields," Adv. Theor. Math. Phys., Vol. 2, 1998, p. 963-985.  Updated copy (version 4) is on http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/hep-th/9705006.

When a free electron fills a positive energy hole in a lattice (positive electron energy state), this effectively disposes of both the hole and the free electron which is now a bound electron, and is called recombination.  The electron does not disappear.  In a material lattice, there is no energy radiation from this, just the disappearance of the hole and the "binding" of a free electron so that it is no longer free.

In visualizing positive hole currents, passing the hole current though a surplus of available electrons (as in a negative charge donor material) will result in "hole filling" and recombinations.  One may therefore speak of disposing of unwanted hole current by recombination, and in fact this is widely accomplished in semiconductors by controlling the doping.

HOLE CONDUCTION (LATTICE)

The movement of electron vacancies (holes) in a lattice  continually left behind by hopping of the electrons as they break loose from their bonded positions and move freely in an electron current.

When an electron hops out of a lattice bond, it leaves behind a bonding gap or "hole" in the positive electron energy state at that bond site, so that an extra positive charge appears there at the hole.  As the electrons move in one direction in a conducting lattice, the holes move in the opposite direction in a "positive current", but at a much slower pace than the electron current moves.

HOLE CURRENT (LATTICE)

See hole conduction (lattice).

HOMEOPATHY

A system of medical treatment based on the theory that certain diseases can be cured by giving very small doses of substances which in a healthy person would produce symptoms like those of the disease. (Opposed to allopathy).

Homeopathy is based upon formation and use of dimensioned potentials (particularly the potential composed of the extremely rapid "making and breaking" hydrogen bonds in a fluid) containing vacuum engines. Any material or solute, and therefore any molecule, contains its own specific vacuum engine, its own charges, and its own dimensioned potential. Dissolving the material in water, or even using a suspension of it in water, allows the bonding potential in the water to interact with the potential of the solute or suspension. Potentials superpose, and they also diffuse and mix their inner structures (vacuum engines) into each other. So the material or solute diffuses its vacuum engines into the interior of the hydrogen bonding potential, in effect ordering and templating the hydrogen bonding itself! Vigorous shaking of the suspension or solution assures that all the fluid and H-bonding potential is exposed to the solute of suspended particles, so that a thorough exchange of vacuum engines occurs. This process in homeopathy is called potentizing. It's actually just creating the desired internal vacuum engines in the H-bonding potential of the water. Once that's done, there's really no further need for the solute or the suspended particles. By repeatedly diluting the solution to the extreme, then one can reach a point where there is a high probability that not a single molecule of the original solute is remaining in the fluid. Yet in each dilution, shaking can be used to insure the even spread of the vacuum engines through the newly introduced H-bonding potential in the newly introduced water. At the end, there exists an altered fluid whose H-bonding potential now contains the desired vacuum engines. Drinking that water now introduces those vacuum engines into the body fluids, bloodstream, etc. The ingested dilute new vacuum engines will then diffuse through the various potentials of the body, and produce altered chemical functioning of the kind that could have been induced by the chemical or active solute material. The advantage is that the harsh material residue of the chemical or solute is not present in the body, as it is when allopathy is utilized.

HYPERFUNCTIONING

Functioning in hyperspace as opposed to 4-dimensional Minkowski space.

Higher topological functioning.

HYPERSPACE

Refers to a space of more than four dimensions, and specifically to those spatial dimensions outside the normal three.

IDENTITY OF OPPOSITES

On the boundary, A and not-A are identical.  If all of a thing is collected, one reaches the boundary of that thing and it turns into its own opposite.

INERTIAL FRAME

A frame of reference in which force-free bodies move along straight lines, and the postulates of special relativity are valid.

In the new approach, this notion is extended; even in an inertial frame, force-free bodies may move along straight lines, the postulates of special relativity may remain valid, and yet the EM hidden variable may induce other changes in the usual laws of nature due to the action of hidden vacuum engines infolded in the dimensioned local spacetime (vacuum potential).

INFOLDED HIDDEN DYNAMICS

Refers to:

(i) Bohm's hidden variable theory and the internal dynamics of the hidden variables/entities themselves, and

(ii) to the hidden biwave pairs comprising a scalar potential, with the internal dynamics of those waves such as tuning off harmonic frequency, multiplication, variation of phasing and magnitude, etc.

Also, by Whittaker 1903 the scalar potential can be decomposed into the bidirectional wavepair set in harmonic series. By Whittaker 1904, each of the waves in a biwave pair can be further decomposed into two potentials, so each pair of waves would consist of four potentials. That is, the entire set of internal biwave pairs can be replaced by four times as many internal "partial potentials" as was the number of biwave pairs. Then Whittaker 1903 can be applied once again to break each one of those scalar potentials into new biwave pairs, and so forth and so forth. So the potential can be expressed as waves within waves within waves, or potentials within potentials within potentials, and so on. The neat thing is that each successive infolding (internesting) is a higher dimensional functioning and a higher topology. So one can build (with some little pain!) specific infolded wave patterns that will work in—say—the 7th dimension of hyperspace, or the eighth dimension, and so on. This is why I called the internal structuring of a potential (or the two potentials comprising an EM wave) dimensioning the potential or the wave. As a half-baked nuclear engineer whom the Army never let practice his discipline, I wanted some way to directly engineer the nucleus. That has now been found. Unfortunately it has also already been highly weaponized in secrecy by one or more foreign nations. In other words, one can design a signal and assemble it (with some difficulty) that will flip one quark in a nucleon in an atom. That way one can transmute an element either into the next higher element isomer or the next lower element isomer. Using a quantum potential to "transport" the necessary vacuum engines, the effect can be accomplished at a great distance, in multiple targets simultaneously, and the effect is not shieldable. "Jumps" in nuclear transmutation can also be accomplished. The migration of electrons to and from an atom (as in solution, e.g.) makes and negates ions continuously. Thus continually the external potentials and the nuclear potentials intercommunicate. This means that their vacuum engines continually diffuse. Any dimensioning of the external potentials will be passed into the nuclear potentials as a dimensioning action also. If certain conditioning vacuum engines are present in the external potentials, then the slow diffusion into the nuclear potentials begins to affect the nucleons and their interactions, the quarks comprising the nucleons, the particles such as pions continually exchanged between nucleons, etc. The mechanism for nuclear transmutations and production of new species is there! I believe, e.g., and am working to more clearly express, that the major mechanism producing the new nuclear species in cold fusion experiments just such dimensioned potentials, involving the inadvertent dimensioning of potentials comprised of the hydrogen bondings of the water and other factors.

INFOLDED REAL VECTOR COMPONENTS

Well, simply take a set of real force vectors that altogether sum to a vector zero resultant.

That "vector zero system" is a zero with respect to forced translation of a particle or mass. It is not an absence per se, but is the presence of specifically hidden and "infolded" real vectors. Two elephants pushing each other to a draw form such a "zero-translating" system. That "zero system" is quite different from two crickets pushing against each other to a draw! Anyone who thinks all zeros are "absences" and who thinks all zeros are equal, is invited to try standing between the crickets and observing how he feels, then standing between the elephants and see how he feels. The latter might be a real bummer. So zeros can differ! And a zero can be a presence of many real things, all still there but "infolded" and "hidden," but just the absence of any one and only one thing. Even in arithmetic, e.g., we are free to pull 5-3-2 right out of 0, or pull out 4-7+8-6-2+5+1+1-3-1/2-1/2 (if I got the arithmetic correct!). And so on. So we have always used the fact that a net zero can have a real internal composition, without detailing it exactly. We teach our schoolchildren to do it, but fail to tell them what they are doing!

When you sum EM force fields to zero, the fields are still there and real. You have altered the energy of the system or volume, and also the potential energy of the system or volume. And you have done it in specific directions, magnitudes, etc. along the "fingers" of the infolded patterns. In short, you have made a specific vacuum engine. Mass, fluid, nuclei, molecules, etc. exposed to that "conditioned vacuum potential" may well undergo physical and chemical and electrical changes. Golden once performed experiments which powerfully conditioned the local vacuum, and all clocks and watches (mechanical, electrical, etc.) in the local area were awry for four days.

INFOLDING

With reference to signals, infolding means "placing the signal or modulation or change upon one or more of the internal bidirectional wavepairs comprising the scalar potential.

