Date: Fri, 9 May 2003 16:45:16
0500
Dear Malcolm,
The assumption that an
object or physical system cannot start moving through space from an
internal force produced inside the system is based on Newton's third
law; that for every action there is a reaction.
What is usually
assumed is that the reaction force is equal and opposite to the action
force, but this is rigorously true only in a flat spacetime. In
Newton's time, general relativity and curved spacetime were not yet
conceived or known. The Newtonian flat spacetime assumption is usually
good for the vast majority of ordinary applications and situations.
However, more
rigorously the production of an internal force involves producing a
curvature of spacetime acting upon a mass. The production of its
opposite and equal reaction force (internal) also involves producing a
curvature of spacetime acting upon that mass.
If the overall
spacetime where these two forces exist has a net curvature, i.e., if the
two spacetime curvatures that produce the action force and its reaction
force are not equal in magnitude, then the internal force and its
reaction force are not equal and opposite. That is a general
relativistic situation in a net curved spacetime, so then there does
exist a net unilateral force on the vehicle.
This is more easily
seen when one envisions the time flowing at a different rate for the
internal action force than for the internal reaction force. The two
impulses then (force x time) are unequal. This results in a net force
(thrust) of the vehicle vis a vis the local curved spacetime.
In that case, the
object can indeed move unilaterally to a generated internal force, in
such a curved spacetime, by creating unbalanced internal forces
judiciously.
It is also true that
all 3space energy enters 3space at a given point, from the time
dimension, and then exits back to the time dimension. What we call
"propagation of energy through 3space" does not and cannot exist.
3space along is totally static; without a time dimension, everything is
frozen and is a single frozen snapshot (observation) of something
ongoing in 4space, by introducing the operator d/dt(LLLT) = LLL. No
observable exists in time a priori, since time is not observable, even
in theory.
What we call
"propagation of energy through 3space" is actually the propagation of
that 4circulation in 4space, with us seeing iterative 3space "frozen
snapshots" called "observations" of the object. Precisely like a
"motion picture" where we think we see motion, but actually see only an
iterative series of changes of frozen 3space snapshots.
Except for
extraordinarily powerful EM fields, the normal EM fields do not produce
sufficient gravity or antigravity (curvatures of spacetime) to be
practical at all. To be practical, enormously more energy density in
spacetime is required than in normal EM fields alone. However, that can
be achieved when one realizes that the present EM field theory has been
grossly distorted. Specifically, a field from a source charge is
actually a flow of EM energy from that charge, and since fields are
actually misdefined as what gets diverged from them by a unit point
static charge, what is usually called the "field" of the source charge
is only the Poynting diverged component that flows from the source
charge. I.e., it is the component of the energy flow that is in a
linear form and can be diverged by intercepting/diverging charges. In
addition to that linear Poynting component of flow, there is an
enormously larger circuital (nondiverging) Heaviside component of the
flow that usually does not interact with anything, and thus was
arbitrarily discarded by Lorentz on the grounds that "it has no physical
significance" because it doesn't do anything.
However, there are
ways to intercept that circuital flow; the Bohren experiment (negative
resonance absorption of the medium) is one. That type experiment is
done in all nonlinear optic labs routinely, and results in the emission
of some 18 times as much EM energy from the medium as one inputs to the
medium in one's Poynting component. One actually also inputs a very
large Heaviside unaccounted component as well, of course  energy is
conserved in the Bohren experiment, but only if one accounts the
Heaviside circuital flow component (which can be a trillion times as
great in magnitude as the Poynting component's magnitude).
Discarding the
Heaviside component freed the electrodynamicists from having to face the
awful truth that every generator or battery (or other power source)
actually outputs about a trillion times as much energy as we input to
the silly shaft of the generator or dissipate as chemical energy in the
battery. But almost all that output is in the Heaviside circuital form,
and usually does not interact with much of anything. Good thing! Else
just to take a flashlight battery into New York City would fry the
entire city (if all that Heaviside energy flow component interacted).
Practical antigravity
is achieved by using the Dirac sea 4hole (the negative energy
4electron) in the vacuum (in spacetime itself) as a "source charge"
BEFORE it interacts with mass to form a positron. The positron has
positive massenergy and positive energy fields. The 4hole has
negative massenergy and negative energy fields. When one adds the
Heaviside component to the fields (the component discarded by Lorentz
circa 1890s), then the negative energy EM fields with their enormous
extra negative energy component can and do accomplish curvature of the
local spacetime in the negative sense, resulting in antigravity rather
than gravity.
To use such practical
antigravity, one must first produce Dirac Sea holes that do not quickly
interact, but that persist for awhile. That way its negative energy
fields and their giant Heaviside components persist for awhile,
accomplishing powerful antigravitational curvature of local spacetime.
That locally curved spacetime acts upon the vehicle or power system
producing the source 4holes, thereby producing force that is opposite
in direction from the normal gravitational force. When the AGforce
equals the Gforce, hovering exists. When the AGforce exceeds the
Gforce, levitation occurs. By "inclining" the levitation force, a
forward thrust component can be achieved in any direction, much like a
Helicopter produces forward thrust.
The Sweet experiment
is mentioned in my book, Energy from the Vacuum: Concepts and
Principles, Cheniere Press, 2002. One chapter of the book goes into
practical antigravity and the Sweet experiment and its results.
Best wishes,
Tom Bearden
