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February 15, 1996

Dear Rick (Andersen):

Just wanted to get off a quick response to your welcome letter and critique. I was very pleased at the constructive way you look at things; that's always welcome!  It has long been my firm position that (1) anyone who tries to do something new makes some mistakes along the way (I sure do, and I still have to have good erasers on my pencils!), and (2) in this emerging "field that is not yet a field," researchers do not have to agree with each other, but they should disagree like gentlemen, i.e., politely. Also, anyone who takes the time and effort to construct such a careful critique is to be commended. And so I was delighted at your approach and findings.

I want to send just a few comments; unfortunately I'm "dead in the water" with 16 hour days until well past June 1996. But we hope to put one or more "new EM systems" on the market by mid-summer or late fall. So I just have time to make some "hit and miss" observations that may be helpful to you.

  Time and Time Reversal

Physicists have no understanding whatsoever of the basic elementTIME. It's still one of the great mysteries of both physics and philosophy. So if one doesn't know what TIME is, or how its passage is operationally CREATED, then the business of a time-forward timestream and a time-reversed timestream (always relative, of course, to the external OBSERVER'S timestream, which seemingly is always time-forward) can get very, very confused and messy. That's exactly where physics is at present.

However, there is an electromagnetic mechanism that generates the flow of time itself. I discovered the gist of it in 1971 while at Georgia Tech to get my master's degree. Have only published just a bit on it; but have recently covered it a bit more in papers I am slowly writing for The Virtual Times, Internet node WWW.HSV.COM.  It is an engineerable mechanism, so it can eventually be TESTED, and falsified or upheld.

Basically, present physics considers that photonswhich are composed/made of "energy x time"only carry ENERGY! That's like saying a moving board, made of length x width, can only carry length and not its width! Plus which, no one really knows what a PHOTON is. E.g., in 1951, four years before his death, Einstein wrote to one of his oldest friends:              

 "All these fifty years of conscious brooding have brought me no closer to the answer to the question, 'What are light quanta?' Of course, today, every rascal thinks he knows the answer, but he is mistaken."

Eugene Wigner

And the picture hasn't changed since he wrote that. I spent an evening once with Eugene Wigner, the physicist who put time reversal into quantum mechanics, and a scientist whom I greatly admired. For an hour or so we had a most delightful conversation, until he asked me to explain what I do and to explain scalar electromagnetics. I explained that in my view a photon transports both energy and time, and that a mass that "absorbs" a photon's ENERGY (which just turns into a wee bit of excess mass, via Einstein's equation

m = 

E

c2

must temporarily turn into MASSTIME, not mass, since it is now "coupled" to a time-tail (the t portion of the photon that just "lost its energy"). 

Then when this MASSTIME emits a photon, it turns back to MASS (the time-tail of the intermediate "masstime" is torn off by the emitted photon, to couple with the photon's energy, leaving behind an entitymasswhich a priori did not and could not exist in time.) Wigner was thunderstruck.  He fully agreed that the photon was composed of energy x time, but did not believe it therefore "carried a little piece of time" was well as a little piece of energy. So, he affirmed, it was only the energy that was quantized. Of course I had stated that it was the whole photon (action, or angular momentum) that was quantized, not just the energy component by itself. The energy will be DISCRETIZED, but not quantized. I did not press the issue further, because I had too much respect for Wigner to press him. But I was quite taken aback that he could believe that something made of BOTH energy and time, could only carry a finite amount of ENERGY but could not carry a finite amount of TIME!

The virtual photon exchange in the local vacuum (i.e., the magnitude of the scalar potential of the local ambient vacuum) determines the rate at which little virtual ENERGY x TIME quanta interact with a given mass at that locality. And that rate of "adding and subtracting little essentially- infinitesimal time-jumps" determines the ambient "rate of passage of a mass particle through time." [The observable photon exchange of the mass with its environment represents the extra jumps added onto the fundamental "background rate of passage" of the mass through time.]

Note that the ambient vacuum's virtual photon exchange with the mass is the electrical charge of that mass. (Even neutrons do this, since one quark is continually flipping in each nucleon, so that protons in the nucleus continually turn into neutrons and vice versa.) In short, this "ambient passage through time" is the object's electrical charge, and that's what determines it. Note that physics already accepts the positive charge as just a time-reversed negative charge; Dirac, e.g., did not predict the positron as such; instead, he predicted an electron traveling backward in time, which we (the external observer) could only see as a positive charge traveling forward in time but in opposite spatial direction.

This relationship between standard massless charge φ of a fundamental particle and the ambient potential of the local vacuum also implies that ELECTRICAL CHARGE IS NOT QUANTIZED, [just as Tesla stated], and now that is rather easily shown as follows:                                  

 Electrical Charge Q is not Unitary  

First, q is not a UNITARY thing at all, even though physics erroneously treats it that way! This is easily seen. Any fundamental electrical charge (e.g., an electron or a proton) automatically has its own scalar potential φ, as is well-known. Well, φ of vacuum is just the virtual photon flux of vacuum, or it can be so modeled. The φe of the electron, then, just represents a change or gating in the virtual photon flux of the local ambient vacuum [all potentials superpose; the electron's potential is just superposed upon the ambient vacuum potential (AVP), although usually the AVP is just ignored.] That fits well with particle physics, where any electrical charge is automatically a broken symmetry (in that very vacuum flux).  Also, a reversal of electric charge is also a time-reversal, and vice versa. So any electrical charge is already a little "engine." It is gating a little part of the ambient photon flux of the vacuum through its mass, and then back out to the vacuum. THAT'S WHAT ELECTRICAL CHARGE IDENTICALLY IS.  For the electron, it's just that φe of the electron that couples to and interacts with the mass, and it's entirely MASSLESS. So q becomes a system of two things, rigorously defined as follows:        

 mq x φq  = mass x massless charge         [1]  

So what we have done is clearly differentiate between the MASSLESS part of Q from the MASSIVE part, and show the coupling action as the coupling operator x. This is the first rigorous definition of electrical charge ever advanced, insofar as I'm aware. To quote M.P. Silverman, "And Yet It Moves: Strange Systems and Subtle Questions in Physics", Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993, p. 127:        

"The theory of quantum electrodynamics provides a comprehensive and (as far as experiment has been able to confirm) correct description of the interaction of charged matter with electromagnetic fields. And yet, curiously enough, we do not know exactly what charge is, only what it does. Or, equally significantly, what it does not do."