Since all EM potentials ultimately represent changes to the ambient vacuum potential, one has conditioned or altered the vacuum itself when infolding is utilized. Infolding of EM signals, vectors, and directions produces vacuum engines. By Whittaker's principle and Bearden's corollary, these vacuum engines can be designed to affect matter—including atomic nuclei, nucleons, etc.—in any manner desired.

INFORMATION CONTENT OF THE FIELD

Russian euphemism for the structuring of the hidden longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics, that comprise any EM potential, field, or wave.

INFRASONIC

Below sonic.

Frequencies below what the ear can hear. Below about 20 Hertz.

INTERFEROMETER

An instrument in which a wave is split into two waves or beams, which after traveling over different paths are subsequently reunited and display interference.

INTERFEROMETRY

Measurement of wavelengths of light and very small distances and thicknesses,

...for determining indices of refraction, and for analyzing small parts of a spectrum by means of the interference phenomena of light.

INTERNAL SPACE

ITERATED

Done repeatedly, like picking beans one at a time.

JOSEPHSON EFFECT

Flow of Cooper pairs (superconducting electron pairs) across a thin dielectric separating two superconducting electrons, in the absence of a voltage drop.

That is, the pair of electrons can "tunnel" through a thin insulating barrier.

JOSEPHSON JUNCTION

The thin dielectric separating two superconducting electrons, with subsequent Josephson tunneling of Cooper pairs.

JOSEPHSON TUNNELING

See Josephson effect.

JOULE

A measure of energy.

One joule equals one watt for one second. In physics the unit of work or energy in the MKS system, being the amount of work done by one newton acting through a distance of one meter, equal to 10,000,000 ergs.

JUNG, CARL GUSTOV

Noted Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist who founded Jungian analytical psychology, formulated the principle of synchronicity, and advanced and delineated collective unconscious mind.

From the content of his German patients, Jung predicted WW II two decades before it occurred.

KINDLING

Coherent integration (adding) of similar virtual components among the vast "noise" of dissimilar virtual components, so that the "signal-to-noise" ratio of the integrated signal steadily increases, and the integrated "observable signal" grows out of the background virtual state noise.

This "kindling" process is directly analogous to coherent integration of nondiscernible radar signals far beneath the received noise, to build and extract the real radar return signals from targets.  This sort of process dramatically increases the "sensitivity" of the radar.  Real, very tiny signals even 100 dB or more beneath the noise level can be retrieved in such fashion by modern radars.

Similar processes can integrate very minute signals already passed into the virtual state and presumed to be nonexistent.  Usually, however, the difference frequency between two frequencies at least one harmonic interval apart must be used, considering the vacuum's virtual flux state as an isotropic nonlinear medium.

One may also hypothesize that potentials and propagating signals may decrease with distance, but are never truly "lost" in that they never reach a total zero.  When they reach the quantum level, further decrease in amplitude simply results in their passing into the virtual state (subquantum level).

KIRCHHOFF'S CURRENT-LAW

At any time, the sum of the instantaneous currents flowing into a node or point in a circuit equals the sum of the instantaneous currents flowing out of that node or point.

KIRCHHOFF'S VOLTAGE LAW

At any time, the sum of all voltage rises in a closed loop circuit equals the sum of all drops in that closed loop circuit.

LAMB, WILLIS EUGENE JR.

American physicist and Nobelian who discovered the hyperfine structure of the hydrogen spectrum, and first measured the interaction of the vacuum energy that generates a change in the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, according to Dirac's theory and quantum electrodynamics.

LAMB SHIFT

A very small correction to the first excited state of the hydrogen atom due to interaction of the vacuum.

Willis Lamb experimentally confirmed this prediction of quantum electrodynamics to high accuracy.

LAMELLAR CURRENT

Current in thin layers.

Thin layers of current. Thin sheets of current.

LASER

A device that generates light in which all the photons are exactly in step and produce a coherent beam.

Laser light has one wavelength and is more easily controlled than other kinds of light. Use of a laser to perform interferometry is one way to create holograms; use of a laser to illuminate a hologram is one way to read it. Originally the word "laser" was an acronym that stood for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation." Note that when TiO2 particles in suspension, with a small amount of fluorescent dye added, are weakly illuminated by a small coherent light source (a laser), a tremendous room-filling output of coherent light emission occurs, by the anti-Stokes emission effect. This is lasing without population inversion, and it is a validated and easily testable overunity process. This is the process patented by Lawandy.

LASING WITHOUT INVERSION

The amplification of coherent light in an intensely scattering medium, comprised of  certain powdered laser crystals or suspensions of similar material, where a variety of phenomena such as gain narrowing and amplifying random walk of light propagating in the medium, combine to give laser emission with diffusive feedback.

Gain tends to depend on the volume of the medium, so that at a certain medium the gain in light amplification by the medium exceeds the losses, and the laser action results above this critical volume.  The intensity of the light scattering (multiply reflecting) in the medium then will increase rapidly  until an "explosion" of light results in an intense flash of coherent light in all directions from the medium volume.

If the excitation is still present, the process will be repeated and the energy density will again exceed the critical value, rapidly generating another intense flash of light.  This process can be repeated many times, given the presence of continued excitation.

A very interesting phenomena that can occur is coherent backscattering.  Here the light scatters over both a forward-time path and a time-reversed path, perhaps with each path consisting of more than 1,000 scatterings.  Because of time-reversal symmetry, the two waves (forward and backward) acquire exactly the same (though random!) phase.  So the two waves after all this 1,000 scatterings on their paths, meet and interfere constructively in the direction back toward the exciting light source.

In theory the mean free path can be made shorter and shorter, so that all the light would be trapped inside the medium.  This is called Anderson localization, and it has been reported in the literature; see D.S. Wiersma, P. Bartolini, A. Lagendiji, and R. Righini, "Localization of light in a disordered medium," Nature, Vol. 390, 1997, p. 671; John Sajeev, "Frozen light," ibid., p. 661-662.

This work grew out of original work called out by Letokhov but largely ignored for more than two decades.

References: D. Wiersma and A. Lagendijk, "Laser action in very white paint," Physics World, Jan. 1997, p. 33-37; — "Light diffusion with gain and random lasers," Physical Review E54, 1996, p. 4256; N.M. Lawandy et al., "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature, Vol. 368, 1994, p. 436; V.S. Letokhov, Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption," Sov. Phys. JETP, Vol. 26, 1968, p. 835.

Note that we have nominated a version of this process, together with consideration of the erroneously discarded Heaviside nondiverged energy flow component, as the fundamental mechanism proposed to be involved in gamma ray bursters, x-ray bursters, and in some gamma ray and x-ray flashes associated with atmospheric phenomena on earth in thunderstorms, etc.  We also nominated the missing Heaviside energy flow component as the agent accounting for the excess gravity (some 90% of the total gravity) in the arms of spiral galaxies that hole those arms intact so they do not fly apart.  See T.E. Bearden, "Dark Matter or Dark Energy?", Journal of New Energy, 4(4), Spring 2000, p. 4-11 (also available on http://www.cheniere.org); — "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Proceedings of Congress 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vol. 1, July 2000 , p. 86-98.  Also published in Journal of New Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 11-23.  Also carried on DoE open website http://www.ott.doe.gov/papersbooks.html and on http://www.cheniere.org.

LAW OF PHYSICS

A restriction placed upon the physical mechanisms that can occur under certain broad assumptions as to the background situation and environment.

Actually, in nature there are no such rigidly fixed "laws"; these are only man's synthesis for the behavior of large classes of systems under very general conditions. Any "law of physics" can be violated if the conditions contained in its assumptions are violated. Conservation laws are often touted as "laws of physics." Actually, the conservation laws assume a closed system or one in equilibrium, and a linear spacetime (Lorentz frame). If either or both of these assumptions is locally violated, any or all of the conservation laws can be violated locally, even though the overall global conservation is still upheld. Quite simply, in that case one has opened the system (broken symmetry). In particle physics, broken symmetry already results in violation of one or more of the conservation laws. In leading Russian physics journals, papers are regularly published containing unrestricted general relativity with concomitant violation of any and all conservation laws.

LAWANDY PATENTS

Patents covering and related to anti-Stokes emission (excess emission of energy) in strongly scattering, optically active media such as TiO2 particles in suspension.

More energy is emitted than one must input to stimulate the effect. It is being hailed as a new form of lasing, without the requirement for population inversion.

LETOKHOV, V. S.

Russian pioneer in excess emission phenomena from stimulated media.

