REFERENCES:
List of AIAS Papers, and Some Others of Interest
As of 7 October 2001
NOTE: These papers in general are published as group papers. The
major contributors are:
Anastasovski, P. K.; T. E. Bearden, C. Ciubotariu, W. T. Coffey, L.
B. Crowell, G. J. Evans, Myron W. Evans, R. Flower, S. Jeffers, A.
Labounsky, B. Lehnert, M. Mészáros, P. R. Molnár, J.P. Vigier, and
S. Roy unless otherwise stated.
"The New Maxwell Electrodynamic Equations: New Tools for New
Technologies," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue
of AIAS papers, Winter 1999. 60 papers by the Alpha Foundation's
Institute for Advanced Study, advancing electrodynamics to a
nonAbelian, gauge theoretic higher topology theory in (O)3 internal
symmetry.
"Derivation of the Lehnert field equations from gauge theory
in vacuum: Space charge and current," Foundations Of Physics
Letters, 13(2), APR 2000, p.179184. It is shown that the Lehnert
field equations in vacuum, with concomitant space charge and current,
can be derived straightforwardly from standard gauge theory applied in
vacuum, using the concept of covariant derivative and Feynman's
universal influence. The Lehnert and Proca field equations are shown
to be interrelated through the wellknown de Broglie theorem, in
which the photon mass can be interpreted as finite. These ideas go
some way towards addressing the inconsistency inherent, in Maxwell's
famous displacement current, which has no concomitant vacuum space
charge.
"SU(2) x SU(2) electroweak theory in LEP 1 data on Z particle
production," Foundations Of Physics Letters, 13(2), APR
2000, p.193196. Recent data obtained by LEP1 are discussed and their
potential implication for the existence, of a Z' particle. This letter
advocates that this fits within the basic tenet of An SU(2) x SU(2)
extended theory of the standard model of electroweak interactions.
This extended electroweak model is motivated by nonabelian
electrodynamics that provides an effective calculus for nonlinear
optics.
"Classical electrodynamics without the Lorentz condition:
Extracting energy from the vacuum," Physica Scripta 61(5),
May 2000, p. 513517. It is shown that if the Lorentz condition is
discarded, the MaxwellHeaviside field equations become the Lehnert
equations, indicating the presence of charge density and current
density in the vacuum. The Lehnert equations are a subset of the O(3)
YangMills field equations. Charge and current density in the vacuum
are defined straightforwardly in terms of the vector potential and
scalar potential, and are conceptually similar to Maxwell's
displacement current, which also occurs in the classical vacuum. A
demonstration is made of the existence of a time dependent classical
vacuum polarization which appears if the Lorentz condition is
discarded. Vacuum charge and current appear phenomenologically in the
Lehnert equations but fundamentally in the O(3) YangMills theory of
classical electrodynamics. The latter also allows for the possibility
of the existence of vacuum topological magnetic charge density and
topological magnetic current density. Both O(3) and Lehnert equations
are superior to the MaxwellHeaviside equations in being able to
describe phenomena not amenable to the latter. In theory, devices can
be made to extract the energy associated with vacuum charge and
current.
"On Whittaker's Representation of the Classical
Electromagnetic Field in Vacuo, Part II: Potentials Without
Fields," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue,
Winter 1999, p. 5967.
"On Whittaker's F and G Fluxes, Part III: The Existence of
Physical Longitudinal and Timelike Photons," Journal of New
Energy, 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 6871.
"Representation of the Vacuum electromagnetic Field in Terms
of Longitudinal and TimeLike Potentials: Canonical
Quantization," Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue,
Winter 1999, p. 8288.
"On Whittaker's Analysis of the Electromagnetic Entity, Part
IV: Longitudinal Magnetic Flux and TimeLike Potential Without Vector
Potential and Without Electric and Magnetic Fields," Journal
of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 7275.
"On Whittaker's Representation of the Electromagnetic Entity
in Vacuo, Part V: The Production of Transverse Fields and Energy by
Scalar Interferometry," Journal of New Energy, 4(3),
Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 7678.
"On Extending Whittaker's Theory, Part VI: Photons Without
Fields and Vector Potentials," Journal of New Energy,
4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 7981.
"Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with
O(3) Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics Letters,
14(1), Feb. 2001, p. 8794.
"Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator by
Sachs's Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics
Letters, 14(4), 2001, p. 387393.
T. E. Bearden et al., "AntiGravity Effects in the
Sachs Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations of Physics
Letters, 2001 (in press).
"Development of the Sachs Theory of Electrodynamics," Foundations
of Physics Letters, 2001 (in press).
"Inconsistencies of the MaxwellHeaviside Theory of
Electrodynamics: The AharonovBohm Effect," 1999, submitted to Optik.
"Derivation of a Locally Gauge Invariant Proca Equation from
U(1) and O(3) Gauge Theory Applied to Electrodynamics: Acquisition of
Photon Mass and Rest Energy from the Vacuum," 1999, submitted to Physica
Scripta.
"Derivation of the B(3) Field from the Sachs Equations,"
2000, submitted to Optik.
"O(3) Invariance of the AharonovBohm Effect," 1999,
submitted to Physica Scripta.
