-- SCALARS AND VECTORS HAVE SUBSTRUCTURES --

As can now be seen, the sum of each structure in figure 13 is observably zero.  Therefore we might define the sum as a "zero spatial vector."  We note, however, that it actually exists for a time Δt and is thus a spatiotemporal entity, rigorously.
If we define the internal stress action A in a region Δs3Δt of spacetime as (29)

and the 4-space internal stress intensity or potential as (30)

where is any internal vector in the substructure, Δs3 is the spatial volume (about a point) containing vector , and Δt is the inseparable time during which these component actions occurred, then we see that, stress-wise, all the "zero-vectors" in figure 13 are quite different in their internal stresses, 4-space potentials, and internal substructures.  For the five "zero sum" vectors, OBSERVABLY we have (31)

whether or not

 Δs3Δtm = Δs3Δtn (m ≠ n;  1 ≤ m ≤ 5; 1 ≤ n ≤ 5)      (32)

But considering the substructures, (1 ≤ m ≤ 5; 1 ≤ n ≤ 5;  m ≠ n)              (33)

I now point out that a scalar can be regarded as a stressed zero-sum vector, where the magnitude S of the scalar represents the internal stress intensity caused by the substructure of the zero-vector.
Thus, generally,  (34)

That is, in general any observable scalar has, consists of, and is comprised of a VIRTUAL (unobservable) substructure that is very real indeed.  One must also consider the scalar as existing for some finite time Δt, (at least for the time of one quantum change), and the intensity of the virtual actions occurring in the spatiotemporal substructure of the scalar during that time Δt is proportional to the magnitude of the scalar.
Normally, the concept of a scalar -- as presently used -- makes no allowance for the scalar to exist in time, or for a virtual vector substructure, or for any patterning inside the substructure.  This is equivalent to assuming that

 A ≡ 0 (35)

and that all 's are evenly distributed.  That is, from this new viewpoint, presently the mathematical theory assumes all scalars to have an equal density of virtual activity per spatiotemporal volume in its virtual substructure, and an isotropic virtual pattern distribution of an infinite number of equal virtual vectors in its 4-space substructure.28
In the new approach, neither of these two assumptions need hold -- though in special cases they can hold.  Thus present orthodox theory is just a single special case of a more fundamental approach indicated here.
Note that, by directly affecting and changing the virtual substructures of scalars and vectors, we can directly perform virtual. state engineering, and this allows us to directly "engineer" the so-called "laws of nature" of the normal observable laboratory state and thus ENGINEER AND CHANGE PHYSICAL REALITY ITSELF.29
In the new approach, we can (observably) have

 2 + 2 ≠ 4 (36)

or

 2 + 2 = 4 (37)

by the following means:  In the first case (equation 36), we assume that the virtual substructures are patterned, and interact nonlinearly in such a way as to produce an extra observable.  Thus we have a delta added to the normal observable scalar results of the interaction, as follows:

 2o + 2o = 4o + Δv->o (38)

where subscript "o" means observable and "v" means virtual.  Note that

 Δv->o (39)

indicates a delta due to virtual substructure interactions yielding an extra observable delta.  This extra delta may be either scalar or vector in nature, depending on the circumstances and the particular interactions.
Note also that any vector or scalar must now be considered to HAVE, CONTAIN, and CONSIST OF an infinite substructure.  And note that, similar to the scalar case, from the new viewpoint the present theory assumes each scalar (point) of the vector to have a structure similar to that of equation (34), except that now the scalars are ordered, with a linearly decreasing internal stress density per unit scalar along the line of the vector.
In the new approach, vector interaction (superposition, for example) can now violate present theory, if the two virtual substructures interact nonlinearly to produce a nonzero, observable delta.  Observably (macroscopically) , this delta, again, may be either "scalar" or "vector."
This approach now becomes consistent with quantum mechanics at the foundation level.

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