But since potentials superpose, then let us add a potential φ2 to the local vacuum potential φv, so that the total ambient potential φt = (φv + φ2). Let us now look at an electron placed in that potential φt. Now the mass of the electron is exposed to a different (let us take a higher) value of ambient virtual photon flux. Consequently, it will change its massless electrical charge φe (its VPF exchange rate) and also its mass before being reemitted, and each one's energy portion turns into a little bit of excess mass while lingering, as we covered before.

If an electron could never change its massless charge φe, then it could never have a greater φ flux density on one side than on the other. Consequently it could never develop a φ across it. There would then exist no E-field, and the electron would not be translated.

Tesla stated he regularly made (in his very high voltage experiments) electrons that had some 50 times the charge of a "normal" electron that was driven only by the ambient vacuum potential φv, and not by (φv + φ2). Tesla came close to the more modern interpretation I gave above; he considered that charge occurred as thin surface layers on the electron mass, and additional layers could be added or subtracted.

So you see, we have just rather thoroughly revised the foundations of electrodynamics, with equation [1]. And now we are consistent with demonstrated change of the rate of flow of time, and of mass, in relativistic situations. Increasing a mass's velocity through the vacuum flux increases its interaction rate with the virtual photon flux (VPF), just as driving a car into a rain increases the reaction rate of its windshield with raindrops. This gives an alteration in massless charge, plus also an increase in mass due to ADDITIONAL VPF absorbed and "lingering" momentarily in the mass, with their E portions temporarily turned into m's via m = E / c2, but with their time-tails remaining momentarily coupled to the mass, so that the mass is actually now MASSTIME.

Relativistic increase of mass is actually an increase of masstime. You get the "time dilation" simultaneously. The above is why.

It is this lingering of the E / c2, in the "mass region", and the coupling of the time-tail so that not mass but now "mass time" exists, that makes a mass "exist" in the first place.

Now the "arrow of time" reveals itself, when we consider the nature of an atom, with its "time-forward" electrons outside, and its time-reversed nucleus "inside" the electron shells as Faraday cages. In other words, the electrons are in orbit (1st order picture only), so photons absorbed in one point of their orbit, linger a bit, and are re-radiated at a different point. In short, the electron shells continually scatter WHATEVER order is incoming in the photon flux exchange. So disordering of EM energy (i.e., ENTROPY) is continually occurring by this photon scattering from the electron shells. Since that is largely what we "see" and observe, we "see" and observe a positive time stream where (1) the past is continually destroyed (disordered) and the future is not yet available. So the overall entropy of the photon interaction with atoms indeed yields the apparently one-way direction of time's arrow. Yet this is only half the story; we will pick up the missing NEGENTROPIC half shortly.

The observable-photon exchange with the electron shells/shields results in discrete "jumps" of the atom through time. Mostly this observable-photon exchange occurs serially; i.e., it's mostly SINGLE PHOTON AT A TIME interactions. In short, it's a serial operation, not a parallel operation.

On the other hand, if the signal density of the environment gets sufficiently high (say, on the order of 500,000 signals per second per square meter), then the probability of multiphoton interaction will have significantly increased. In that case, one starts to get the nonlinear optical effects: PUMPING, PHASE CONJUGATION, SELF-TARGETING, AND THE LIKE. Then in the exposed living body, one gets very anomalous "deep penetration" of even very weak electronic smog signals, where the cells and their parts act as pumped phase conjugate mirrors. This creates a self-targeting effect, wherein the emitted PCRs from the outermost absorbing cells target and backtrack impinging natural EM signals from deeper within the body.

This creates a nonlinear "spurious energy diffusion" effect, wherein the spurious energyeven though minutereadily penetrates deeply into and throughout the body, including into the bone marrow where the immature cells of the immune system are born.

This is "low level jamming" of the internal EM that the body uses to CONTROL the production of those immune cells. So now you begin to get erratic immune cells being formed. Slowly, over a long period of time, that noise jamming of the immune system results in rather noticeable immune disorders (arthritis, etc.) and also noticeable cellular disorders such as leukemia, cancer, genetic changes, etc.

Since the MASTER CELLULAR CONTROL SYSTEM (Popp's version, extended Becker's version also) is directly affected, then so is normal cellular mitosis.

If you expose the person to a very much denser electronic smog (as in the Persian Gulf war), then you get an acceleration of all the above EM smog symptoms and disorders that USUALLY can result only over a long period (years).

That's the real explanation of the Gulf War Syndrome, and that's why it covers such a bewildering array of symptoms. The other Gulf War factors augmented and aggravated the causative electronic smog factor, but they were not the PRIMARY culprits. That's also the solution to the problem of how electronic smog does or does not produce long-term cumulative effects in exposed persons.