"Energy Inherent in the Pure Gauge Vacuum," 2000,
submitted to Physica Scripta.
"The Most General Form of Electrodynamics," 2000,
submitted to Physica Scripta.
"Criticisms of the U(1) Invariant Theory of the AharonovBohm
and Sagnac Effect and Sagnac Effect and Advantages of an O(3)
Invariant Theory," submitted to Foundations of Physics.
"The AharonovBohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic
Energy Inherent in the Vacuum," 2001, submitted to Optik.
"U(1) vs. O(3) Holonomy in the Sagnac Effect for
Electromagnetic and Matter Waves," submitted to Optik.
"Electromagnetic Energy from Curved Spacetime," 2001,
submitted to Optik.
"Operator Derivation of the Gauge Invariant Proca and Lehnert
Equation: Elimination of the Lorentz Condition," Foundations
of Physics, 39(7), 2000, p. 11231130.
"Schrödinger Equation with a Higgs Mechanism: Inherent Vacuum
Energy," 1999, submitted to Foundations of Physics.
"O(3) Electrodynamics," 1999, submitted to Physica
Scripta.
"O(3) Electrodynamics," 2001, submitted to Optik.
(Different from preceding).
"O(3) Electrodynamics from the Irreducible Representations of
the Einstein Group," 2001, submitted to Optik.
"Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as the Source of the
Electromagnetic Field," 2001, submitted to Foundations of
Physics.
"Effect of Vacuum Energy on the Atomic Spectra," Foundations
of Physics Letters, 13(3), June 2000, p. 289296.
"Vacuum Energy Flow and Poynting Theorem from Topology and
Gauge Theory," submitted to Physica Scripta.
"Runaway Solutions of the Lehnert Equations: The Possibility
of Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Optik, 111(9),
2000, p. 407409. Also published in Journal of New Energy,
4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 195198.
"Classical Electrodynamics Without the Lorentz Condition:
Extracting Energy from the Vacuum," Physica Scripta 61(5),
May 2000, p. 513517.
"The Most General Form of the Vector Potential in
Electrodynamics," 2000, submitted to Optik (in review).
"On the Representation of the MaxwellHeaviside Equations in
Terms of the Barut Field FourVector," Optik 111(6), 2000,
p. 246248.
"Energy from the Vacuum," submitted to Physica Scripta.
(Mar. 2000).
"Some Notes on "Asymmetric Regauging", Journal of
New Energy 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 325326.
"Lorentz Transform of Inhomogeneous O(3) Equation," Journal
of New Energy 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p. 223.
"Lorentz Invariance of the d'Alembert Equation in Vacuo,"
Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue, Winter 1999, p.
224.
"Inconsistencies of the MaxwellHeaviside Theory of
Electrodynamics: The AharonovBohm Effect," submitted to Optik.
Also published in Journal of New Energy, 4(3), Special Issue,
Winter 1999, p. 236240.
"Vacuum Energy Flow and Poynting Theorem from Topology and
Gauge Theory," Submitted to Physica Scripta.
"Schrodinger Equation with a Higgs Mechanism: Inherent Vacuum
Energy," submitted to Foundations of Physics.
"Derivation of a Locally Gauge Invariant Proca Equation from
U(1) and O(3) Gauge Theory Applied to Electrodynamics," submitted
to Physica Scripta.
"Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as the Source of the
Electromagnetic Field," accepted by Foundations of Physics
Letters.
"O(3) Invariance of the AharonovBohm Effect," submitted
to Physica Scripta.
"Operator Derivation of the Gauge Invariant Proca and Lehnert
Equations: Elimination of the Lorentz Condition," Foundations
of Physics, 39(7), 2000, p. 1123TBD (in press).
"Energy Inherent in the Pure Gauge Vacuum," submitted to Physica
Scripta, 23 May, 2000 (in review).
"The Most General Form of Electrodynamics," submitted to Physica
Scripta, 1 June, 2000 (in review).
"Criticisms of the U(1) Invariant Theory of the AharonovBohm
and Sagnac Effect and Sagnac Effect and Advantages of an O(3)
Invariant Theory," submitted to Foundations of Physics (in
review).
"The AharonovBohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic
Energy Inherent in the Vacuum," submitted to Optik (in
review).
"U(1) vs. O(3) Holonomy in the Sagnac Effect for
Electromagnetic and Matter Waves," submitted to Optik (in
review).
"Electromagnetic Energy from Curved Spacetime," submitted
to Optik, 13 June 2000 (in review).
"Derivation of the B(3) Field from the Sachs Equations,"
submitted to Optik 19 Jun 2000 (in review).
"O(3) Electrodynamics," submitted to Optik (in
review).
"O(3) Electrodynamics from the Irreducible Representations of
the Einstein Group," submitted to Optik (in review).
"AntiGravity Effects in the Sachs Theory of
Electrodynamics," submitted to Optik (in review).
"Longitudinal Modes in Vacuo of the Electromagnetic Effect in
Riemannian SpaceTime," submitted to Optik (in review).
"The New Maxwell Electrodynamic Equations: New Tools for New
Technologies. A Collection of 60 papers from the Alpha Foundation's
Institute for Advanced Study. Published as a Special Issue of the Journal
of New Energy, 4(3), Winter 1999. 335 p.