LETOKHOV EFFECT

The excess emission (overunity emission of energy) phenomena in strongly scattering, optically active media, usually referred to as "negative absorption of the medium".

For an overview, see V. S. Letokhov, “Stimulated emission of an ensemble of scattering particles with negative absorption,” ZhETF Plasma, 5(8), Apr. 15, 1967, p. 262-265;  —“Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP, 26(4), Apr. 1968, p. 835-839; — “Laser Maxwell’s Demon,” Contemporary Physics, 36(4), 1995, p. 235-243.

LOCALITY

Characteristic where interactions are local in spacetime.

LOCALIZED

Confined to a small region of a large system rather than being extended through the system or at a distance.

LOCAL VIRTUAL PHOTON FLUX OF VACUUM

Refers to a local region of the vacuum, which also refers to the vacuum flux density of that region.

LONGITUDINAL COMPONENT

In EM waves, the longitudinal component of the fields along the direction of travel,

...as opposed to the transverse components at right angles to the direction of travel.

LONGITUDINAL E-FIELD

We may divide any electrical field into two components, a transverse component and a longitudinal component.

Of course one or the other may be a zero vector.

Compression wave gradients (differences) in density or pressure,

...considered in a direction from their origin along the direction of primary movement, vs. transverse waves, which act perpendicular to that direction.

LONGITUDINAL INTERIOR WAVE

In conventional theory, the electric portion of the EM wave is a transverse field oscillation, and the longitudinal component is essentially zero.

In the new "infolded" wave approach, there is no overall transverse gradient in the vacuum potential, but there is an infolded longitudinal gradient which oscillates "inside the vacuum potential." This is rather like a "pressure wave" transmitted under water, without causing a surface wave involving physical upheaval and fall-off of the water. In EM, by analogy the speed of the "bulk upheaval" transverse wave is nominally c, the speed of light in vacuum [but see discussion of galloping waves, for what really happens!]. The speed of the pressure wave, under water, may be very much greater than c, because it is a special "tunneling" process and it also involves the galloping wave effect. Experimental measurement of superluminal tunneling velocities—such as more than 4c—are already well-known in the literature.

To better visualize this "pressure wave," consider that it is like a sort of "velocity modulation" upon the edge of the conventionally-visualized plane wave front of a traveling transverse wave, except now the plane itself does not move. All the succeeding planes are "bumped" by the velocity modulation of one plane, and so the velocity modulation propagates through (inside) the vacuum potential as a modulated pressure wave, without transverse change of the potential.

Now we have a very special medium! It consists of bidirectional EM wave pairs, one passing through the other. In such a case, it is already known that the speed of a "planar wave front" in the superposition and resulting interference of two oppositely moving waves can in fact greatly exceed the speed of light momentarily, then slow dramatically below than the speed of light, etc., so long as the average velocity is c. This is called the galloping wave effect. [E.g., see William G. Harter et al., "Galloping waves and their relativistic properties, American Journal of Physics, 53(7), July 1985, p. 671-679.]. Since the plane wavefront within the interior can in fact vary its velocity, we are quite free to use this "velocity pulse modulation" effect of wavefront speed variation, to place signal intelligence upon the planar wave front speed variations. So we can transmit hidden pressure waves with intelligence on them, through the interior of the vacuum potential. Further, the restriction to an average velocity of c does not have to apply, and the planar pressure pulses can be transmitted much faster than c. This is the basis of the work Fogal and I are struggling with, in order to achieve superluminal communication. It is also what we have been struggling with in an effort to come up with a communication system that can propagate infolded signals inside the H-bonding potential of the ocean itself, so that high-data-rate communications with deep submarines could be utilized, at any distance, and the huge, gawky, frightfully expensive, and environment-affecting ELF systems be done away with. We also think it should eventually be possible to develop an underwater radar type of system, but it's far too early at this point to try to conceptualize just exactly how it would work.

LONGITUDINAL WAVE

A "pressure" type of wave, similar to sound, in which the vibrations are along the direction of travel of the wave.

Hence, a wave composed of alternating densifications and rarefactions, where we focus upon the longitudinal component of the changes. In the past we have used the term "scalar waves" to imply longitudinal standing waves, such as in one infolded Stoney-Whittaker wavepair inside the scalar potential. In classical EM theory, the Poynting vector predicts no longitudinal wave of energy from a time-varying, electrically charged source. In fact, even in the ordinary theory, an exact solution of the problem does allow this longitudinal wave, as shown by Keech and Corum, International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 20(1), 1981, pp. 63-68. Conventionally, as explained elsewhere in this glossary, the classical electromagnetic wave is modeled as a vector string wave, comprised of transverse vibrations on implicitly assumed material taut strings in the vacuum. In the new approach, such transverse vector force field waves (Hertz waves) do not exist as such in vacuum; instead, two coupled, dynamic scalar potentials exist there. The E and B fields are formed and exist as the these potentials and their gradient coupling to spinning charged detecting mass particles.

LONGITUDINALLY

Of or in length. Running or placed or operating or changing lengthwise. Opposed to transverse.

LORENTZ, HENDRIK ANTOON

Renowned Dutch physicist and Nobelist, 1853-1928, who developed the Lorentz transformations and Fitzgerald-Lorentz contraction.

He shared the Nobel Prize for discovering the Zeeman effect.

LORENTZ INVARIANCE

An inertial frame is independent of the velocity of the frame relative to any other frame.

LORENTZ INVARIANCE PRINCIPLE

The principle that the laws of physics are the same in all reference frames.

LORENTZ REGAUGING

Changing the two potentials in the Maxwell-Heaviside equations in potential form so that the resulting equations have the variables separated.

An unfortunate effect is that this discards all Maxwellian systems far from equilibrium in their vacuum exchange, hence discards all permissible Maxwellian COP>1.0 systems.

LORENTZ SYMMETRY

Referring to the symmetrical regauging by Lorentz of Maxwell's equations.

LORENZ, LUDWIG VALENTIN

Scientist who first changed Maxwell's equations—two years after their publication in 1865—by (effectively) symmetrically regauging them, thereby unwittingly discarding all Maxwellian systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium with the active vacuum.

See L. V. Lorenz, "On the identity of the vibrations of light with electrical currents," Philosophical Magazine, Vol. 34, 1867, p. 287-301. In this paper Lorenz gave essentially what today is called the Lorentz symmetrical regauging.

Comment: (gratefully received from T. Barrett)  This paper gave f(t-r/c) functions.  Fitzgerald said that Lorenz's functions were essentially the same as his, and Fitzgerald became a leading proponent of "retarded potentials".  But it is believed that Fitzgerald was unaware of Lorenz's work until the 1880's, so he is given credit for parallel development.  Some people talk of Fitzgerald-Lorenz functions.  This is a regauging, but the term "gauge" (inspired by railroad gauges) was first introduced by Hermann Weyl in the 1900s.  He used it for a change in length and was shot down by Einstein's theory—Weyl's theory was not relativistic.  The idea resurfaced in the 1920s when quantum theory was being formulated, but this time it meant "change in phase" and not "change in length".

Comment by T.E.B.: Thus "Lorentz" regauging of Maxwell's equations really was first done by Lorenz in 1967.  However, not too much attention was paid to L. V. Lorenz' work (e.g., by Fitzgerald).  When H. A. Lorentz later used symmetrical regauging (essentially Lorenz' regauging), his influence was so great that it was adopted straightaway and has remained adopted to this day.

LOW ENERGY NUCLEAR REACTION (LENR)

Cold fusion, or the anomalous transmutations of elements which occur in certain electrolytes with specially prepared palladium electrodes.

The transmutations occur even though in conventional theory there is insufficient energy to accomplish them.

Conventional science has rather vehemently attacked cold fusion and many of the cold fusion scientists, even though there are now hundreds of successful experiments in multiple laboratories throughout the world.