Note that the "energy deposition" experimental methodology presently being utilized by most EM bioeffects researchers simply assumes away the problem, and will never, never show what I have described above BECAUSE IT EXCLUDES THAT FUNDAMENTAL "DEEP DIFFUSION" MECHANISM.

That's why the laboratory experimenters have not been able to clearly demonstrate any causative mechanism for the epidemiological studies that show correlation between long term exposure to weak EM fields and radiation, and cancers and leukemias.  As Devyatkov stated, it's the sheer number of signalsregardless of their weakness or the sources producing themthat is the main causative variable. I put it a little more exactly: It's the sheer signal density that drives the probability of multiphoton interactions instead of single photon interactions, which in turn drive the anomalous "deep penetration" and long-term debilitating effects. I put all that in my Priore paper in "Explore!", with all the technical mechanisms in grand and gory detail.

Some two decades ago I was also able to define MASS, without referring to "its ability to resist a disturbing force." Mass also is a dynamic energy- flowing, changing system. That definition took a bit of doing, but it appeared in my odd and perhaps a bit naive little paper, "Quiton/Perceptron Physics: A Theory of Existence, Perception, and Physical Phenomena," National Technical Information System, Report AD-763210, 1973.

The paper contains a new definition of mass independently of force, something which exists nowhere else in physics. One kilogram of mass represents 17.053 x 1050 "switches per second" of action quanta across the surface of the mass, in a flux exchange between the mass and its environment, where one switch equals h/(4π).  The same paper, though crude, derives Newton's three laws of motion in relativistic form and the square law of gravitation.

But back to our "time stream." There are jillions of time streams, SIMULTANEOUSLY, for any mass moving forward in time. Time streams have internal structure, and are composed of a multiplicity of much finer time streams. A mass "moves through macroscopic time" in successive little "discrete jumps," due to the observable-photon flux, where after each jump the mass exists as mass, and DURING the jump it exists as masstime.

So "the" macrotime stream is like a special sewing machine stitching a cloth; the stitches go in one at a time, but each stitch is "pulled back out" prior to the next one. That's the macro timestream. At the same time, the "continuity" of the mass's "existence (in time)," relatively speaking, is provided by the myriads upon myriads of little virtual photon interactions occurring with that mass (as electric charge) in any finite length of macrotime, no matter how small. For one "OBSERVABLE-PHOTON induced jump," jillions and jillions of "far, far tinier VIRTUAL-PHOTON induced jumps" have occurred. So these "inner, hidden, virtual photon induced" time streams are all woven into the "macro" time- stream induced by the observable-photons.

So time-flow has an internal structure, which is electromagnetic and can be directly engineered, using an approach based upon the two Whittaker papers.

Now re-examine this notion of "entropic" macrotime flow, as determined by the observable-photon scattering interaction with the electrons in the electron shells of atoms. For each photon interaction with an electron, there is an equal and opposite or antiphoton NEGENTROPIC interaction with the nucleus. (As explained elsewhere, there is no "photon" interaction as such anyway; the photon always occurs in space coupled with its antiphoton twin, as a spin-2 GRAVITON).

For every divergent/scattering/entropic/positive-time photon interaction with the electron shells, there is an opposite and equal reconvergent/ negentropic/negative-time antiphoton interaction in the nucleus. THAT'S WHAT HAS BEEN "HIDDEN" IN NEWTON'S THIRD LAW ALL ALONGTHE NEGENTROPIC HALF OF SPATIOTEMPORAL CHANGE.

When a graviton (photon/antiphoton pair) approaches an atom, it sees a separated assembly of negative charges (time forward, in the electron shells), and a slightly separated assembly of positive charges (time-reversed, in the nucleus) charges. So it sees an assembly of dynamic electrical dipoles, considering one positive charge coupled with a negative charge (we are just to rough first order here, of course, but that is sufficient).  Now in a dipole, one end is TIME-FORWARD (exists in forward or entropic time flow) and the other end is TIME-REVERSED (exists in the backward or negentropic time flow). 

That's particle physics, not Tom Bearden. 

So the incoming graviton is "split" by the receiving dipole. The forward-time portion of the split graviton (i.e., the photon part) interacts with the forward-time portion of the atom (the electron end of the dipole) whilst the time-reversed portion of the split graviton (i.e., the antiphoton) of the graviton interacts with the reversed time portion of the atom (the positive end of the dipole, which is in the atomic nucleus).  Therefore the nucleus recoils (Newtonian 3rd law recoil). That is the normal reaction, except that now we have added the causative mechanism for Newton's third law reaction force.  Note that it agrees with quantum field theory, where all mechanical and electromagnetic forces must be generated by absorption and emission of virtual photons.  It follows that such must be true also for Newton's third law, and we have now shown it overtly.

Now if we have a phase conjugating material (sufficiently nonlinear material), then the antiphoton cannot reach the nucleus.  Instead, the incoming EM waves (actually longitudinal and composed of gravitons, not just single photons but coupled photons/antiphoton pairs) undergoes MULTIWAVE interaction in space, not PHOTON/PARTICLE interaction.  The antiphotons are redirected in this wave interaction, externally away from the atom rather than into its nucleus. In the well-known phase conjugate mirror, the antiphotons are redirected as the phase conjugate replica wave.  Notice we are not just using the QM notions; we are following the "macro wave" picture.  But what it means is that the nucleus now will not recoil, because the antiphoton/photon interaction that creates Newtonian third law recoil of the nucleus does not occur.

This is a DEMONSTRATED experimental fact. In a phase conjugate mirror, no matter how powerfully pumped, the antiphotons (of either the input signal wave or of the pump waves) never reach the nuclei.  Consequently the nucleiand the material they composedo not recoil because the GENERATING INTERACTION for the Newtonian third law force did not occur.