"On Whittaker's Representation of the Electromagnetic Entity
in Vacuo, Part V: The Production of Transverse Fields and Energy by
Scalar Interferometry," Journal of New Energy, 4(3),
Winter, 1999, p. 7678. Rigorous proof of scalar interferometry's
ability to produce EM fields and energy in the distant interference
zone.
"The Most General Form of the Vector Potential in
Electrodynamics," submitted to Optik, 2000 (in review).
"Comment on the Lorentz Invariance of the BCyclic
Theorem," Found. Phys. Lett., 13, 387 (2000).
"Antigravity Effects in the Sachs Theory of
Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett. (Accepted), in press.
"Development of the Sachs Theory of Electrodyamics," Found.
Phys. Lett. (accepted), in press.
"Derivation of the B(3) Field and Concomitant Vacuum Energy
Density from the Sachs Theory of Electrodynamics," Found.
Phys. Lett. (accepted), in press.
"Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator with
O(3) Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett. 14(1), Feb.
2001, p. 8794.
"Explanation of the Motionless Electromagnetic Generator by
Sachs's Theory of Electrodynamics," Found. Phys. Lett.,
14(4), Aug. 2001, p. 387393.
"The AharonovBohm Effect as the Basis of Electromagnetic
Energy Inherent in the Vacuum," to be submitted to Found.
Phys. Lett.
"Derivation of O(3) Electrodynamics from the Irreducible
Representations of the Einstein Group," submitted to Found.
Phys. Lett.

Additional Papers
Barrett, Terence W., "Topological Approaches to
Electromagnetism," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second
Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I.
Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics,
Wiley, ongoing.
Sachs, Mendel, "Symmetry in Electrodynamics: From Special to
General Relativity, Macro to Quantum Domains," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Crowell, Lawrence W., "NonAbelian Electrodynamics: Progress and
Problems," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed.
M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart
A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Lehnert, B., "Optical Effects of an Extended Electromagnetic
Theory," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W.
Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A.
Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Jeffers, S., J.P. Vigier, and M.W. Evans, "Current Status of
the Quantum Theory of Light," in Modern Nonlinear Optics,
Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I.
Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics,
Wiley, ongoing.
Andrews, David L. and Phillip Allcock, "A Quantum
Electrodynamical Foundation for Molecular Photonics," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Anastasovski, Petar K. and David B. Hamilton, "The Superluminal
Theory and Effects," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second
Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I.
Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics,
Wiley, ongoing.
Roy, Sisir, "Constancy of Velocity of Light and Stochastic
Background," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed.
M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart
A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Fox, Hal, "Energy for the Future: High Density Charge
Clusters," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed.
M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart
A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Perina et al., "Nonlinear Phenomena in Quantum Optics," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Roscoe, D.F., "Astrophysics in the Dark: Mach's Principle Lights
the Way," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed.
M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart
A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Evans, M.W., "The Link Between the Topological Theory of Ranada
and Trueba, the Sachs Theory, and O(3) Electrodynamics," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Reed, Donald, "Beltrami Vector Fields in Electrodynamics—A
Reason for Reexamining the Structural Foundations of Classical Field
Physics," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed.
M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart
A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Shumovsky, Alexander S., "The Quantum Multipole Radiation,"
in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans,
Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances
in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Cornille, Patrick, "Electrodynamics and Topology," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Croca, J.R., "Beyone NonCausal Quantum Mechanics," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Ranada, Antonio F. and Jose L. Trueba, "Topological
Electromagnetism with Hidden Nonlinearity," in Modern Nonlinear
Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol.
119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics,
Wiley, ongoing.
Baum, Carl E., "Quantum Electrodynamics: Potentials, Gauge
Invariance, and Analogy to Classical Electrodynamics," in Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in
press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Abramson, Nils, "Ellipsoids in Holography and Relativity,"
in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans,
Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I. Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances
in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Bearden, T. E., "Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy
from the Active Vacuum," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second
Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I.
Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics,
Wiley, ongoing.
Evans, M.W., "The Link Between the Sachs and O(3) Theories of
Electrodynamics," in Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second
Edition, Ed. M.W. Evans, Wiley, 2001 (in press), Vol. 119 of I.
Prigogine and Stuart A. Rice, Advances in Chemical Physics,
Wiley, ongoing.
Bearden, T. E., "Energy from the Active Vacuum: The Motionless
Electromagnetic Generator," in M. W. Evans (Ed.), Modern
Nonlinear Optics, Second Edition, Wiley, 2002, 3 vols. (in press),
comprising a Special Topic issue as Vol. 119, I. Prigogine and S. A.
Rice (series eds.), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Bearden, Thomas E. et al., "The Motionless Electromagnetic
Generator: Extracting Energy from a Permanent Magnet with
EnergyReplenishing from the Active Vacuum," Sept. 2000, DoE
website http://www.ott.doe.gov/electromagnetic/ .
Bearden, T. E., "EM Energy From The Vacuum: Ten Questions With
Extended Answers," On website http://www.cheniere.org.
Bearden, T. E., Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and Principles,
World Scientific, Singapore, 2002, in process.