In our view, once the properly-prepared palladium lattices are loaded with positive ions, the formation of temporary, fleeting time-reversal zones in the electrolyte temporarily reverses the law of attraction and repulsion of charges.  Thus H+ ions, e.g., may attract each other in even numbers (opposite numbers are forbidden by the Pauli exclusion principle), so closely that each enters the strong (nuclear) force region of the other, so that the group becomes a quasi-nucleus.  Note that the gluons are partially "unglued" by the TRZ formation, and so the preferred method of "decay" of the anomalous TRZ state as the surrounding electrolyte ions move to negate it, is by flipping of a quark.  One D+ ion coupled to one H+ ion, e.g., when attracted into a quasi-nucleus in a TRZ, may decay into tritium by flipping one quark and changing one of the protons into a neutron.  Two H+ ions may decay into deuterium (D+) by flipping one quark and turning an H+ into a neutron.  Two D+ ions may simply "tighten further" into a real nucleus as the TRZ decays, and result in an alpha particle (helium nucleus).  The TRZ hypothesis does precisely explain the most important reactions that are experimentally shown to occur.  For more on this hypothesis, see T. E. Bearden, "EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified Field Theory with Emphasis on Time-Charging Interactions of Longitudinal EM Waves," Explore, 8(6), 1998, p. 7-16; — ., "EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified Field Theory with Emphasis on Time-Charging Interactions of Longitudinal EM Waves," Journal of New Energy, 3(2/3), 1998, p. 12-28.

MAGNETIC DIPOLE

Paired north and south magnetic poles of equal strength over microscopic or macroscopic distance.

MAGNETIC INDUCTION

The act of a change in magnetic field producing an electric field at right angles, which in turn produces electron flow.

MAGNETIC SPIN

Refers to the intrinsic angular momentum, known as spin, of electrons, protons, and neutrons, etc.

The electrons combined in an atom or ion have a resultant angular momentum, that is the combined intrinsic spin of the electrons and the angular momentum due to their motion around the nucleus. There is also a magnetic moment associated with this angular momentum (spin) whenever it is nonzero. Therefore atoms or ions with nonzero spin are magnetic atoms or ions. This is often loosely referred to as "magnetic spin." It is actually the magnetic moment of nonzero spin.

MAGNETOELECTRONICS

New microelectronic components which exploit the spin of the electron rather than its charge.

References: A Barthelemy et al., "Giant Steps with Tiny Magnets," Physics World, Nov. 1994, p. 34-38;  G. Prinz, "Magnetoelectronics," Science, Vol. 282, 1998, p. 1660.

MAGNETORESISTANCE

A change in electrical resistivity in a material when a magnetic field is applied to the material.

MAGNETORESISTANCE, COLOSSAL

A very large change in electrical resistance observed in the manganese perovskite materials when a magnetic field is applied to them.  The effect in these materials is the largest magnetoresistance effect known at present.

See N. A. Babushkina et al., "Metal-insulator transition induced by oxygen isotope exchange in the magnetoresistive perovskite manganites," Nature, Vol. 31, 1998, p. 159; L. I. Balcells et al., "High-field magnetoresistance at interfaces in manganese perovskites," Phys. Rev. B, Vol. 58, 1998, p. R14697; M. Blamire et. al., "Understanding and utilizing colossal magnetoresistance materials," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A., Vol. 356, 1998, p. 1469-1712.

MAGNETOSTATIC SCALAR POTENTIAL

Roughly, the "pole strength" differential between the two poles of a magnetic dipole.

Anyone who wishes may polish this definition.

MASSLESS DISPLACEMENT CURRENTS

Currents without mass.

Examples in the standard theory include df/dt, dE/dt, dP/dt, dB/dt, etc.

MATTER

Highly condensed 3-spatial energy, compressed by the factor c2

and with the observation process d/dt having been applied to the fundamental masstime entity to provide mass as a frozen snapshot.  Matter, of course, has internal structure, order and organization, and dynamics.  All matter is in a continuous energetic exchange with its vacuum (4-spatial) environment.

MAXWELL, JAMES CLERK

Brilliant scientist who first formulated the unified theory of electricity and magnetism.

James Clerk Maxwell was born on June 13, 1831 in Edinburgh, Scotland. In 1847 he entered the University of Edinburgh, then transferred to Cambridge in the fall of 1850. After graduation, he stayed on at Cambridge in a research position. He was elected a Fellow of Trinity College and placed on the staff of college lecturers. In 1856 he returned to Scotland, where he took up a Chair of natural Philosophy at Marishal College, Aberdeen. In autumn, 1860 he took a new position as Chair and Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy at King's College, London (a position he held until 1865, at which time he resigned). Maxwell was financially independent. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1861, while at King's College. From 1865 to 1871 he resided at his ancestral Scottish country home, Glenlair, developing his major ideas into book form. Maxwell returned to Cambridge in 1871, where he became the first holder of the Cavendish Chair of Experimental Physics. There he also supervised the construction and operation of Cavendish Laboratory. His treatise on electromagnetism appeared in 1873. He held his position at Cambridge until he died on Nov. 5, 1879 at age 48, of a form of stomach cancer—the same ailment that had killed his mother when he was a child. [Thanks to Encyclopaedia Britannica!]

MAXWELL (UNIT)

Unit of magnetic flux, in the cgs system.

MAXWELL'S ELECTRODYNAMICS

Maxwell's electrodynamics is Maxwell's equations.

MAXWELLIAN SYSTEM

Any physical or electromagnetic system whose electrodynamic operations obey James Clerk Maxwell's electrodynamics model.

The term is usually applied with respect to those systems which obey a highly reduced subset of Maxwell's after the Lorentz regauging of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations. This subset is now inappropriately referred to as "Maxwell's equations".  This is unfortunate.  As a result, today many scientists and most engineers no longer understand that Maxwell's theory—when embedded in a higher topology algebra—permits a vast richness of additional EM systems and behaviors, including full unified field theory operations.  In the standard U(1) gauge symmetry electrodynamics, all these higher symmetry functions and systems are excluded a priori.  From our view, this is particularly sad since these arbitrary reductions of Maxwell's theory arbitrarily excluded all EM systems far from equilibrium in their exchange with the active vacuum.  Hence almost all scientists and engineers believe it is against the very laws of nature to propose an electrical power system that produces more energy out—and more work in the load—than the energy input made by the operator himself.  This sad error has resulted in (1) crippled electrical power systems that extract their output energy from the vacuum but kill themselves faster than they power their loads, (2) the giant pollution of the earth, (3) extraordinary energy costs, (4) struggles and wars over oil and energy resources, and (5) the looming giant economic collapse of the economies of many nations.  Further, unless this latter facet is checked, it may also lead to (6) the unleashing of all the weapons of mass destruction in the arsenals of many nations, destroying all civilization and much of the biosphere.

McCREA

MICHELSON, ALBERT ABRAHAM

German-born American physicist who invented an interferometer (Michelson interferometer) named after him.  Michelson used his interferometer in a renowned experiment designed to measure the velocity of the earth through the ether, which would produce a shift in his interferometer pattern.  No such shift was observed, which indicated the absence of an ether wind and was largely responsible for the downfall of the concept of the material ether which had been assumed previously.

Reference: Albert A. Michelson and Edward Morley, "Influence of Motion of the Medium on the Velocity of Light," American Journal of Science, Vol. 31, 1886, p. 377-386; — "On the Relative motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Ether," ibid., Vol. 34, 1887, p. 333-345.

MIND

From the medical view, with thanks to Webster's Medical Desk Dictionary, Merriam-Webster Inc., Springfield, Massachusetts, 1986: (1) The element or complex of elements in an individual that feels, perceives, thinks, wills, and especially reasons; (2) the conscious mental events and capabilities in an organism, (3) the organized conscious and unconscious adaptive mental activity of an organism.

See an extended discussion of mind under energy.

MIND-BODY COUPLING

MIND-MATTER INTERACTION

The n-space interaction between the time-like mind and its time-like operations and the 3-spatial physical body and its 3-space operations.  To first order, we may treat these interactions in four dimensions.

MIND OPERATIONS

MOTION

MOTIONLESS ELECTROMAGNETIC GENERATOR (MEG)

Transformer-like COP>1.0 electrical power generator invented by Bearden, Kenny, Hayes, Moore, and Patrick which powers the transformer core with a permanent magnet, but separates the curled magnetic vector potential A (the magnetic field B) from the uncurled magnetic vector potential A, so that the magnetic field flux is retained in the core while the A-potential is replenished outside the core and adjacent to it.

The overunity mechanism is thus provided by a version of the Aharonov-Bohm experiment, which proves that this splitting of the A-potential does occur and that the uncurled A-potential will interact energetically with electrons.  In short, by "splitting the potential" and potentializing two paths to the same energy density as the original unsplit potential, the MEG doubles the available potential energy available via the permanent magnet dipole's broken 3-symmetry in the active vacuum.  Both the curled A-potential (magnetic field) inside the core and the uncurled A-potential outside the core interact simultaneously with the output coils when pulsed.  Thus the output coils "doubly interact" instead of singly interacting.  This "double-dipping" of available energy flow allows permissible COP>1.0, since the system is far from equilibrium with the active vacuum exchange.