In the Sweet vacuum triode experiment where we reduced the weight of the device by 90% on the test bench, we used an adaptation of the foregoing notion (which due to legal constraints I still cannot PRECISELY reveal). I hinted at in the the Ansatz paper in IECEC, but am still unable to say much more about it.  Let's just say that, if you make a phase conjugate mirror highly pumped at ELF frequencies (Sweet was using 60 Hertz), and do the pumping in the internal Stoney/Whittaker/Ziolkowski channel inside the scalar potentials, you will get beautiful nonlinear optical effects at low frequencies!

THIS IS A MAGIC SECRET; MARK IT WELL!  In the internal channel, you are now in the region where myriads and myriads of "pump" wavesrepresented in the particulate view as the absorption and emission of virtual photons, or as the virtual photon flux exchange between the ambient vacuum and the massare occurring continuously, at every frequency imaginable. Therefore all frequencies, regardless of low or high or optical, will all act in the nonlinear fashion.  In other words, all that business of time-reversed waves, time-reversed particles, absence (or increase or decrease) of nuclear recoil, everything, gets involved.  This way you get the NLO effects at ELF. The gravitational effects occur as an inverse function of the frequency. So the lower the frequency, the better.  You can hardly obtain or measure the antigravity effects at optical frequencies.  At ELF, they are easily measurable and obtainable.  But you can't do much to get EM phase conjugation at EXTERNAL frequencies.  At INTERNAL ELF frequencies, it's the rule rather than the exception.

At any rate, all that mess was necessary, to clarify this business of time and time passage rate and time-reversal.  It ain't as advertised in the leading textbooks.  And it is directly engineerable.

Notice that we've also got the exact mechanisms for homeopathy in the above, if we bother to dig it out explicitly and show it.  It's there for the taking, and it is engineerable.  You see, in equation 1, the homeopathic procedure of "potentizing" can simply "SWZ-structure" the magnitude-fixed φq portion of the electric charge q, where we insist that q = φq x mq.  This "structuring" of the massless charge flux can easily be shown by the superposition of potentials.  Two charges with some deterministic SWZ structuring in the φq portions, will interact DIFFERENTLY than two charges with only "randomized" SWZ structures. 

Since charge and charge distribution largely is responsible for driving chemistry reactions, then this means that we can change the chemistry by SWZ structuring charges, via Whittaker's 1904 paper (the second one of the two I so often quote).  Note, however, that we have changed and extended both classical and quantal electrodynamics, by destroying one of their favorite postulates: the postulate that every charged fundamental particle of a given type (e.g., electrons) is identical to every other such particle.  Now individual electrons can also be individualistic in their internal SWZ structures comprising their φe's. 

Homeopathy does the "mixing of potentials" and thus the "potentizing" indirectly, by altering the H-bonding structures of the solution.  The H-bondings (making and breaking) can be treated as a single potential, as Hsu showed.  This "fluid H-potential" thus decomposes according to Stoney/ Whittaker/Ziolkowski.  "Mixing" potentials of dissolved compounds alters the entire H-potential, since potentials superpose and their inner structures also diffuse and superpose.  By combining Whittaker, Kaznacheyev, Priore, and Hsu, the H-potential can be directly and strongly altered electromagnetically.

Ordinary EM theory utilized Whittaker's 1904 paper, but not his 1903 paper. The resulting "other" potentials are sometimes referred to as "superpotential" theory, and the other potentials (Debye potential, Nisbet potential, Dirac potential, etc.) were also found to be most useful. They are all takeoffs in the manner of Whittaker 1904, though different potentials result.

A good paper that discusses all this is Patrick Cornille, "Inhomogenous Waves and Maxwell's Equations."  Chapter 4 in "Essays on the Formal Aspects of Electromagnetic Theory, Aklesh Lakhtakia, Ed., World Scientific, New York, 1993 (pages presently elude me). 

In fact, the parent book of that paper is a "must" for anyone seriously interested in WHAT OF ALL THIS the present electrodynamicists know and use, and what of it they do not. Cornille, e.g., clearly shows that Maxwell's equations are directly created by scalar potential interferometry.  As he states, this means that EM force field waves are created by the interference of SOUND-type scalar potential waves, or "sound creates light". 

This strongly supports Tesla's original statement that EM waves in the vacuum are actually EM sound waves, much like sound waves in a gas.  It also validates my own long-standing assertions of scalar potential interferometry (based on the SWZ work) and its ability to create ordinary EM fields and waves at a distance.

To properly address the "advanced and retarded" solutions, I recommend a very fine paper: Milo Wolff, "Beyond the point particlea wave structure for the electron." GALILEAN ELECTRODYNAMICS, Sept/Oct 1995, p. 83-91. Wolff gives the background of the advanced and retarded wave solutions, starting from Wheeler and Feynman's exposition.  Wolff cites three of his own papers which formulated the results summarized in his paper.  He arrives at the notion of two worlds within our universe: (1) the familiar 3D environment, governed by the natural laws and observed by us using our five senses and their extensions as laboratory instruments.  This is the world of energy-exchange; and (2) a second world of scalar waves, which form the structures of the basic particles, electron, proton, and neutron which compose the material objects and the space (ether) of our world of energy exchange.  This unseen scalar world is basic and DETERMINES THE REAL ACTION in both worlds.                                

Quoting Wolff, p. 84:   

"...an Energy Exchange Mechanism can be seen to underlie the force laws and even special relativity, the deBroglie wavelength, and Conservation of Energy.  For example, the force laws describe force as the change in energy over distance, F = dE/dr.  Therefore, whatever motivates the change in energy generates what we observe as force. The coulomb and gravity force laws do not describe what creates these    forces because they are only formulas to calculate force.  That is, they do not imply any particular energy exchange mechanism."