Bearden, T. E. "Extracting and Using Electromagnetic Energy from
the Active Vacuum," in M. W. Evans (ed.), Modern Nonlinear
Optics, Second Edition, Wiley, 2002, 3 vols. (in press), comprising
a Special Topic issue as vol. 119, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series
eds.), Advances in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Bearden, T. E., "The Unnecessary Energy Crisis: How to Solve It
Quickly," ADAS Position Paper, June 2000. Also on http://www.cheniere.org
.
Bearden, T. E. "Giant Negentropy from the Common Dipole," Proceedings
of Congress 2000, St. Petersburg, Russia, Vol. 1, July 2000 , p.
8698. Also on www.cheniere.org.
Bearden, T. E. "Bedini's Method For Forming Negative Resistors
In Batteries," Proceedings of Congress 2000, St. Petersburg,
Russia, Vol. 1, July 2000, p. 2438. Also published in Journal of New
Energy, 5(1), Summer 2000, p. 2438. On http://www.cheniere.org
.
Bearden, T. E. "On Extracting Electromagnetic Energy from the
Vacuum, " Proceedings of the IC2000, St. Petersburg,
Russia, July 2000.
Bearden, T. E. "Dark Matter or Dark Energy?", Journal of
New Energy, 4(4), Spring 2000, p. 411. The prevailing theories of
universe creation indicate a given amount of matter created, and still
present in the universe. For some time, half of the required matter has
been unobserved by astronomers and astrophysicists. Recently the missing
half of the predicted baryonic matter was observed by the Hubble Space
Telescope and announced by NASA. However, there is insufficient mass to
account for the gravity that is observed to be holding the distant
galaxies together, as shown by observed star movements in them. Some
ninetenths of the gravity is still unexplained by the predicted matter
(now fully observed and accounted). This is called the "dark
matter" problem, where some form of matter previously unknown must
be present and involved.
In the present paper, the author points out the longneglected
nondiverged Heaviside component of the EM energy flow vector, far
greater in magnitude than the accounted small Poynting component
diverged around an interacting charge. Heaviside discovered this
enormous energy flow surrounding every circuit, but could not account
for its source, since it was enormously greater than the small Poynting
component diverged into the circuit to power it. Lorentz arbitrarily
discarded the bothersome vast energy flow, reasoning that it was
"physically insignificant". Since then, for a century
electrodynamicists have disregarded it entirely. This energy is in fact
present in the neighborhood of every EM field interaction, and therefore
is present at all interactions in the astronomical entities involved in
those distant galaxies. Since the Heaviside dark energy is a normal EM
energy flow, it also must produce gravitational field. Hence it must be
at least a factor in producing, and may produce all of, the missing
gravity.
Bearden, T. E., "On the Principles of Permissible Over Unity EM
Power Systems," Journal of New Energy, 4(2), Fall 1999, p.
1639. A summary of the theory of overunity Maxwellian power systems,
where the system is an open system far from thermodynamic equilibrium
with its active vacuum environment.
Bearden, T. E., "EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified
Field Theory with Emphasis on TimeCharging Interactions of Longitudinal
EM Waves," Explore, 8(6), 1998, p. 716.
Bearden, T. E., "EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified
Field Theory with Emphasis on TimeCharging Interactions of Longitudinal
EM Waves," Journal of New Energy, 3(2/3), 1998, p. 1228.
Bearden, T. E., "EM Corrections Enabling a Practical Unified
Field Theory with Emphasis on TimeCharging Interactions of Longitudinal
EM Waves," Part II, Explore, 8(6), 1998, p. 6574.
Bearden, T. E., "Use of Asymmetrical Regauging and Multivalued
Potentials to Achieve Overunity Electromagnetic Engines," Journal
of New Energy, 1(2), Summer 1996, p. 6078.
Bearden, T. E., "The Master Principle of EM Overunity and the
Japanese Overunity Engines." Infinite Energy, 1(5&6),
Nov. 1995Feb. 1996, p. 3855.
Bearden, T. E., "Regauging and Multivalued Magnetic Scalar
Potential: Master Overunity Mechanisms," Explore, 7(1),
1996, p. 5158.
Bearden, T. E., "Maxwell’s equations, regauging, and overunity
systems," Explore More!, No. 17, Jul.Aug. 1996, p. 1321.
Bearden, T. E., "Energy Flow, Collection, and Dissipation in
Overunity EM Devices," Proceedings of the 4th International
Energy Conference, Academy for New Energy, Denver, CO, May 2327,
1997, p. 551. In Figure 5, p. 16 the fraction of the energy flow that
is intercepted and collected by the circuit—i.e., the Poynting
component—is roughly shown to be on the order of 10
^{13} of the entire energy flow available. Thus the Heaviside
component that misses the circuit and is nondiverged and wasted, is
about 10^{13} times as great in magnitude as is the Poynting
component that is intercepted and diverged into the circuit to power it.
Comment: A more rigorous theoretical look at this area is
required.
Bearden, T. E., "Use of Regauging and multivalued Potentials to
Achieve Overunity EM Engines: Concepts and Specific Engine
Examples," Proceedings of the International Scientific
Conference "New Ideas in Natural Sciences," St. Petersburg,
Russia, June 1722, 1996, Part I: Problems of Modern Physics,
1996, p. 277297.
