TOWARD A NEW ELECTROMAGNETICS
PART III:  CLARIFYING THE VECTOR CONCEPT

 

NOTES AND REFERENCES

1.  Bearden, T. E., "Comments on the New Tesla Electromagnetics: Part I: Discrepancies in the Present EM Theory;" "Part II:  The Secret of Electrical Free Energy," Tesla Book Company, 1580 Magnolia Ave., Millbrae, CA 94030, 1982.

2.  Bearden, T. E., "Solutions to Tesla's Secrets and the Soviet Tesla Weapons," Tesla Book Co., 1981.  Also Ratzlaff , John T., "Reference Articles for Solutions to Tesla's Secrets," Tesla Book Co., 1982.

3.  Note we are applying the rule, "A thing is that which it does, and it does that which it is."  Actually this is one statement of a fourth fundamental law of logic not incorporated by Aristotle.  See Bearden, "A Conditional Criterion for Identity, Leading to a Fourth Law of Logic,"  DTIS report, available through the National Technical Information System, Port Royal Road, Springfield, VA 22161.

4.  Specifically, the resulting theory becomes a curtailed, special case of the much more fundamental electrodynamics and electromagnetics that actually exist
.
5.  We point out here that measuring a field of force existing in the electron gas in a probe of the measuring instrument is not at all the same thing as measuring a force in the vacuum, nor does it establish that a force exists in vacuum.  Indeed, it is already well known that the FIELD concept itself will not withstand rigorous logical examination.  For a discussion rather clearly showing the present difficulty in defining a field, see Robert Bruce Lindsay and Henry Margenau, Foundations of Physics, Dover Publications, New York, 1963, pp. 283-287.  Note particularly on p. 283 that a "field of force" at any point is actually DEFINED only for the case when a unit mass is present at that point.  It is then illogically ASSUMED that the force continues to exist at the point in the ABSENCE of the mass, which of course need not follow at all.  On p. 284, note the similar logical paradox connected with the idea of a scalar gravitational potential field.  The potential (field) is only defined at a point when mass is present at that point, .and it is specifically defined as the potential energy per unit mass for a particle present at that point.  IF THERE IS NO MASS PRESENT, NEITHER A FORCE VECTOR FIELD NOR A SCALAR POTENTIAL FIELD IS DEFINED THERE.  ASSIGNMENT OF THESE FIELDS TO THE POINT IN THE ABSENCE OF THE MASS IS AN ASSUMPTION, NOT AT ALL A DEFINITION.  SINCE A TRUE DEFINITION IS AN IDENTITY, THEN THE ENTITY IDENTIFIED (DEFINED) TO INCLUDE THE PRESENCE OF MASS IS NOT IDENTICAL TO THE ENTITY RESULTING WHEN THAT MASS IS ABSENTED.
          To see just how arbitrary and postulational are present. "definitions" of mass and force, see Lindsay and Margenau, op. cit., pp. 84-101.  Also see Richard P. Feynman, Robert B. Leighton, and Matthew Sands, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, New York, Vol.1,. 1963, Fourth Printing July 1966, p.2-4 for a definition of the electric field in the context of its POTENTIALITY for producing a force.  Again, the force only exists when a particle of mass is present.  From these examples, one can see the implication that A PHYSICAL FIELD IS SOMETHING SUCH THAT, WHEN A MASS IS INTRODUCED INTO IT, THE MASS EXHIBITS AN EFFECT.  For a "force field," this is tantamount to stating that there exists some mechanism connected with a field which, in the presence of a mass causes a force to be exhibited.  In that case the force is an EFFECT, not a cause, and there is a more fundamental mechanism that GENERATES FORCE ITSELF.  See also field discussions in Feynman, Richard, The Character of Physical Law, M.I.T. Press, Cambridge, MA, March 1967, 2nd printing September 1967, passim.

6.  While in Europe prior to 1881, Albert Abraham Michelson performed his first interferometer experiments to determine the velocity of the earth through the ether, obtaining essentially null results.  At the Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland, Ohio, he perfected his interferometer experiment from 1883 to 1887, assisted by a colleague, chemist Edward Williams Morley.  By 1887 the results were ready and announced. Michelson himself thought his experiment had proven Stokes' theory of an ether dragged along by the earth in motion, and thus motionless with respect to the earth.  This was at odds, however, with certain other experiments indicating a moving ether.  The Michelson-Morley experiment was finally reconciled with these other experiments by Fitzgerald's suggestion in 1892 that the physical dimensions of material bodies are altered when they are in motion.  In 1907 Michelson was awarded the Nobel prize, the first American to receive it in the sciences.

