|Date: Sun, 23 Dec 2001
Here's a bit of a thing that develops and slightly modifies how electrodynamics was conceived by Maxwell, just in case it is useful to you sometime in your present efforts.
Also, recall that charge has not previously been defined. As Silverman stated:
"The theory of quantum electrodynamics provides a comprehensive and (as far as experiment has been able to confirm) correct description of the interaction of charged matter with electromagnetic fields. And yet, curiously enough, we do not know exactly what charge is, only what it does. Or, equally significantly, what it does not do." [M. P. Silverman, And Yet It Moves: Strange Systems and Subtle Questions in Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993. p. 127.]
As previously stated, what I believe to be the first rigorous definition of charge (i.e., what it identically is) is as follows:Charge is the ongoing circulation of EM energy flow between the time and 3-space domain or vice versa, with respect to the observer. Negative charge is the ongoing absorption of EM energy input from the time domain (from ict), transduction of the absorbed energy into 3-space EM energy, and re-emission of the EM energy in all directions in 3-space. Positive charge is the ongoing absorption of EM energy input from 3-space, transduction of the absorbed energy into the time domain, and re-emission of the EM energy in the time domain.
Support is given to this by quantum field theory. E.g., see Mandl and Shaw, Quantum Field Theory, Wiley, 1984, Chap. 5. Mandl and Shaw strongly argue that the longitudinal and scalar polarizations of the photon are not directly observable, but only in combination, where they manifest as the "instantaneous" Coulomb (i.e., electrostatic) potential. However, Mandl and Shaw fail to explain the process that accomplishes the "combining". For a combining process, one must have an input (a cause), an interaction, and an output (an effect). So we have two cases as observed: (1) the scalar (time-polarized) photon is the cause, being input to interaction with a charged particle, and the output is the longitudinal photon (as the effect). Since observation is a d/dt operator imposed upon an ongoing 4-space process, this process yields an observable, because there is a 3-space energy change. (2) the longitudinal photon is the cause, being input to interaction with a charged particle, and the output is the scalar (time-polarized) photon. This process yields an observable, because there is a 3-space energy exchange.The two processes are phase conjugates. Hence one of those two must be the negative charge, and the other must be the positive charge. Thus Mandl and Shaw missed the time-excitation charging via absorption of the "coupled" time-polarized EM wave/photon, and the decay by emission of 3-space longitudinal EM wave/photon, and also missed the vice versa process.
We were able to link the time-charging aspect to the rigorously demonstrated strange instrumental anomalies in electrolyte experiments at Naval research facilities at China Lake, and we were able to explain the mechanism generating the anomalies. We were also able to derive the master mechanism for cold fusion transmutations, including writing the specific reaction equations for the anomalous transmutations that produce the excess deuterium, the excess tritium, and the alpha particles experienced in a great many experiments.The highest energy photons are the lower frequency photons, when the time-energy component of the photon is considered as well as its spatial energy component. If E = spatial energy, then t = E x (c-squared). So time has the same energy density as mass. The photon is comprised of (dE)(dt), where I use "d" as "delta". As can be seen, for the lower frequency photon, the dt portion will yield (dt)(c-squared), if the dt portion is decompressed into spatial energy (every charge can do it). Halving the photon frequency halves its dE component and doubles its dt component. So the resulting total spatial energy available from the lower frequency photon, if its time-component is decompressed and transduced, is enormously increased.
So modern "high (spatial) energy physics" is still very low energy physics in comparison to what really can be developed, and to what cold fusion experiments (now several hundred successful experiments by many researchers in many labs, in various nations worldwide) involve already, without the experimenters realizing it. Whenever physics gets over its fascination with "big nuke" reactions and great accelerators, there is a great new high energy physics waiting to be developed in "teapots", so to speak --- one where the physicists can engineer the nucleus at will, and even engineer the quarks and gluons at will. We would do well to get with it; the KGB highly classified weapons scientists have known the gist of this for at least two decades.Cheers,
Considering and slightly adapting the fluid analogy approach of James Clerk Maxwell:
"The intensity of the vacuum virtual particle flux may be treated as the intensity of a potential, thus by analogy corresponding to pressure in a fluid. Polarity (charge) is a process for establishing a change in the intensity of the vacuum potential-and thus a change in the ambient pressure of the vacuum fluid. Difference between vacuum pressures at two separated points creates a force upon any charge placed between those two points. Just as a differential in pressure between points in a fluid induces currents, a differential in vacuum pressure induces energy flow currents in the vacuum fluid, which are called 'fields'. All EM circuits, charges, potentials, and forces in electrodynamics involve altering the vacuum to include altering its pressure and thereby producing the forces the resulting pressure gradients (fields) induce upon charges. All observable EM energy in space is EM energy intercepted and collected on charges, and the spatial EM energy comes from the vacuum via these fundamental vacuum-engineering dynamics."