Bearden, T. E., "A Redefinition of the Energy Ansatz, Leading to
a Fundamentally New Class of Nuclear Interactions," Proc. 27th
Intersociety. Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC ’92),
San Diego, CA 1992, p. 4.3034.310.
[Bearden, T. E.] Floyd Sweet and T. E. Bearden, "Utilizing
Scalar Electromagnetics to Tap Vacuum Energy," Proceedings of
the 26th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference (IECEC
'91), Boston, Massachusetts, 1991, p. 370375. Sweet's device
produced 500 watts for a 33 microwatt input. A highly successful
antigravity experiment was also performed, and is reported in the paper
where the test object's weight was reduced by 90%. Unfortunately Sweet
later died and never fully revealed the activation secret by which
barium ferrite magnetic materials could be in selfoscillation at 60
Hertz. Weak selfoscillation of such permanent magnetic materials at
higher frequency is known, of course; e.g., see references by L'vov.
Evans, M. W. "The Link Between the Sachs and O(3) Theories of
Electrodynamics," in M. W. Evans (Ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics,
Second Edition, Wiley, 2001, 3 vols. (in press), comprising a Special
Topic issue as Vol. 119, I. Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series eds.), Advances
in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Evans, M. W., "O(3) Electrodynamics," a review of some 250
pages in M.W. Evans (ed.), Modern Nonlinear Optics, Second
Edition, Wiley, 2001, 3 vols. (in press), comprising a Special Topic
issue as vol. 119, Prigogine and S. A. Rice (series eds.), Advances
in Chemical Physics, Wiley, ongoing.
Evans, M. W., O(3) Electrodynamics, Vol. V of The Enigmatic
Photon, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1999.
Evans, M. W. and L. B. Crowell, Classical and Quantum
Electrodynamics and the B(3) Field, World Scientific, Singapore,
2001. The B(3) field is the link between electrodynamics and nonAbelian
gauge field theory in special relativity. It may also have some links to
action at a distance and photon mass. It is an empirical observable and
signals the fact that an O(3) sector symmetry for electrodynamics is
preferable to a U(1) sector, which is self inconsistent.
Evans, M. W. and L. B. Crowell, "Electron and Proton Spin
Resonance Induced by Circularly Polarized Radiation," Apeiron,
Spring 2000, p. TBD.
Evans, M. W. and S. Kielich., (Eds.), Modern Nonlinear Optics,
Vol. 85 of I. Prigogine and S.A. Rice (series eds.), Advances in
Chemical Physics, Wiley, New York, 1992, 1993, and 1997.
Evans, M. W., "The photomagneton B^{(3)} and
electrodynamic conservation laws," Foundations of Physics
Letters, 7(2), 1994, p. 209217. In conventional theory, the photon
has only two degrees of freedom. Evans models it in three degrees of
freedom, so that the longitudinal one is accompanied by a ghost field
which has no energy or linear momentum, but is generated from the
angular momentum of the photon. Experimental evidence for the existence
of the photomagneton are discussed.
Evans, M. W., "The photomagneton B^{(3)} and
longitudinal ghost field B^{(3)} of electromagnetism." Foundations
of Physics Letters, 7(1), 1994, p. 6774. Deals with assigning the
photon a 3rd degree of freedom, so that it possesses a longitudinal
ghost field.
Evans, M. W., "Electrodynamics as a NonAbelian Gauge Field
Theory," Frontier Perspectives, 7(2), Fall 1998, p. 712.
The classical theory of electrodynamics is developed as a nonAbelian
gauge field theory, offering a route to field unification through the
emergence of the fundamental magnetizing field, B(3) observable in
magnetooptics. The new theory argues that the potentials are physical
constructs and not a mathematical convenience as proposed by Heaviside.
The structure of the theory represents a return to the original concepts
of Faraday and Maxwell, while retaining the Heaviside equations in their
original form.
Evans, M.W. and L. B. Crowell and^{ }17 other coauthors,
"Interferometry in Higher Symmetry Forms of Electrodynamics and
NonLinear Optics," Physica Scripta (in publication). Among
other things, for the very first time, this latter paper provides an
adequate theory of interferometry, and predicts all the correct
results.CHECK
Evans, M. W.; J. P. Vigier et al., The Enigmatic Photon,
Vol. 15, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1994 to present.
Evans, M. W. and A. A. Hasanein, The Photomagneton in Quantum
field Theory, World Scientific, Singapore, 1994.
Lehnert, B. and S. Roy, Extended Electromagnetic Theory:
SpaceCharge in Vacuo and the Rest Mass of the Photon, World
Scientific, New Jersey, 1999. Extended forms of Maxwell's equations as
well as EM fields, based on a nonzero divergence of the electric field
and a nonzero electric conductivity in vacuo. Predicts the existence of
both longitudinal and transverse solutions, space charge in vacuo,
steady EM equilibria, a photon rest mass and a photon axial magnetic
field.

Some Other Papers of Interest
Prigogine, Ilya (with T. Petrosky), "Laws of Nature, Probability
and Time Symmetry Breaking," Physica A, Vol. 263, 1999, p.
528539.