Wolff then formulates this mechanism for the electron wherein it depends on the existence of other matter in the universe.  This is a very insightful article!  Wolff discusses the requirement that particle properties require perception-communication between particles, that measurement of time requires a cosmological clock, the role of space, Mach's principle, and his theory of the new electron.  I wrote a long letter to Wolff, giving him the Stoney/ Whittaker/Ziolkowski background of the "inner EM" etc., profusely referenced. Received a nice letter back from him.

Now, of course, one can take equation [1] above and apply Whittaker 1903 to it, and mathematically decompose the φq term into a set of hidden bidirectional EM wavepairs, in a harmonic sequence.  So now one can clearly show that the massless electrical charge φq of any "charged mass" q, can and does have an internal, hidden, bidirectional EM wave structure. The homeopathic researchers should eventually incorporate that one, as we stated above, because it is rigorous theoretically, and it can be experimentally dealt with as well.

Stoney and Whittaker showed the SUM set of internal bidirectional EM waves that comprise a scalar potential φ.  Later, circa 1985 Ziolkowski independently rediscovered the internal biwave set comprising the potential, and also added the PRODUCT set.  Since the product of EM waves is technically MODULATION, then Ziolkowski laid the groundwork for "hidden" EM communications "inside" the scalar EM potential.

Further, the inner signal EM (i.e., modulations on several of the internal SWZ waves inside a DC potential) is not necessarily restricted to the speed of light.  Bulk gradients in the entire vacuum potentiali.e., the so-called "EM force field" wavesare limited to the speed of light.  But they require changing the amplitudes of each and every single one of the SWZ wavepairs in the local ambient vacuum potential!  Well, since each of those hidden SWZ wavepairs is a bidirectional thing, different rules may apply for only one or two of them.

In fact, it appears that a single hidden SWZ wavepair moves in the COULOMB GAUGE (see Jackson, CLASSICAL ELECTRODYNAMICS, 2nd edn., 1975, p. 22-23 for a discussion of Coulomb gauge, which is regarded as just applying to the "near field".) Quoting, p. 222:   

"...transverse radiation fields are given [in the Coulomb or transverse    gauge] by the vector potential alone, the instantaneous Coulomb potential  contributing only to the near fields.  This gauge is particularly useful in quantum electrodynamics.  A quantum-mechanical description of photons necessitates quantization of only the vector potential."

Hey! Suddenly only a PART of EM (half of it, the vector potential in the conventional φ & A potential formulation) is quantized!  But we continue.

Quoting p. 223:                                  

"[In the Coulomb gauge] the scalar potential 'propagates' instantly everywhere in space.  The vector potential, on the other hand, satisfies the wave equation... with its implied finite speed pf propagation c."

Further quoting, p. 223:   

"...the transverse current... extends over all space, even if J is    localized."

Now isn't that a real blast! 

Here we have a definitive statement by one of the greatest electrodynamicists that the scalar potential part of EM, when freed from the vector potential, can move at infinite velocity in the near field, and only the presence of the vector potential limits the normal EM wave to the speed of light.  So if we want to do superluminal transmission, we have to eliminate that vector potential and use only the scalar potential. However, we cannot make bulk gradients of that scalar potential, for that would make E-fields (in the conventional theory where E = -φ).

Well, if we impress deterministic changes (signals) upon the -φ's, then we make magnetic fields and magnetic vector potential, because of the changing E-fields. Bummer!  It means that we have to use a DC potential.  I.e., the scalar potential must not allow bulk gradients to form.  That means we have to put the modulations (the "signal intelligence") inside a fixed DC potential, upon one or a few of its composite hidden SWZ EM wave pairs. That can and has been done.

For example, suppose we "bury up" our modulations/signals/communications inside a DC potential, on some of those "hidden internal wave pairs" that SWZ shows us. 

In other words, we "Z-modulate" [[Z for Ziolkowski. --R.A.]] two or three of the internal Stoney/Whittaker wavepairs.  But we do not make any BULK φ in our overall DC potential φ.  Hummer!  A priori, the DC scalar potential "carrying" the internal signal STARTS OUT in the "near field", in the Coulomb gauge.  We now have no vector potential associated with this thing; that's been eliminated.  Macroscopically, it's seemingly just an old DC potential, just pure φ.  Voila!  No "vector potential to limit us to speed c" ever arises.  So if we regard the vector potential as the "breaker" that ends the "near field region", then we never get out of the "near field region", because that now extends everywhere. The end result is that the darn "hidden" signal now moves in the Coulomb gauge"inside" the ambient vacuum potential!and at infinite velocity.  Even with only a pretty good rendition of all this, it moves at a speed way beyond light speed c.  PERIOD.  And it works.  It's Fogal's invention.

On the other hand, you've got to be able to "INFOLD" the signal as a modulation on some of the SWZ waves inside the scalar potential, on the "transmission" end.  On the "receiving" end, you've got to be able to "outfold" the signal into the normal "bulk potential domain", so you can create E and B fields locally and locally move some electrons for a detection.  (All our normal detectors are essentially "electron wiggle" or "electron translation" detectors, so we've got to produce overt EM field signals (bulk potential gradients) in the receiver.  And Fogal's invention can do those two functions: the infolding and the outfolding.  Note we are not communicating with OVERT EM fields and waves; those are limited to light speed, as is well-known.  Instead, we are communicating with COVERT EM fields (the SWZ internal EM fields and waves).  Those are NOT limited to light speed at all.                                

