Sent: Monday, June 09, 2003 3:05 PM
Recently, Michael Leyton has dramatically extended Klein's geometry into an object oriented geometry. Leyton's work has now shown the hierarchies of symmetry, something which has been slowly bubbling up puzzlingly in particle physics for decades (the discovery of ever higher symmetries). In Klein geometry, when a symmetry is broken at one level, the information is lost and the overall symmetry is reduced. In Leyton's geometry, when a symmetry is broken at one level, it automatically generates a new symmetry at the next higher level, with a layer retaining all the information of the lower levels. And that is a purely negative entropy operation --- the consumption of positive entropy at one level to produce negative entropy at the next higher level.
So Leyton has also solved the great problem of thermodynamics, recognized and puzzled over for more than a century. That is, if the Second Law as received is true, then how did the entropy ever get so low in the first place? The received second law is actually an oxymoron assuming its own contradiction has first occurred. And in physics, all the energy in the universe -- in just about any modern cosmos model --- came from an inflationary cycle of some sort, where pure negative entropy occurred. Now you speak of experiments. Simply make a little charge suddenly in the lab, at the origin of a radial extending outward. Along the radial, you have placed some good (let us say, perfect) instruments at regular intervals of one second of light speed distance.
Let us assume a perfect gedanken experiment, where the charge is made nearly instantly. One second after the charge is formed, the first instrument package suddenly reads, with the values of the "static" EM fields and potentials from that source charge, and THEREAFTER THOSE READINGS REMAIN so long as the charge in the lab remains intact. Another second later, the second instrument package reads, and THEREAFTER THOSE READINGS REMAIN. And so on. One year later, the instrument package at a light year distance (out beyond the solar system) suddenly reads, and THEREAFTER THOSE READINGS REMAIN. What this experiment proves is that the charge continuously radiates real observable photons, in all directions, thereby establishing and continuously replenishing its associated fields and potentials at light speed outward. Now the challenge. From whence comes all that energy that is continuously pouring from the charge? Original charges in the universe have been outpouring energy in such fashion since some 13.7 billion years ago, according to the best measurements indicating age of the universe.
Take a simple coulomb of charge, and calculate how much energy that coulomb has outpoured since the beginning. WHERE DID THAT ENORMOUS ENERGY COME FROM? The standard classical Maxwell-Heaviside electrodynamics and electrical engineering models do assume that all fields and potentials come from their associated source charges. But they also assume a flat spacetime and an inert vacuum, hence a totally inert space. And instrumentally it is easily shown that there is no OBSERVABLE electromagnetic energy input to that source charge.
So all Maxwell-Heaviside electrodynamicists and electrical engineering professors are using a model which implicitly assumes that every EM field, every EM potential, and every joule of EM energy in the universe is and has been created freely from nothing at all. Either the simple source charge totally falsifies the conservation of energy law (first law of thermodynamics), or else the charge must receive continuous VIRTUAL energy input in subquantal form.
We explained that long vexing problem of the source charge in 2000, from a quantum field theory view of the charge and its associated virtual charges of opposite sign. The standard polarization of the vacuum by charge results in a dipolar ensemble with the bare charge in the middle being infinite, and the virtual charge surrounding it being infinite, but with the two having a finite difference of the sign of the inner charge. Thus the "source charge" in its dipolar ensemble is a known broken symmetry of opposite charges. As such, it must continuously absorb virtual photons from the seething vacuum, and integrate those subquantal bits of energy into real observable photons, re-emitting those real photons and real observable energy in all directions. I have expanded the solution slightly since then, to provide the exact coherent integration mechanism by which this integration of virtual energy to observable energy is accomplished. We have also fitted Leyton's hierarchies of symmetry directly to the source charge solution, and it matches perfectly. The latest work of Evans explains the source charge solution magnificently, from a curved spacetime and unified field theory view.
That process is used in the MEG, and the integration process is something we are also filing a claim upon, since it also is an original discovery not present anywhere in the literature.
My message is this: Anyone seriously interested in the extraction of vacuum energy as usable electrical energy to power loads, will have to study beyond the ancient and hopelessly flawed Maxwell-Heaviside equations and common electrical engineering.
Further, we have cited an already replicated independent experiment -- by Bohren, with the independent verification in the same journal issue.
If you wish to practice scientific method, then quit picking on the inventors for not doing a billion dollars of vacuum energy research with no funding at all. Instead, focus on the experiments already certified in physics, that do output more EM energy than the operator conventionally inputs.
And where are your discussions of the known present violations of thermodynamics? Where are your discussions of the known experiments and areas violating thermodynamics and the second law? The discussions of the closed current loop circuit and why it self-enforces Lorentz symmetrical regauging and therefore COP<1.0?
In quantum field theory, there is a principle of gauge freedom, also used even in Maxwell-Heaviside theory (but only to further restrict the systems, not to free them!) That principle assures that the potential (and hence the potential energy) of any system can be freely changed at will, without any work whatsoever. It's used widely in physics.
Well, if one can just freely change the potential energy in an EM circuit or system, then why can't one do a two step process: (1) freely (asymmetrically) regauge so that the potential energy changes dramatically. (2) then simply dump this excess energy in an external load to power it.
Let me illustrate. A very simple equation is W = Vq, where W is the potential energy collected in the system, V is the voltage (potential) applied, and q is the amount of charge intercepting the potential V and being potentialized. To merely increase the voltage on a circuit with q available electrons costs nothing at all and involves no work, IF THE CHARGES Q ARE NOT ALLOWED TO MOVE AS CURRENT. So apply the voltage to a circuit whose electrons are momentarily pinned and no current moves. Then with the circuit repotentialized (regauged), switch away the external power source furnishing the potential, completing the circuit with a load and a diode or other means to only allow current circulation in one direction. Now you have an overpotentialized circuit connected to a load. Will it discharge through the load and power it? of course. And that is free or nearly free power (you will have to furnish a little to do the necessary switching, but not nearly so much as you switch).
To beat the normal "freeing" of the electrons in something like 10^-19 seconds, you need to use conductors in the circuit that have a relaxation time constant of something like a millisecond. 2% iron alloyed into Al will do something on that order, but it will require a metallurgist to make it. Nonetheless, it is doable
So there is an experimental outline that you can play with, and even the standard Maxwell-Heaviside and EE theory will guarantee you can succeed.
You cannot solve energy from the vacuum with mere standard electrical engineering; the model specifically excludes it already, You cannot solve it with a closed current loop circuit containing the loads and the primary power source's dipolarity inside it, because that circuit will guarantee the destruction of the dipolarity of the power source faster than it powers the external load. Hence the necessity for the switching and "momentary pinning" of the electrons in the above experimental outline.
Very best wishes,