Prigogine, Ilya with D. Kondepudi, Modern Thermodynamics: From
Heat Engines to Dissipative Structures, Wiley, Chichester, 1998.
Prigogine, Ilya, "Nonlinear Science and the Laws of
Nature," International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos,
Vol. 7, 1997, p. 19171926.
Prigogine, Ilya, with D. Kondepudi, "Thermodynamics,
Nonequilibrium," Encyclopedia of Applied Physics, Vol. 21,
1997, p. 311337.
Prigogine, Ilya, The End of Certainty: Time, Chaos, and the New
Laws of Nature, Free Press, New York, 1996, 1997.
Prigogine, Ilya, with T. Petrosky, "Quantum Chaos, Complex
Spectral Representation and TimeSymmetry Breaking," Chaos,
Solitons, and Fractals, Vol. 4, 1994, p. 311359.
Prigogine, Ilya, From Being to Becoming: Time and Complexity in
the Physical Sciences, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco,
1980. In 1977, Russianborn Belgian chemist Ilya Prigogine received the
Nobel Prize for chemistry for contributions to nonequilibrium
thermodynamics, especially the theory of dissipative structures.
Prigogine, Ilya (with G. Nicolis), SelfOrganization in
NonEquilibrium Systems: From Dissipative Structures to Order through
Fluctuations, Wiley, New York, 1977.
Prigogine, Ilya, Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics, WileyInterscience,
New York, 1962.
Cole, Daniel C. and Harold E. Puthoff, "Extracting Energy and
Heat from the Vacuum," Physical Review E, 48(2), Aug.
1993, p. 15621565.
Puthoff, H. E., "Communication Method and Apparatus with Signals
Comprising Scalar and Vector Potentials Without Electromagnetic
Fields," US Patent #5,845,220, dated Dec. 1, 1998.
Puthoff, H. E., "Source of Vacuum Electromagnetic ZeroPoint
Energy," Physical Review A, 40(9), Nov. 1, 1989, p.
48574862. Among other things, includes Puthoff’s selfregenerative
cosmological feedback cycle.
Puthoff, H. E., "Gravity as a ZeroPointFluctuation
Force", Physical Review A, Vol. 39, 1989, p. 23332342.
Puthoff, H. E., "The Energetic Vacuum: Implications for Energy
Research," Speculations in Science and Technology, 13(4),
1990, p. 247257.
Ryder, Lewis H., Quantum Field Theory, Second Edition,
Cambridge University Press, 1996, p. 147+. Covers the four polarizations
of the photon.
[Sachs, Mendel] Fragments of Science: Festschrift for Mendel Sachs,
Michael Ram (Ed.), World Scientific, Singapore, 1999). ISBN
9810238843 . With respect to O(3): In 1992 it was shown (Physica B,
192, 227, 237 (1992)) that there exists a longitudinal component of free
space electromagnetism, a component which is phaseless and propagates
with the transverse components. Later this was developed into a
YangMills theory of electromagnetism with O(3) Lagrangian symmetry.
This theory is homomorphic with Barrett’s SU(2) electrodynamics and
has far reaching implications in field theory in general. Recently it
has been recognized to be a sub theory of the Sachs theory of
electromagnetism, based on the irreducible representations of the
Einstein group of general relativity. The Sachs theory produces a
nonAbelian structure for the electromagnetic field tensor. The O(3)
electromagnetism also has implications for the potential ability of
extracting energy from the vacuum, and its topological implications are
currently being investigated by Ranada. The O(3) electromagnetism has
been tested extensively against empirical data, and succeeds in
describing interferometric effects and physical optical effects where
the conventional Maxwell Heaviside theory fails. Implicit in both the
O(3) and Sachs theories of electromagnetism is the ability to extract
electromagnetic energy from curved spacetime. Working devices based on
this ability would help solve the current energy crisis.
Sachs, Mendel, "Symmetry in Electrodynamics: from Special to
General Relativity; Macro to Quantum Domains" in Modern
Nonlinear Physics, Second Edition, M. W. Evans (ed.), Wiley, 2002
(in press).
Sachs, Mendel. Title TBD, Annals of Physics, Vol. 6, 1959, p.
244TBD. Addressed the question of whether there was any empirical
evidence for the violation of parity in the electromagnetic interaction.
Sachs, Mendel and S. L. Schwebel, Title TBD, Annals of Physics,
Vol. 8, 1959, p. 475.
Sachs, Mendel, General Relativity and Matter: A Spinor Field
Theory from Fermis to LightYears (Fundamental Theories of Physics),
Reidel (now Kluwer), 1982. Provides a great generalization of general
relativity and electrodynamics reaching from the quarks and gluons to
the entire universe.
Sachs, Mendel, Quantum Mechanics from General Relativity: An
Approximation for a Theory of Inertia, Reidel (now Kluwer), 1986. A
generalization of quantum mechanics is demonstrated in the context of
general relativity, following from a generally covariant field theory of
inertia. Nonrelativistically, the formalism corresponds with linear
quantum mechanics. In the limit of special relativity, nonlinearity
remains and several new features are derived: (i) Particleantiparticle
pairs do not annihilate; an exact bound state solution is derived
corresponding with all experimental facts about annihilation/creation—which,
in approximation, gives the blackbody radiation spectrum for a sea of
such pairs. (ii) a result is proven, without approximation, that is
physically equivalent to the Pauli exclusion principle—which in linear
approximation gives the totally antisymmetrised mainbody wave function
and FermiDirac statistics. (iii) The hydrogen spectrum is derived,
including the Lamb shifts, in agreement with experiment; new results are
found for highenergy electronproton scattering. (iv) Finally, several
applications to the elementary particle domain are demonstrated, in
agreement with results from experimental highenergy physics.