Pulsing applies the Lenz law effect to both the split potentials, further increasing the energy density of the two interactions with the output coils.  The MEG nominally exhibits from COP = 1.7 to COP = 10, using two input coils.

See M.W. Evans, P.K. Anastasovski, T.E. Bearden et al., "Classical Electrodynamics Without the Lorentz Condition: Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Optik 111(6), 2000, p. 246-248; — "Inconsistencies of the Maxwell-Heaviside Theory of Electrodynamics: The Aharonov-Bohm Effect," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Winter 1999,p. 236-240; — "Vacuum Energy Flow and Poynting Theorem from Topology and Gauge Theory," submitted to Physica Scripta (in review); — "The Aharonov-Bohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic Energy Inherent in the Vacuum," submitted to Optik (in review), — "Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with O(3) Electrodynamics, Foundations of Physics Letters, 2001 (in press).  See also T.E. Bearden, "Energy from the Active Vacuum: The Motionless Electromagnetic Generator," in M.W. Evans (Ed.), Contemporary Optics and Electrodynamics, Wiley, 2001, 3 vols. (in press), comprising a Special Topic issue as vol. 114, I. Prigogine and S.A.  Rice (series eds), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley.

MULTICOLLECTION

Multiple collection of the same energy flow, by rerouting the passed Poynting energy back around to the collectors for another pass by them, with additional collection.

A common means of "returning" the Poynting flow for additional collection is retroreflection, as in phase conjugate reflection. Since a nominal energy collection fraction on a single pass is only about 10-13, a great many re-passes of the same energy can be returned. Work is done on the collector in each pass. One joule of energy can actually perform many joules of work; this is a change to the usual statement of the work-energy theorem, which assumes single pass, single collection only.

MULTIPASS RETROREFLECTION

Iteratively retroreflecting the same Poynting energy flow, each time it impinges on and passes by an intercepting collector, so that multiple passes of the same energy flow are made onto and by the collector.

More and more of the passing enormous energy is collected as more and more passes by are made. The collected energy is then dissipated as work in the circuit or device. Such processing can allow overunity EM circuits and devices.

MULTIPASSES

Multiple passes. See multipass retroreflection.

NANOTECHNOLOGY

The fabrication of devices with atomic or molecular precision, to produce operating devices with minimum feature sizes less than 100 nanometers.

Often described as a marriage between chemistry and engineering.  The self-assembling of the units is referred to as molecular manufacturing, and the devices are built one atom or molecule at a time with programmed nanoscopic arms.  As occurred with the modern machine and technology age, the first requirement is to develop the tools that do the working, and the "tools that build the tools."   That fundamental work is off the ground and running already.

Nanomanufacturing plants capable of manufacturing bulk materials or arbitrary structures with atomic precision are envisioned, with almost every atom being placed precisely as desired.

Nanotechnology may well produce the next great scientific revolution.  As an example, nanobots have been visualized that will circulate in a human body's bloodstream and specifically attack cancer cells.  Nanobots for cleaning up air and water pollution are possible.  Food synthesis is envisioned since the technology provides the ability to combine molecules directly.

As with all technologies, the ethics lies in the hands of the system designer and the user.  Increased technology always allows greater use for good and greater use for bad purposes.  Because of the extraordinary "evil uses" that can be employed in the use of nanobots, Bill Joy, chief scientist of Sun Microsystems, recommends no further development of nanotechnology and no further research.  He stated,"… we have the possibility not just of weapons of mass destruction but of knowledge-enable mass destruction… hugely amplified by the power of self-replication… we are on the cusp of the further protection of extreme evil…"

Joy's fears are well-founded.  Already the union of artificial intelligence with self-replicating nanobots is foreseen.  If that union is successful, one can foresee the unleashing of what can only be called "species" of self-replicating, smart nanobots bent on the mass destruction of humanity in various ways.

Also, contrast the nanobots to our discussion of even more advanced nanotechnology of causal system robots (CSRs) using functioning system of causal fields (sets of longitudinal EM waves and their dynamics, prior to having interacted with charged mass, and thence being systems that are functioning sets of spacetime curvatures).  We have already survived one massive world-wide insertion of an armada of such CSRs—fortunately first generation systems and with no countermeasures, so they were easily detected and destroyed.  We may not survive the next such insertion and attack, as the maturity of the CSRs increases.

Considering the usual focus of governments and human control systems, my prediction is that detrimental, self-replicating, smart nanobots for use in war, surprise strategic attack, and mass destruction of human targets is already on the early planning boards.  The obvious war applications of nanotechnology will advance faster than the peaceful applications, behind a public screen of simpler benevolent developments.  This is almost certain, since the lead time for maturing the nanotechnology is from 10 to 20 years.  This long lead time rules out most private capital ventures of substantial magnitude.  It results in the requirement for government funding, just as development of the atomic bomb was government funded.  As a nanotechnology "arms race" begins and heats up, one will see the equivalent of new  but hidden "Manhattan Projects" in specialized mass destruction weapons nanotechnology.  Rather substantial funding of nanotechnology research and development by several nations is already a fact.

Unethical aspects aside, the potential for useful and benevolent purposes of nanotechnology is very great.   The development in this new field is now beginning to escalate almost exponentially, year by year, funded primarily by governments and to a more limited extent by private companies.

Reference: David Cook, Jessica Voorhees, and Brian Valz, "Nanotechnology: The Coming Molecular Revolution," available on website http://nanotech.about.com.

NEGATIVE ABSORPTION OF THE MEDIUM

Excess emission from a medium, as in the Letokhov work and in Bohren's experiment. The excess energy is received from the vacuum interaction.

NEGATIVE RESISTOR

Any component or function or process that freely receives energy from outside the system in unusable or disordered form and outputs that energy in usable, ordered form inside the system, where that is the net function performed.

We specifically do not include "differential" negative resistors such as the tunnel diode, thyristor, and magnetron which dissipate and disorder more energy from the system, overall, than they order and furnish to the system in their negative resistance regime.

NEGENTROPIC

Functioning to produce or involve negentropy.

Reordering previously scattered energy without requiring the operator or experimenter to input energy to do the reordering work (an example is passive retroreflection of scattered EM energy).

NEGENTROPIC ENGINEERING

Expending a little bit of energy to form a dipole or dipolarity, and then intercepting, collecting, and using some of the enormous EM energy freely extracted by the dipole from the vacuum indefinitely, without using any of the extracted EM energy to scatter the charges in the dipole and destroy the dipole, thereby shutting of the vacuum's furnishing of copious free energy.

NEWTONIAN 3RD LAW

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

This law should be extended and restated something like this: "for every action there is an opposite and equal reaction if the causative mechanism of the reaction is allowed to occur and not first redirected away from its target." An example of a violation of Newton's third law as usually stated, is provided by the emission of a phase conjugate replica wave from a phase conjugate mirror material. No matter how powerfully pumped, the PCM does not recoil. The reason is that the antiwave cause of Newtonian third law recoil was intercepted by nonlinear multiwave interaction before it could reach its target nuclei, and rediverted away from the atom and on out of the material. Since the causative mechanism for Newtonian recoil did not occur, the PCM did not recoil.

NEWTONIAN RECOIL

As used in the paper, refers to Newton's third law reaction created as the recoil of the nucleus of an atom which absorbs an incoming EM longitudinal wave, or emits one.

NEWTON'S THIRD LAW

For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction.

In Maxwell's electrodynamics, Newton's third law is missing.  It is missing because of the coarseness of the modeling which Maxwell was forced to use.  Maxwell's seminal paper was read in 1864 and published in 1865.  At the time, neither the electron nor the atom had been discovered, much less the nucleus of the atom.  A molecule was just a blob with no structure.  Electricity was considered to be a thin material fluid, flowing through the wires much like water through a pipe.  In fact, Maxwell actually wrote a material fluid flow theory, since hydrodynamics was developed at the time.

So there was, at the time, no notion of the Drude electron gas in a wire and the positively charged nuclei in the atoms in the wire.  So there was no notion of two oppositely charged entities in the conductor, both reacting to any EM field entering from space and interacting with the wire.

Further, Newton's third law had always been used mystically without any known cause.  It was experimentally established that the reaction occurred, but scientists were forced to just assume its occurrence.

Consequently, Maxwell wrote equations for the reaction of a unitary electric fluid in the conductors.  He knew that the wire recoiled, but wrote no equations containing the cause of Newton's third law reaction.

