Date: Sun, 17 Mar 2002
12:16:54 -0600
Thanks Paul!
Missed that one, but
it is very timely. One of the mechanisms in my book could possibly
explain what generates a big bang. If so, then a 4-universe blows out
in higher dimensional space from another 4-universe in which this
process occurs, "birthing" a new and rapidly expanding 4-universe. It
also may explain what generates the x-ray burster and gamma ray burster,
including such phenomena that occur in the earth's atmosphere.
The mechanism occurs
once the work-energy theorem is corrected to include multiple use
(change of form) of the same original energy. There is no conservation
of work law in nature. I often ask interested grad students: "How many
joules of work can you get from one joule of energy?" Invariably the
answer is "One!" And that's wrong. I then exactly define work for them
as "the changing of the form of energy". We then point out that, given
a joule input energy to a "form changer", the joule does one joule of
work on that transducer, but then you still have a joule of energy left
-- just in a different form. So that joule in its altered form can do
another joule of work on a second "change of form" entity and process,
but you still have a joule of energy remaining in different form!
Now suppose you have
two retroreflectors face to face. One can imagine them as phase
conjugators, if one wishes. You steadily input one watt of power (one
joule per second) that is perpendicular to the two mirrors, and between
them. The first retroreflector changes the form of the energy (by
changing its direction). For perfect retroreflection, each joule of
energy that is input in that special direction will ping pong back and
forth between the mirrors, doing one joule of work on each mirror for
each reflection. Since I'm steadily inputting one joule per second,
each second there is an additional joule added, which continues
thereafter. So you can build up as much energy density between the
retroreflectors as desired, without limit, in this gedanken experiment.
And you can build up any amount of work wished, being done on each
retroreflector each reflection.
Of course in the real
world things are not perfect. The mirrors don't retroreflect all the
energy each time, but only some fraction. Also, as the mirror heats up
(as the energy density interacting grows), it changes its reflectivity.
Also, the mirror transmits some of the energy through the material, and
that escapes.
Anyway, it is easy to
play around with that and see that, for a steady one-watt input, you can
actually have a greater energy density between the mirrors, and also a
greater energy escaping the two mirrors! This isn't a problem, because
all EM 3-space energy comes from the time domain anyway (that's in the
book), and you are just increasing the curvature of local spacetime,
which curvature interacts back on mass to add more energy in the
interactions.
Anyway, when the
nonlinearity gets so great that the process becomes limiting, then one
has a "stability" level that is reached (in the mirror case). In the
case of the particles of an exploding gas acting as such
retroreflectors, the biggest "spoiler" of the exponential growth is the
acceleration of the mass particles which destroy the retroreflecting
geometry. So what one has is a sudden exponential build-up heading up
toward infinite energy density (burst-out from this 4-space universe),
followed (after a short time delay) by sudden rupture of the
retroreflecting geometry (as the particles reach very fast
acceleration). This results in a catastrophic decay of the process and
its energy density, by emission of a giant pulse. Depending on the
individual case, that pulse can be in the x-ray region, in the gamma
region, or even higher.
Also, the process can
and does often re-ignite, and so re-ignition is explained. Further, the
accelerated gas that did the "geometrical quenching" represents a hotter
gas; hence the "afterglow" that remains behind a gamma burster quenching
or x-ray quenching, etc.
The process can even
be demonstrated on the bench, using laser light and colloidal
suspensions, or fine semiconducting powders. The fellows doing those
experiments have just not yet realized the necessary correction to the
work-energy theorem, which in present form only considers the energy
changing its form once and thus a joule of energy doing only a joule of
work.
One has to be careful
when one just assumes the old classical equilibrium thermodynamics. It
does not even apply to disequilibrium systems, where entropy cannot even
be calculated. So a great number of scientists who just react with the
second law of classical thermodynamics (seeming never to have heard of
the separate thermodynamics of systems far from equilibrium with an
active environment), is the biggest scientific mindset problem blocking
immediate funding and development of COP>1.0 electrical power systems,
and also self-powering electrical power systems.
But little by little, we believe that old die-hard attitude, of upholding century-old stuff already updated and corrected in physics, may be changing.
At any rate, I'm
proposing the mechanism in the forthcoming book, and then the
astronomers with scientific method will find out whether it's valid or
not.
So I appreciate the
information!
Best wishes,
Tom Bearden
Date: Sat, 16 Mar 2002
20:20:16 -0800 |