Sachs, Mendel, Relativity in Our Time: From Physics to Human
Relations, Taylor & Francis, 1993. The central contention of Relativity
in Our Time is that Einstein's theory is simple from the conceptual
standpoints and should therefore be comprehensible to a very broad range
of readers. Outstandingly clear and eloquent text explains the beautiful
theory and then extends it from problems in case physics to other
domains of human understanding, including issues of societal
relationships. The conceptual framework of the theory overrides its
mathematical structure and Professor Sachs is able to address and
vividly describe the subject to the extent that this book will grasp the
imagination of anyone with an interest in the fundamental working of the
universe, at any scale. The book is as appropriate for the humanities
student as for the professional physicist. Einstein's relativity theory
is central to both dynamical and energetic properties in the universe; Relativity
in Our Time sets the theory in context and clarity. The overwhelming
assertion of the book is that the principle of relativity leads to a
theoretical structure with tremendous predictive capacity, from the
microscopic range of particle physics to the domain of the universe at
largecosmic scales. Sachs' arguments cascade outwards in logical and
expressive discussions to encompass the new view of space, time,
spacetime, the curvature of spacetime and gravitation, as well as the
unified field concept, and an approach to cosmology. Perhaps most
fascinating of all is the relevance of the theory to human relations in
the social sciences. The economy and breadth of this book make it a
convincing and worthwhile source of fundamental understanding of the
scientific interpretation of our time.
Sachs, Mendel, Einstein Versus Bohr: The Continuing Controversies
in Physics, Open Court Publishing Company, 1988. Presents the
history of science in terms of problems, contradictions, and arguments.
Begins with classical and nineteenth century physics, describes the
early discoveries in particle theory, and introduces the "old"
quantum theory, which evolved into the quantum mechanics of the
Copenhagen School. Such important ideas as the Einstein Photon Box
experiment and the EinsteinPodolskyRosen Paradox, and Schrodinger's
Cat paradox are clearly expounded, followed by a completely fresh
explanation of relativity in conceptual terms, showing how apparent
paradoxes can be removed by Einstein's own interpretation, especially
that of his later years. Gives a detailed comparison of the fundamentals
of the quantum and relativity theories, suggesting how the
contradictions might be resolved. In an epilogue, he makes suggestions
with reference to religious notions, Taoism, and Buber's theory of
IThou, for generalizing Einstein's approach beyond physics.
Sachs, Mendel, The Field Concept in Contemporary Science,
Charles C. Thomas Publishers, 1973. A lucid, nonmathematical account of
the role of the continuous field concept in three major areas of
twentieth century science: the theory of electromagnetism, the theory of
relativity, and the contemporary theory that underlies phenomena in the
microscopic domain of atoms, molecules, and elementary particles  the
quantum theory. Electromagnetic theory has been interpreted in terms of
a continuous field of potential force that electrically charged matter
could exert on other charged matter, should the test matter be placed at
any of a continuum of spatial points. The formal expression of the
theory of relativity has been interpreted in terms of a continuous field
geometry—the continuous set of relations between the points of
spacetime, as determined by the matter distribution of a physically
closed system. The variables of the quantum theory have been interpreted
in terms of a field of probability—the continuous distribution of a
sequence of chances that a macroscopic apparatus will determine that the
microscopic object will have one set of physical properties or another.
Each of these field theories is analyzed from the point of view of its
philosophical content, and the contrasting views in terms of the
atomistic theories are presented. Discussion is given to the logically
dichotomous and compatible aspects of these theories as well as
indications of possible paths toward their unification into a general
field theory of matter. Biographical backgrounds are given of the chief
scientists whose works are discussed.
Sachs, Mendel, Ideas of Matter: From Ancient Times to Bohr and
Einstein, University Press of America, 1981. Discusses the main
philosophical ideas and debates of the two major developments of
twentieth century physics—the quantum theory of measurement and the
theory of relativity—as underlying theories of matter.
Sachs, Mendel, Ideas of the Theory of Relativity; General
Implications from Physics to Problems of Society, Israel University
Press, 1974. Shows how a single assertion—the principle of relativity—leads
to a theoretical structure that has tremendous predictive capacity. The
theory covers the entire range of the physical universe from the
microscopic range of elementary particle physics to the domain of
cosmology. Presented in nonmathematical fashion, and include spacetime,
the curvature of spacetime and gravitation, and unified field concepts
and cosmology. Throughout the text, extensions into the area of human
relations are discussed from the point of view of the physical
scientist.
Sachs, Mendel, The Search for a Theory of Matter, McGrawHill,
1971. Explores how first one theory, then another, was proposed, how
some have reappeared after being discarded, and how attempts have been
made to fuse apparently contradictory theories into a unified and cogent
explanation. It is a discussion of the important concepts and conflicts
of ideas that have appeared throughout the history of physics,
highlighting the developments in the twentieth century.