What really happens in the wire is that both the Drude electrons rearrange their positioning vis a vis the lattice, resulting in an apparent current.  The actual movement (drift velocity) of the electrons down the wire is very slow, in a nominal case being a few inches per hour.  The electrons, having spin, act as little gyros so to speak, longitudinally restrained by the repulsion of the electrons ahead.  So the electrons precess laterally, and spend most of their movement in lateral precession movement.  This alone proves that the perturbing force is longitudinal, as indeed does Whittaker's decomposition of the scalar potential into longitudinal EM waves.  The gradient of the scalar potential (the E-field) is also such a decomposition.  But the electron precession waves—which is what our instruments measure in the wire—are indeed lateral waves, in general consonance with Faraday's notion that the force field lines were physical and like taut strings.  Maxwell merely assumed Faraday's notion, to give us the transverse EM wave in space.  Consequently, the old electrodynamics envisioned that fluid vibrations (ether vibrations) from space had been intercepted by the wire to shake the electric fluid accordingly.  And since that electric fluid obviously shook laterally, that "proved" that the waves in spacetime were lateral "plucked taut string" type waves.  Actually it proved no such thing, because they were measuring electron precession waves.

The positive nuclei usually have a m/q ratio several hundred thousand times the m/q ratio of an equal charge of electrons.  Hence the massive nuclei also react to the field interaction, and move very slightly in the opposite sense from the electrons.  That reaction is ignored in Maxwell's general equations, though when the equations are applied, they require that nuclei movement.

In short, the electrons precess and the nuclei recoil oppositely, and that is the generation of Newton's third law reaction.

When we excite a wire antenna with a wave excitation, we produce both electron precession waves and nuclear recoil waves in the nuclei.  These two waves are of equal energy, though the nuclei waves are very highly damped in magnitude because of the high m/q ratio of the nuclei. Nonetheless, each of these "lateral" waves slaps the vacuum potential with identical energy.  So two equal waves of spacetime curvature occur.  I can be seen that the net vacuum wave is actually a longitudinal EM wave, composed of waves of vacuum (spacetime) energy rarefaction and densification.  Electrodynamicists, considering the vacuum to be filled with a material ether, used the "effect" wave in matter as the cause wave.  Hence they used a transverse EM wave in spacetime, when indeed the spacetime wave is and always was a longitudinal EM wave, just as Tesla insisted.

Maxwell's equations are based primarily on the interaction of field and single charge.  Actually, the reaction is always between the field and a dipole.  Even when the field interacts with an "isolated charge", there are clustering virtual charges of opposite sign around the "isolated" charge so that the "isolated charge" is actually a set of composite dipoles, where each dipole consists of a virtual charge of opposite sign and a differential piece of the isolated observable charge.  So the Newtonian third law reaction is also there with an isolated charge, but occurs in the vacuum itself, resulting in vacuum polarization.

Nonetheless, the "transverse EM wave in vacuum" notion is so embedded in electrodynamics that we seem to be stuck with it.  It means, however, that the "field in space" used in electrodynamics must be regarded as only a sort of "convenient transfer function" and not a real transverse oscillation entity.  This of course accords with Feynman and Wheeler's pointing out that only the potential for the EM wave exists in space, in case a charge is brought in to interact with its gradients.

And needless to say, since the vacuum is a big potential and only potentials and potential changes can exist in it, then Whittaker's 1903 paper decomposing the scalar potential into longitudinal EM waves is paramount and decisive.  EM waves in the vacuum a priori must be longitudinal waves, because they are only the changes to the vacuum potential.  And that potential at each and every point, changes and all, decomposes into longitudinal EM waves in 3-space with convergent longitudinal EM waves incoming from the time domain.

NISBET

NON-ABELIAN ELECTRODYNAMICS

NONLINEAR MATERIAL

A substance whose optical properties vary with the intensity of the light.

Most optical substances are very weakly nonlinear, but a great deal of research has been exerted to find materials with stronger nonlinearities. Also, a material which creates and emits the fundamental and additional harmonic frequencies when illuminated with a single frequency. Many nonlinear materials also weakly produce time-reversed (phase conjugate) fundamentals and/or harmonics when illuminated with a fundamental frequency. Such a nonlinear material that creates time reversed waves (phase conjugate replica waves) is said to function as a phase conjugate mirror. The phase conjugate replica reappears in space back along the path in space—even through a highly distorting medium—where the input stimulus (signal wave) has traveled or is traveling.

Thus the phase conjugate replica or time-reversed wave normally backtracks its signal wave stimulus to the distant source of that signal wave, even hundreds or thousands of miles away. This "crawfishing" and "concentrating" characteristic is also known as retroreflection. Note that an ordinary EM wave diverges as a function of the radius traveled away from its emission source, while a time-reversed or phase conjugate replica wave will converge as a function of the radius traveled away from its emission source (the mirror), if its stimulus signal wave was emitted from a distant point source. Ideally, a phase conjugate mirror produces a single time-reversed wave in addition to the input signal wave. By stressing (pumping) the mirror with the input of two additional opposing waves (ideally orthogonal to the input or signal wave), the phase conjugate replica wave output by the mirror is amplified, and may contain up to all the energy in the pumping waves.

NON SEQUITUR

A conclusion or inference not following from the original argument or premise.

NONEQUILIBRIUM THERMODYNAMICS

Colloquial term referring to the new thermodynamics of self-organizing systems and structures in disequilibrium with their environment.

Since the 1960s, there has emerged in physics (and in thermodynamics!) a surprising new area: the physics of far-from-equilibrium systems and the self-organization and large-scale ordering of such systems. E.g., a single Bénard cell (a particular self-organizing circulation structure in convection-type systems), may involve the coherent behavior of some 1021 molecules, in a region of convection where one would classically expect only randomness. These new physics and thermodynamics interactions are surprisingly being found in a very wide variety of systems and phenomena, including living systems and nonliving systems. The phenomena of interest include dissipative systems in disequilibrium with their environment, but with stability of their own systems and forms. Open systems in disequilibrium with their environment can permissibly achieve COP>1.0, and they can exhibit local negentropy. The physics and thermodynamics of such systems is still rapidly developing. For a good overview, see Gregoire Nicolis, "Physics of far-from-equilibrium systems and self-organization," in The New Physics, edited by Paul Davies, Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 316-347. For a full technical presentation, see G. Nicolis and I. Prigogine, Self-Organization in Nonequilibrium Systems, Wiley, New York, 1977.

NONLINEAR MATERIAL

In physics, any substance whose response to an external causative or influencing agent is not proportional to the magnitude of the causative agent or influence.

NONLINEAR OPTICAL FUNCTIONING (NLO FUNCTIONING)

Functioning in a manner prescribed by nonlinear optics and quantum optics,

...particularly with respect to time-reversal effects, use of phase conjugate mirrors, phase conjugate reflection, and pumping for amplified phase conjugate reflection.

To quote Knight, "A phase conjugate mixing device has remarkable optical properties: perfect retroreflection, the complete cancellation of optical aberrations and inhomogeneities in wavefronts, and the ability to reverse an optical beam and return it to its source."

NONLINEAR PHASE CONJUGATE OPTICS

See phase conjugate optics.

NONLOCALIZATION

Producing or rendering an effect or effect-producing agent at a distance, rather than at the immediate location of the effector.

Extended throughout a large region or system, or to a distant part of a large region or system, rather than being confined to a small region of the large region or system.

NON-RIEMANNIAN (GEOMETRY)

Riemannian geometry is the geometry of Riemannian manifolds;

i.e., manifolds having an infinitesimal squared distance ds that is everywhere positive. A non-Riemannian geometry violates this property. [A manifold is a topological space with certain technical characteristics.]

NUCLEONS

Name for the neutrons or the protons in a nucleus.  In the nucleus, the neutrons and protons are continually changing one into the other by exchange of the charge.

O(3) ELECTRODYNAMICS

OPEN SYSTEM

A system that communicates with its environment, and exchanges energy, matter, or both between system and environment.

The system may be in equilibrium with that exchange, so that it effectively does not retain and utilize received environmental energy to power loads or accomplish external work.  Note that it may in fact receive and store excess energy from the environment, or give up energy to the environment, and then remain in equilibrium under its new potential energy conditions.  That is, the system may asymmetrical regauge itself but not utilize any of the regauging energy to accomplish external work.  When potential is applied to an electromagnetic system, the system is similarly asymmetrical regauged and its potential energy is increased.  However, if the system then destroys its source of regauging potential energy faster than it powers its load, it is said to symmetrically regauge itself when discharging its freely received excitation energy.