Shortly Fogal will be filing a most formidable patent application on that systemthe world's first demonstrable superluminal communication system, and the "subspace" (internal EM) communication system so touted on Star Trek. Obviously such a patent will never be granted unless it can be proven. Fogal can prove it by actual prototype demonstration.

So as not to interfere with Fogal's filing of his patent application, I request that you not place this material on any computer net prior to 10 days from the time you receive this response.  After then, I request that you place it on the Keely net, and that those boys or you make the necessary arrangements to also have it available on the Internet.

Note that I did not specify HOW the infolding and outfolding was done.

That is Fogal's invention and his secret, not mine.  I just told WHAT was done, so that superluminal communication is not only theoretically possible but doable.  (There's another long related discussion re Mach's principle and what causes it, and how that limits the normal wave speed in vacuum to light speed, and how using only a fraction of the "internal" channel escapes Mach's principle and so enables the dramatic reduction of "vacuum medium drag" that is responsible of the ordinary light speed limitation.  It's just too long for me to go into all that tonight.)

Now to some specific issues:  Yes, my insight did keep growing.  At first I took the results of experiments such as by Hooper, with opposing "ordinary waves".  The effects of the core for the coils were a puzzle, but it seemed that sometimes the "opposing normal waves" would give some G effects, and more often they would not.  What I did not realize for some time was that the longitudinal wave can be regarded as a superposed wave/antiwave, via a single SWZ wavepair.  This agreed with Whittaker, and also now offered a sudden inspiration as to when we got the G effect and when not. 

We were dealing with four waves, not two, in the opposing ordinary waves.  We had two opposing normal waves and two opposing antiwaves, with the wave/antiwave coupling.  Two ordinary waves 180 degrees out of phase would certainly cancel (spatially) their amplitudes (as is well-known in RAM materials and structures) but would not cancel their energies.  The two antiwaves would do likewise, spatially.  The point then became, so what would happen in the time domain?  Here we got a shocker.  The two antiwaves would cancel each other's amplitude SPATIALLY, and would add energies.  But looking at the action (energy x time) aspect, their energies exist in negative time!

Well, this meant that the antiwave ACTION would come out negative, and would then cancel the added positive wave ACTION because Ewt + Eaw(-t) = 0. Therefore the sum of the whole mess was zero!  Bummer!  We wound up with everything just vanishing, wherein all the action (angular momentum) seemed to vanish.  Well, this showed that the notion of simply having waves 180 degrees out of phase of itself would not give gravity effects.  So that's why mostly the Hooper approach didn't seem to do much.  But if one added nonlinear materials to the core, then one broke the linear cancellation. Once in a while, if one got it just right, one could get some spooky gravitational effects.  So that was a real clue.

Then we took the known (by General Relativity) facts that (i) all trapped energy is gravitational (it is the trapped energy in mass that is gravitational, not mass per se), and (ii) all potentials are gravitational anyway, since they contain trapped energy.

So now the question became, "How the devil does one trap EM energy at a point in space, when to exist as EM energy in space, it must be going at light speed, by Einstein's postulate?"  Bummer!  How can something be moving and not moving, simultaneously?  Did a lot of thinking in terms of my fourth law of logic, since that obviously was what was required.  Looked at Spencer Brown's law of form a little bit more.  Scratched my head a lot.

Then it hit me.  The potential is already accepted as "trapped EM energy". So it contains the secret of "trapping EM energy, which must be moving and static simultaneously."  But it's regarded as "static".  Well, if it's static, then how does it "flow" down a wire?  It ought to "stay in place".  So it cannot BE "static", because it FLOWS.  That's called massless displacement current d-φ/dt.  And that notion gets all confused with several other kinds of currents, including dD/dt, dV/dt, j, i, etc.  Yet its MAGNITUDE at any spatial point is indeed fixed (we are discussing electrostatics here).

Scratched my head some more. 

Then thought of it this way:  Suppose you have a flowing river.  Suppose it's very calm on the surface, but just flowing along.  Now at each and every point on the surface, there is a fixed "value" or "number" that will represent the FIXED MAGNITUDE of the vertical depth of the river at that point.  The set of all these scalar numbers then represents the "scalar depth field"or the "field of the scalar magnitude of the depth of the river."  But no one in his right mind would define the river itself as just its "depth magnitude" scalar field.  That is, the MAGNITUDE FIELD would be scalar, but the river itself is darn sure vectorial because it has both direction and magnitude.

The same is true of a scalar EM potential.  The "scalar" function is the field of "spatial energy density" at each spatial point where the potential has a nonzero  magnitude.  But something can be flowing "under" or within that "scalar field" and be totally vectorial, so long as the vectorial aspects sum vectorially to zero.  So here was my old idea of the zero vector sum of two or more nonzero vectors being a scalar potential or a scalar stress potential.

Bringing in Stoney and Whittaker, they had already shown that ANY scalar potential (which physicists routinely and erroneously regard as just a SCALAR MAGNITUDE field) is already composed of bidirectional EM wave pairs. In other words, it's the MAGNITUDE OF THE LOCALLY TRAPPED EM ENERGY DENSITY OF ALL THOSE HIDDEN INTERNAL BIDIRECTIONAL WAVES AT EACH SPATIAL POINT that is externally "scalar" in nature.  But the internal part of this "entity" that we fragmentedly refer to as the "scalar potential" is quite vectorial. So each Whittaker wave pair (each major component) is the key: (i) it has to be gravitational, because the potential is already known to be gravitational.  So each PRIMARY COMPONENT must be gravitational.  (ii) it therefore must already contain the magic "EM energy trapping mechanism." Voila!  There it is.                                

