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SLIDE 5.

FORCE BETWEEN TWO LIKE CHARGES

 A NEGATIVELY CHARGED TEST MASS [e.g., AN ELECTRON] BROUGHT INTO THE VICINITY OF q1 EXPERIENCES A FORCE 2 AS SHOWN.  NOTE THE ELECTRON ACTUALLY IS SPINNING. THIS HAS NEVER BEEN DONE WITH A TRUE "STATIC CHARGE", FOR THERE IS NO SUCH THING IN NATURE.
 In my presentation last year, I noted some 22 fundamental flaws in present electromagnetics theory.  One of these flaws was in the actual vector theory itself.  As we shall discover, one cannot simply plug geometrical vectors into physical systems without making fundamental errors.  The vector concept itself must be adapted, for there are now four different kinds of vectors in physics, all confused as the same thing. We will come to that shortly.           To begin, let us look at the fundamental kind of experiment, shown on this slide, from which the idea of electrical force and electric field was taken.           We have a fixed static charged object q(l) in the laboratory, and we bring in a test charged mass q(2).  The test charged mass may even be a single electron, as we illustrate here.  We show in our example the fixed charge to be negative.  When we release the test charge electron, it accelerates away from the fixed charged mass, as shown on the diagram.  Note that we have no force at all until we bring in the test charged mass. Indeed, we shall find that the force is actually COMPRISED OF the accelerating test electron.  Specifically, it is not something mysterious which appears in vacuum and PUSHES on the electron.  We shall find that FORCE IS AN EFFECT, NOT A CAUSE.  It CONSISTS OF the "smeared mass" that is accelerating -- in this case, it consists of the smeared, accelerating electron.           We summarize the experiment: in the absence of the charged test particle, no force exists in the vacuum.  When we bring in the test charged mass, it accelerates away, and THE FORCE CONSISTS OF THAT ACCELERATING CHARGED MASS PARTICLE.  The experiment does not at all address or deal with WHAT EXISTS IN THE VACUUM AROUND CHARGED MASS Q(l) IN THE ABSENCE OF TEST CHARGED MASS Q(2).  Any assumption of a force existing in the vacuum is sheer speculation and not based on this experiment. Next  Slide