The system may be far from equilibrium in its energetic exchange with its environment, and if it asymmetrically discharges its freely received excitation energy, it can exhibit COP>1.0.  In that case the system effectively retains and utilizes some of its freely received environmental energy to power loads or accomplish external work, and the operator himself does not have to furnish that part of the energy dissipated as useful work.

OPTICAL SWITCHING

Refers to switching of optical signals, or switching using optical frequency switching techniques, components, and circuits.

ORTHODOX TRANSISTORS

Ordinary transistors in use today.

Such transistors will not perform the Fogal semiconductor special functions.

ORTHOGONAL ROTATION

Simply speaking, a rotation from one direction to a direction at right angles to it.

The Lorentz transform of special relativity, e.g., is a formula for the rotation of an object and all its parts away from its line of motion, as a function of the object's velocity, in a direction toward the time axis. The speed c just represents a full orthogonal turn, so that the intersection of the object with the observer 3-space, along the original line of motion, is zero.

To the observer, the three dimensional object (at speeds less than c) has become a two-dimensional plane moving at speed c. In a space of more than 4 dimensions, the orthorotation may be toward a higher spatial dimension rather than toward the time dimension. As can be seen, such orthorotation is intimately connected with the transformation of an electron or electron/positron pair into a photon, and vice versa. Orthorotations are extremely important when one models the physics of mind and matter interaction, and the physics of a living organisms including both its mind and its physical body—as in psychoenergetics.

OSCILLATING QUANTUM WELL

A quantum well which is oscillating in magnitude and sometimes in sign.

OVERPOTENTIAL

Essentially the overpotential (as in an electrode in a solution) is a shift in the Fermi level necessary to allow the electron in the electrode metal to have energies overlapping with vacant acceptor levels in molecules adjacent to the electrode in the solution.

The overpotential effect appears at small "double surfaces" of things in very close contact, particularly in electrochemistry and in solid state physics. The overpotential enables electron transfer, e.g., by tunneling. The overpotential increases with the log of the reaction rate that occurs at the overpotential location.

For a small reaction rate, the overpotential is small; but for a small increase in the overpotential there occurs a dramatic increase of reaction rate. Fogal has utilized the overpotential effect in his semiconductor, to great advantage in accomplishing unusual charge blocking and other special effects.

One of the world experts in the theory and use of the overpotential is Dr. J. O'M. Bockris. E.g., for a short overview pointing out the importance of the overpotential, see Bockris, "Overpotential: a lacuna in scientific knowledge," Journal of Chemical Education, 48(6), June 1971, p. 352-358 (a paper which Bockris graciously sent me some years ago). Quoting from that reference, p. 355: "The formal definition of overpotential is 'the change of potential of the electron-conducting phase when reaction rate across its interface with the ion-conducting phase with which it is in contact is changed from zero to a certain velocity.'" And again, p. 355: "...overpotential... in fact determines what fraction of the energy of the self-functioning cell has to be wasted in making the cell work and deliver energy at a certain power." For a more detailed and wider exposition of the overpotential, its effects, and its uses, see J. O'M. Bockris and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. 1 & 2, Plenum Press, 1970.

OVERUNITY COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE

More energy out or work out of a system than the operator or experimenter must himself or herself furnish and input.

An open thermodynamic system far from thermodynamic system is permitted to achieve such an overunity performance, so any overunity electrodynamic system must be such. Well-known nonelectromagnetic examples are solar cells, heat pumps, windmills, sails on sailboats, waterwheels for powering watermills, a gliding bird in thermal updrafts, etc. A well-known electromagnetic example is the common solar cell. The common household heat pump has a theoretical COP limit of 8.22, and well-designed units usually achieve some 4.0 or so, so long as the ambient environment does not change too drastically from the design limits. As the environment changes and cools down appreciably, however, most home heat pumps lose efficiency and have to switch onto heating strips, which have a COP » 1.0.

Contrary to prevailing belief, it is certainly possible to have EM systems which are also open thermodynamic systems, far from equilibrium, and freely receiving excess energy (asymmetrically regauging a potential) from an external source, to wit, their violent virtual flux exchange between the vacuum and the system. All EM system are already open systems in the virtual particle flux exchange with vacuum; that is already well-known in particle physics, even though the 130-year-old classical electrodynamics does not even include the vacuum-mass exchange. The only question, then, is how to establish an asymmetry in that vacuum-mass flux exchange. Here again, every electrical charge and every dipole is already just such a broken symmetry in the vacuum flux, as has been known in particle physics for four decades! It takes on the average about 50 years, however, for vital discoveries in one discipline to "cross fertilize" into another discipline. At any rate, the symmetry of every electric power system, in the vacuum flux, is already broken in its source dipole. This rigorously means that, if we simply avoid doing something we are doing in our power systems to restore symmetry as a matter of course, it is possible to utilize the free broken symmetry of the source dipole to provide an overunity EM system.

In 1996 I showed that such overunity EM systems are permitted and prescribed by Maxwell's theory, prior to the arbitrary imposition of symmetrical regauging of the Maxwell equations (i.e., the Lorentz condition). Violation of the Lorentz condition (by asymmetrical self-regauging) is a necessary but not sufficient condition for an overunity EM device. An asymmetric regauging will certainly give us excess free energy in the system, and an excess force to use that energy in translating against a load impedance to do work, if we design the system properly to do just that.

To achieve overunity, in a circuit one must prevent the (presently universal) re-imposition of the Lorentz condition by the use of one-half the excess received energy to drive the return electrons from the load back through the back emf of the source, killing the gate and restoring symmetry, the Lorentz condition, and equilibrium between vacuum flux and system. All our present EM systems are specifically designed to drive those electrons back through the back emf and thus restore symmetry, deliberately asymmetrically self-regauging a second time and deliberately restoring the Lorentz condition, along with deliberately killing the source dipole's asymmetry in the vacuum flux exchange.

A thing that is true, e.g., as shown by experiment, but which violates one or more of the three Aristotelian laws of logic.

Any logic algebra or system has a topology. A paradox in one topology can often be resolved by increasing the topology of the logic. All logical paradoxes in the 3-law Aristotelian logic system are simply fourth-law logic cases in a logical superset, and—at least hypothetically—the fourth law can be applied to resolve them. For a discussion and proof of the 4th law correction to Aristotelian logic, see Appendix III: "A Conditional Criterion for Identity, Leading to a Fourth Law of Logic," in T.E. Bearden, AIDS: Biological Warfare, Tesla Book Co., Chula Vista, California, 1988, p. 428-443. Logic has many aspects that often may shock our casual expectations: For example, one of the most advanced axioms in mathematics is called the Axiom of Choice. It is used in the proof of many advanced theorems. Using the Axiom of Choice, it can be shown that it is possible to cut a ball into a finite number of pieces, then reassemble the pieces into two balls of the same size, with no air gaps between pieces! While this seemingly defies all common physical sense (and I've not found anyone who has done it!), it is mathematically correct. For a proof, see Thomas J. Jech, The Axiom of Choice, American Elsevier, New York, 1973, p. 3-6. For a good perspective on Aristotelian logic, see Morris Kline, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty, Oxford University Press, New York, 1980.

PARITY

Deals with studying a system of sequence of events as if reflected in a mirror.  A system has parity is it undergoes no fundamental operational change if replaced with its mirror-reflected twin.

PARTIALLY TIME-REVERSED REGION

A region of space in which an object experiences not only the ordinary forward flow of time, but an extra induced backwards flow of time, usually a fraction of the time-forward time stream.

One result may be to "reduce" time-forward force fields, by a fraction. This is important in bridges, where one must pass EM energy flow onto a follow-on load circuit, but the return current in that circuit must be allowed to circulate back through the load bridge itself, against the inducing back emf. By partially time-reversing the region occupied by the back emf, that back emf is seen as a smaller value by the return current being passed back up through the back emf. The result is that current will circulate in the load loop, powered entirely by the bridging of Poynting flow S = E´H onto the load circuit.