Well, each wave pair is A PRIORI a standing gravitational wave.  And since it is comprised totally of EM waves, that particular manner of coupling must A PRIORI turn EM field energy into G field energy!  Also, it contains the EM trapping mechanism.  That was a wave and its true time-reversed twin, i.e., its "antiwave" twin.  Here nonlinear phase conjugate optics can be applied.  It's already well-known that a phase conjugate wave replica super- poses precisely with its wave twin, SPATIALLY.  THE AMPLITUDES OF THE WAVE AND ITS SUPERPOSED ANTIWAVE DO NOT SPATIALLY ADD, AS THEY DO IN ANY "NORMAL" EM STANDING WAVE!  It's also known that the phase conjugate replica wave is truly time reversed (e.g., see Wheeler's delayed choice experiments, and several others which demonstrate this fact rather conclusively.)

But we cannot see time (it's lost in the observation process, when the photon is emitted again after being absorbed by mass to create masstime.)  Photon emission tears away the time tail, disconnecting the mass from the "stitch" in the timestream.  It leaves behind a completely 3-space object.  That's why all light observation-- which just uses the photon/mass absorption and emission mechanism-- is well-known to be SPATIAL, not SPATIOTEMPORAL.  There is no such thing as direct measurement of time, and there has never really been a "time-measuring clock".  This is well-known, but think of it a bit. You INFER time from a change in spatial positioning of the hands of a clock. The clock does not directly MEASURE time, which in QM is already known to be just a parameter and NOT an observable.  Note that in our time flow generating mechanism above, we explained why observables were spatial and not spatio-temporal.

So now we rather much have it all.  For EM force field effects to observably exist (i.e., to cause detectable changes or perturbations), they must exist for a finite time, else no acceleration occurs.  Use the E-field as an example.  In the SPATIALLY superposed wave/antiwave pair, we have the EM forces SPATIALLY existing, which we can represent as in the expression [E x t] + [E x(-t)].  That means that the EM FORCE FIELDS sum to a vector zero.  But the scalar energies add SPATIALLY, when the times disappear.  So the wave/antiwave pair is devoid of net EM force action, which must exist in time, but the spatial energy densities at the point add because they are both positive.  Further, since time does not exist in 3-space, we now have the familiar 3-space disposition of the "trapped EM energy" in the potential field.

So the trapping mechanism turned out to be this:  Eliminate the EM impulse (force times time) effects, by "timewise" cancellation, while leaving the spatial addition of the energies.  You do that when you couple a phase conjugate replica wave to its normal wave twin.  That makes a true electro- gravitational wave.  A new kind of standing wave.  (You can make lots of other kinds of "scalar waves", but that is the simplest.)

Anyway, that's a sort of digest of the thinking that I went through, as the concept evolved.  That's about where I am today, except now we use jillions of internal timestreams as "time strings" comprising a "time rope" that is macrotime flow.

You see, we still have the "vector sum zero" in there, but we just treated the time dimension as a sort of length, and the time-vectors cancelled. In other words, we looked at the 4-vectors, with the addition that killing the time destroyed any EM force changes, which a priori require some time in which to occur.  It also yields the cause of the mysterious quantum mechanical "collapse of the wave function".  No wave can exist if the time it exists in suddenly ceases.  You only have 3-space when the 4th dimension fractures and ceases momentarily.

And you are quite right that the word "opposing" now takes on more than one sense.  It does not necessarily mean just "spatially" opposing.

It gets even more confusing when one realizes that we cannot see "time reversed" things properly, because of the electrons around the atoms of matter making up our bodies and instruments.  A PRIORI, we look through a "time-forward-only" filter.  So we see true time-reversed things totally spatially; we see them "spatially and velocity-wise" reversed.  Therein lies the difficulty in this word "opposing!"

The difference is, the true time-reversed wave (the PCR wave) will precisely backtrack and spatially superpose with its stimulus wave, even if that stimulus wave no longer exists, and even though the two waves are antiparallel in the time dimension!  The PCR wave (in the simplest caseit can be directionally tricked by various means) will return precisely back over the spatial path PREVIOUSLY taken by its twin, even if that path is rather torturous, as shown by Pepper and others.  That is not at all true of a normal wave!  A normal wave will spread and scatter in many media, in which the true time- reversed wave will precisely orient back through that same nonlinear medium along the original track.  As Pepper showed, you can do marvelous correction of distorted images this way.  Such things noticed early-on are why the (poorly-named!) distortion correction theorem was so-named.  This also makes SELF-TARGETING (iterative mutual phase conjugation) between two separated objects acting as phase conjugate mirrors a real hummer!

But the PCR wave is truly time reversed, and because of its reconvergence (order restoring, negentropy) it can produce cooling instead of heating. E.g., in the Sweet vacuum triode, the phase conjugate replicas were directed out into the external circuitry to power the load.  If one directly shorted out the ends, there would be a brilliant flash of light, and the ends would INSTANTLY ICE OVER, as if you had dipped the wires into liquid helium or some such.  This is very different from shorting out the ends of a normal circuit, with normal time-forward wave power.  There you get marvelous heating and wire melting.  Here you get wire freezing and no heating at all.  Further, Sweet on one occasion got himself directly into the short out of the circuit, with quite a bit of power going through it.  The most conductive parts of his lower arm and handthe nerveswere flash frozen!  He required medical treatment for that for some little time, and the condition only gradually improved and finally healed in about a year.