Sachs, Mendel, Solid State Theory, McGrawHill, 1974. Emphasis
on the role played by the symmetry of crystal lattices in the
determination of many of the physical properties of solids. Group theory
is introduced and the representatives of finite groups are utilized to
analyze atomic energy levels in crystal lattices as well as selection
rules for transitions between these levels. This aspect enables one to
determine many of the qualitative features of solid state properties
before numerical calculations begin.
Sachs, Mendel. "Relativistic Implications in Electromagnetic
Field Theory," in T. W. Barrett and D. M. Grimes, eds., Advanced
Electromagnetism, World Scientific, 1995, p. 541559. The most
general expression for the field theory is in terms of spinor and
quaternion variables, rather than the vector and tensor variables of the
conventional expression of Maxwell's theory. This generalized expression
leads to extra conservation laws and invariants, thus increasing the
predictive capacity of the theory.
Sachs, Mendel, "On Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism
and the Absence of Magnetic Monopoles," Nuovo Cimento, Vol.
114B, 1999, p. TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "On the source of Anisotropy in Cosmic Radiation
from General Relativity," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 110A, 1997, p.
611TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "Changes in Concepts of Time from Aristotle to
Einstein," Astrophysics and Space Science, Vol. 244, 1996,
p. 269.
Sachs, Mendel, "An Interpretation of the Top Quark Mass in Terms
of a Proton Mass Doublet in General Relativity," Nuovo Cimento,
Vol. 108A, 1995, p. 1445TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "On the Rotation of Galaxies in General
Relativity," Physics Essays, Vol. 7, 1994, pl 490TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "On the Problem of Cosmology," Physics
Essays, Vol. 6 1993, p. 32TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "On the Possible Origin of CP Violation in
Neutral Kaon Decay," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 72A, 1982, p.
361TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "A Pulsar Model from an Oscillating Black
Hole," Foundations of Physics, vol. 12, 1982, p. 689TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "On Stellar Collapse and the Black Hole Limit
from a Dynamical View," Anales Institut Henri Poincare, Vol.
28, 1978, p. 399TBD.
Sachs, Mendel, "The ElectronMuon Mass Doublet from General
Relativity," Nuovo Cimento, Vol. 7B, 1972, p. 247TBD.
Shoulders, Kenneth R., "Energy Conversion Using High Charge
Density," U.S. Patent # 5,018,180, May 21, 1991. An Electrum
Validum (EV) is a micronsized negatively charged plasmoid which yields
excess energy whenever it strikes the anode or travels down the axis of
a hollow coil. This was the first chargecluster (EV) patent to issue.
It states: "An EV passing along a traveling wave device, for
example, may be both absorbing and emitting electrons. In this way, the
EV may be considered as being continually formed as it propagates. In
any event, energy is provided to the traveling wave output conductor,
and the ultimate source of this energy appears to be the zeropoint
radiation of the vacuum continuum."
Shoulders, Kenneth R., "Energy Conversion using High Charge
Density," U.S. Patent No. 5,123,039, 1992.
Shoulders, Kenneth R., U.S. Patent 5,054, 046, 1991.
Shoulders, Kenneth R., U.S. Patent 5,054,047, 1991.
Shoulders, Kenneth R., "Circuits Responsive To and Controlling
Charged Particles," U.S. Patent 5,148,461 (1992).
Shoulders, Ken and Steve Shoulders, "Observations on the Role of
Charge Clusters in Nuclear Cluster Reactions," Journal of New
Energy, 1(3), Fall 1996, p. 111121.
Whittaker, E. T., "On the Partial Differential Equations of
Mathematical Physics," Mathematische Annalen, Vol. 57, 1903,
p. 333355.
Whittaker, E. T., "On an Expression of the Electromagnetic Field
Due to Electrons by Means of Two Scalar Potential Functions," Proc.
Lond. Math. Soc., Series 2, Vol. 1, 1904, p. 367372. The paper was
published in 1904 and orally delivered in 1903.
Wu, C. S., E. Ambler, R. W. Hayward, D. D. Hoppes and R. P. Hudson,
Experimental Test of Parity Conservation in Beta Decay," Physical
Review, Vol. 105, 1957, p. 1413. Reports the experimental proof that
the weak interaction violates parity (spatial reflection).
Ziolkowski, Richard W., "Exact Solutions of the Wave Equation
with Complex Source Locations," Journal of Mathematical Physics,
26(4), April 1985, p. 861863. Shows the sum set of bidirectional EM
waves comprising the scalar potential. In the 1980s, Donnelly and
Ziolkowski added the product set as well.
[Ziolkowski] I. M. Besieris, A. M. Shaarawi, and R. W. Ziolkowski,
"A bidirectional travelling plane wave representation of exact
solutions of the scalar wave equation," Journal of Mathematical
Physics, 30(6), 1989, p. 12541269.
[Ziolkowski] Rod Donnelly and Richard Ziolkowski, "A Method for
constructing solutions of homogeneous partial differential equation:
localized waves," Proceedings of the Royal Society of London A,
Vol. 437, 1992, p. 673692.