Another result of a partially time-reversed region is that the law of attraction and repulsion of charges is partially reversed.  If the time-reversal predominates in the region, as in a momentary time-reversal zone in some electrolytes, then the law of attraction and repulsion of charges is reversed.  In that case like charges attract and unlike charges repel.  Two positive H+ ions, e.g., may be drawn so tightly together that each enters the edge of the strong force region of the other, forming a quasi-nucleus.  Note that in each H+ ion the gluon forces are almost dissolved and the quarks are nearly freed.  Then as the time-reversal zone decays back to a normal time-forward zone, the decay changes begin from inside out, resulting in the flip of a quark to change one of the H+ ions to a neutron n.  The n and the H+ ion draw together as the preferred decay state, resulting in the formation of deuterium or a D+ ion.  This and similar "time reversal zone" reactions have been proposed by this researcher as the mechanisms generating the anomalous deuterium, tritium, and alpha particles (helium nuclei) in the "cold fusion" reactions.  It is indeed a special type of low spatial energy fusion, but a very high energy reaction since time-energy is involved as the active ingredient, and time-energy has the same energy density as mass.

PARTICLE PHYSICS

The branch of physics using accelerators to study high-energy particle collisions, to determine properties of atomic nuclei and of the elementary particles themselves.

So far as I am aware, conventional particle physicists do not consider time-energy interaction and time-reversal zone novel nuclear interactions at all.

PATTERSON EFFECT

The intense multiscattering, multipass, multicollection of Poynting energy density flow in an assemblage of palladium-clad spherical bead capacitors, as the palladium adsorbs hydrogen ions from the fluid in which the beads are immersed, and charges up as a capacitor, thereby becoming an energy-flow generator, and nonlinearly increasing the energy-flow as the charge of the capacitors increases.

The Patterson effect yields the Patterson Power Cellâ , a validated overunity power system which has shown COP>1200 in independent university testing. The Patterson effect is a variation and adaptation of the well-known anti-Stokes emission effect, which for three decades has been validated in physics journals to produce overunity emission in certain intensely scattering active media.

PATTERSON POWER CELLÒ

Patented overunity power unit by James Patterson, which has been independently validated to yield COP>1.0.

See James Patterson, "System for Electrolysis of Liquid Electrolyte," U.S. Patent No. 5,372,688, issued Dec. 13, 1994. Filed Dec. 2, 1993. 26 claims, 7 drawing sheets.

PAUTRIZEL, RAYMOND

Eminent French parasitologist who worked with Antoine Priore, and who performed many definitive experiments demonstrating the Priore healing effect.

PEGRAM'S EXPERIMENT

Experiment which demonstrates a relation between electric and magnetic fields in the vacuum which the Maxwell-Heaviside theory does not prescribe.

Simultaneously, a coaxial cylindrical condensor and solenoid are rotated.  The rotation produces a magnetic field in the solenoid in the axial direction and between the plates of the condensor.  The condensor can be charged by shortening the plates of the condensor.  This indicates a cross relation in the vacuum between electric and magnetic fields which does not exist in the Maxwell-Heaviside theory.

Reference: G. B. Pegram, Physical Review, Vol. 10, 1917, p. 591.

PERPETUAL MOTION MACHINE

Assertion that no machine can indefinitely operate, since no closed system can input its output power back to itself while powering a load because powering itself and its load violates the equilibrium thermodynamics (i.e., the thermodynamics of a closed system).

The "defenders of the underunity faith" use the statement that "there cannot be any such thing as a perpetual motion machine" as an article of faith and iron dogma.   Usually they classify a so-called "perpetuum mobile" as to which law of  equilibrium thermodynamics it is thought to violate.

For permissible Maxwellian overunity systems, the entire "perpetual motion" conundrum is nonsensical, since we are always speaking of an EM system far from thermodynamic equilibrium with its active vacuum environment.  The equilibrium thermodynamics assumed by the critics does not even apply to such systems, as witness the Nobel Prize awarded to Prigogine in 1977 and the voluminous literature on such open dissipative systems.

As an example, see Stanley W. Angrist, "Perpetual Motion Machines," Scientific American, vol. 218, Jan. 1968, p. 114-122.  Angrist gives a typical critique using classical equilibrium thermodynamics.  He calls permissible overunity systems (open dissipative systems receiving excess energy from an external source) false perpetual motion machines or fictitious  perpetual motion machines.  Also see Angrist's article, "Perpetual Motion," Encyclopaedias Britannica, Bicentennial Edition, Macropaedia Vol. 14, 1976, p. 102-105. Here he gives a very good summary of the subject as ordinarily posed, with precise definitions included for perpetual motion machines of the first, second, and third kinds and for fictitious perpetual motion machines.  Unfortunately his entire argument is completely irrelevant to any study of permissible overunity machines, which he already has labeled as "fictitious perpetual motion machines" and has already admitted that they exist!  The substance of his entire argument is that systems in equilibrium cannot power themselves.  That is of course quite true, but is a mere tautology and has no relation to an open system in disequilibrium, which can power itself and its load simultaneously, by the laws of physics and the laws of disequilibrium thermodynamics.  So in fact Angrist, as do the skeptics who continue to assail legitimate overunity EM system researchers as perpetual motion nuts, establishes his own dummy strawman and demolishes it, while ignoring—so to speak—the huge Statue of Liberty before him.

Now this is not to pick on Angrist!  He appears to be a reasonable scientist, carefully stating his thesis in a straightforward manner.  His voice is quoted as a reasonable critical voice, and not like the usual extremist critic who engages in ad hominem attacks from the outset.  It merely shows that (1) the entire "perpetuum mobile" prohibition does not even apply to overunity EM systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium with the active vacuum, (2) the critics are either unwittingly or deliberately using the wrong type of thermodynamics as the basis of their entire argument, (3)  the reasonable perpetual motion critics—wittingly or unwittingly—simply set up an irrelevant strawman and precede to knock it down, and (4) in fact the critics already admit to a machine that will in fact run itself and power its load indefinitely or perpetually unless something changes or breaks or fails, but then oddly label it as a "fictitious" or "false" perpetual motion machine!  Meanwhile, in the universe around us we universally observe things in violent and perpetual motion, having continued so for some 15 billion years.  None of the atoms seem to be running down, nor do any of the molecules.  And they are open systems brought out of equilibrium by absorption of energy, and decaying back into equilibrium (or approaching it) by emission of excess energy.

The eerie point is that technical publications such as Scientific American and Encyclopaedia Britannica do not seem to question the line of reasoning advanced by those knocking perpetual motion, or even fully analyzed their argument.  What we really deal with in terms of skeptics in this area is either (1) a reasonable, scientific skeptic such as Angrist (his listing of machines and attempts for machines not in disequilibrium with their active environment to run themselves is very good), or (2) an unreasonable person spouting dogma and venom, who should simply go read some disequilibrium system thermodynamics and learn etiquette.

Also, we strongly object to supercilious phrases invariably employed by harsh skeptics who insist we are looking for "something for nothing" or "a free lunch".  No legitimate overunity energy researcher has ever considered such a thing.  We freely admit that the excess energy is received from the active vacuum exchange, via a broken symmetry in that exchange.  Should the farmer refuse to use a windmill or waterwheel because he's getting a "free lunch" for energy input?  For those who so quickly hurl such condemnatory phrases, let me hold up a mirror and show them an analog of their position:  The famed surgeon Alfred Velpeau wrote in 1839:  "The abolishment of pain in surgery is the chimera.  It is absurd to go on seeking it today.  'Knife' and 'pain' are two words in surgery that must forever be associated in the consciousness of the patient.  To this compulsory combination we shall have to adjust ourselves."  [Martin Gumpert, Trail-Blazers of Science, Funk and Wagnalls, New York, 1936, p. 232.]

The strident, dogmatic critics of open overunity disequilibrium EM systems are stating an exact analogy to Velpeau's statement.  The scientific worth of their criticism is precisely the scientific worth that eventually was shown for Velpeau's pronouncement.

PHASE CONJUGATE

Of an entity: its time reversal. For waves, often referred to as wavefront reversal.

PHASE CONJUGATE MIRROR

A nonlinear material which, when provided with an input wave, emits a phase conjugate replica (time reversed replica) of that input wave.

The input wave is by practice called the signal wave. The time-reversed wave output is by practice called the phase conjugate replica.

PHASE CONJUGATE OPTICS

That portion of nonlinear optics dealing with multiwave mixing, formation of time-reversed waves, phase conjugate reflection (PCR), phase conjugate mirrors (PCMs), pumping PCMs to amplify their emitted PCRs, nonlinear interferometry, distortion correction, self-targeting, laser tracking, adaptive optics, and so on.