The beautiful part of this nonlinear "optical" function is the fact that it occurs easily for the lower frequencies as well, in the inner channel. That yields the "self-targeting" mechanism that creates a self-ordering and a quantum potential (QP).  I have previously given examples of the inadvertent creation of a quantum potential, though unrecognized by the participants/ experimenters.  Refer to GRAVITOBIOLOGY, to my description of how a QP is formed, and to the description of the U.S. air attack on Libya in 1986. Also refer to the Lawandy experiments (see Nabil M. Lawandy; R.M. Balachandran, A.S.L. Gomes and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media." NATURE, Letters, 368(6470), Mar. 31, 1994, p. 436-438.) 

Researchers of Brown University, Providence, R.I. discovered that tiny particles of titanium dioxide (a key ingredient of white paint), although randomly distributed, act together to amplify light emitted by dye molecules that are excited by a laser or some other external energy source).

This (quantum potential produced by mutual self-targeting between separated components or systems) is also part of the hidden mechanism that Patterson evokes in the Patterson cell, and that gives self-organizing and increases energy collection.  The reason his spheres have to be so round is to get sufficient self-targeting that energy collection is increased to give good overunity gain.  In other words, there is a threshold at which scattering increases and limits the "self-organizing" due to the QP mechanism I showed in GRAVITOBIOLOGY.  In the future, if I can get some time, hopefully I will be able to write an article giving the exact mechanism of the Patterson cell. I think his invention is magnificent!  As I covered in a recent article on WWW.HSV.COM, only a tiny fraction (nominally some 10 -13 or so) of the Poynting energy flow S = E x H that our normal electrical circuits and devices evoke, is collected on the carrier electrons and transported as the Slepian vector jφ to the load, and dissipated therein to power it.  By forming a quantum potential, the collection percentage is increased (this is easily shown).  Patterson's approach seems to yield a collection increase of some 200 times. 

As I've stated before, if we can increase the energy collection fraction, then a flashlight battery can power a battleship.  And obviously such "collection-increasing" systems can be close-looped by clamped positive feedback, to provide a "self-powering" system.  Note that the conservation of energy law and the laws of equilibrium thermodynamics are not violated, because the system is an open system receiving, gating, and collecting excess energy from the vacuum, then dissipating this excess energy as the load (in the case of the Patterson cell, as excess heat).  The second law of EQUILIBRIUM thermodynamics does not apply to such a system, as is well-known. Non- equilibrium thermodynamics (as per Prigogine et al) does indeed permit such overunity systems.  Else you could not run a water wheel or a windmill or a solar cell.  COP>1.0 is absolutely permissible for such systems.  Any scientist who objects to it on EQUILIBRIUM thermodynamics grounds should simply go read the literature.

And perhaps you will find my explanation of the Johnson gate, the Takahashi engine, and the Kawai engine of interest, in the same paper on the same Internet node.  REGAUGING via a free change of system potential, and hence of the system's stored EM energy, is the master secret of overunity.  It has long been ARBITRARILY ASSUMED AWAY by the conventional electrodynamicists when they apply the classical EM.  They first simply ASSUME away the "residue" or "leftover" scalar potentials (the gauge potentials) in the actual Heaviside/Maxwell force field formulation.  Actually, you can use that gauge potential term, and cause the system to CHANGE IT AT WILL, i.e., REGAUGE ITSELF AT WILLthus freely refueling an electromagnetic engine directly from the vacuum as an open system receiving excess energy from an external source. 

The Heaviside/Maxwell equations in their form before the ARTIFICIAL and tidying assumption of zero residue gauge potentials will agree fully with you!  Ain't that a whale of a blast!  Regauging (free refueling the system with stored EM energy!) has been there in the "unaltered" and "untidy" Heaviside/Maxwell equations all along.  The electrodynamicists just got too tidy, and the circuit and engine boys never asked what the electrodynamicists had done and why they had done it.

Anyway, I just wanted to share my thinking along these lines with you, even though I am sorely pressed for the next several months.  I very much appreciate your arduous efforts in going through the material, and the hours you have spent on reading the references.  Please feel free to continue to critique, correct, adapt, and utilize my concepts as you wish.  THAT'S WHAT ALL THIS EFFORT IS ABOUT!  These notions, viewpoints, findings, etc. simply must be transferred to younger, more vigorous, better qualified theoreticians and experimenters than I am or will ever be. 

I only get disgruntled at persons who (i) will not read the references or try to comprehend what the references say, (ii) simply want to argue normal theory (I'm not using the conventional theory, and I have no time or inclination to "argue"), (iii) think that everything electromagnetic is already well-understood and cut and dried (nothing could be further from the truth, as the foundations physicists know full well), or (iv) persons who start in immediately calling me names (such persons, in my view, are only interested in dogfights and have thereby unwittingly revealed their true ancestry.)  But then none of those are consistent with the scientific method!

I am VERY pleased when the negations of the above are apparent, and also when someone serious questions my work in a gentlemanly fashion, or when someone CORRECTS something I have advanced, showing it to be in error.  I learn from that also!  Years ago, in teaching a class, I had a sharp young student correct my written expression for the fourth law of logic, the instant she saw it on the board the first time!  That impressed me mightily, and I quickly admitted the error and corrected it forthwith.  That student saw immediately an error in my work that I had not uncovered in several years of dealing with it.  Darn right I was impressed, and I said so then and there!

My job, you see, is not to build a pretty doorway in all this conceptual modeling, with nice framing and beautiful paint and fine decorations. My job is to be a stick of dynamite and blow a gaping hole in the brick wall.  Then it must be left up to the master craftsmen (such as the Barretts, Ziolkowskis, Wolffs, and Cornilles) to make a finished, beautiful doorway.  If that can happen, even though much of what I have done has to be adjusted, adapted, and corrected in the doing, then we will have a new physics and these 30 odd years of arduous effort will not have been in vain.          

Sincerely and best wishes,                              

Tom Bearden