7.  See Lindsay and Margenau, Foundations of Physics, 1963, pp. 324-326; D.  C.  Miller, "The Ether Drift Experiment and the Determination of the Absolute Motion of the Earth," Reviews of Modern Physics, Vol.  5, p. 203, 1933.  Actually the experiments did not yield a conclusively null result, but rather showed large systematic trends.  For a typical elimination of the systematic trends, see Handschy, M. A., "Re-examination of the 1887 Michelson-Morley experiment," American Journal of Physics, Vol.  50, No.  11, Nov. 1982, pp. 987-990.  See Rho Sigma, Ether-Technology, CSA Printing & Bindery, Lakemont Georgia, 30552, 1977 for several enlightening points on the vacuum ether: See A.  K. Lapkovskii, "Relativistic Kinematic Equations and the Theory of Continuous Media," Soviet Physics Journal, Vol. 21., No. 6, June 1978 for an abstract describing Soviet utilization of the concept of a small particle (called by Bearden a quiton, in Quiton/Perceptron Physics, DTIS, 1973) of the medium.  See Belyaev, B.  N. , "On Random Fluctuations of the Velocity of Light in Vacuum," Azvestiya Vysshikh Uchebnykh Zavedenii, Fizika, No. 11, Nov.  1980, pp.  37-42, translation by Plenum, for discussion of the proven variation of the speed of light in vacuum; the velocity of light in a vacuum on earth is measured to be higher than the velocity of light in the vacuum of deep space.  See Graham, G.  M.  & Lahoz, D.  G., "Observation of static electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuo," Nature, Vol.  285, 15 May 1980, pp. 154-155 for the first direct observation of free electromagnetic angular momentum in vacuum.  See Davies, Paul, "Something for nothing," New Scientist, 27 May 1982, pp.  580-582 for a discussion showing that modern theories of the vacuum reveal that even empty space is seething with activity; an ether of sorts emerges from vacuum fluctuations due to quantum mechanics considerations.  See Hooper, William J., "All-Electric Motional Electric Field Generator," U. S.  Patent No.  3,610,971, October 5, 1971 for a generator which produces a gravitational or inertial field.  Einstein suggested that vacuum, complete with electromagnetic and gravitational fields, be called the ether.  Dirac certainly did not abandon an ether, for in 1954 he stated "The aetherless basis of physical theory may have reached the end of its capabilities and we see in the aether a new hope for the future."  James Clerk Maxwell derived his famous equations based on an ether theory.  Sir Arthur Eddington also believed firmly in an ether.  Sir Oliver Lodge actually pointed out the dilemma which yields the approach in this paper: writing of the ether in his book, The Ether of Space, Harper & Bros., New York, 1909, he stated: "We have no means of getting hold of the ether mechanically; we cannot grip it or move it in the ordinary way: we can only get it electrically.  We are straining the ether when we charge a body with electricity; it tries to recover, it has the power of recoil.. . .  "But when electrical theory was being founded, scientists thought of space as something rather fixed, and FILLED WITH a thin material ether.  They did not realize that space itself does not exist except after an observation; before the observation, spacetime exists -- indefinite in both length and time.  They did not know that electrostatic scalar potential in fact was spacetime, hence also the vacuum and the ether.  In assuming that the charge of vacuum is zero and that charge and charged mass are identical, they hid the answer to the dilemma and placed the foundations of electromagnetics on its present unsound basis. 

8.  The field, of course, is indeed a highly useful concept and this author certainly does not recommend its abandonment.  Instead, he recommends that it be placed on a sounder logical basis. 

9.  Specifically, they came to feel that the "electric field" which was improperly defined -- was what was waving. 

10.  In fact Einstein once proposed that the vacuum, complete with its electromagnetic and gravitational fields, should be called the ether.  His proposal was not adopted.  (See Born, Max, Einstein's Theory of Relativity, Revised Edition, Dover Publications, New York, 1965, p.  224. )

11.  Particularly from the work of Schrodinger, Born, Dirac and others. 

12.  For example, see Lindsay and Marge. nau, op. cit., pp. 287-288.  A physical vector is thought to be defined by its magnitude, its direction in space, and its transformation characteristics.  Actually that is a geometrical vector, not a physical vector.  It does not tell us WHAT A VECTOR CONSISTS OF, but only tells us some of its important characteristics.  Remember that a true definition must be an identity. 

13.  Here a reading of Lindsay and Margenau, op. cit., pp. 79-81 may prove enlightening.  Also note that velocity, or L/T considered "at an instant" (stopped), represents an idea of "motionless motion" and is an application of the fourth law of logic.  For a discussion of the fourth law of logic and its usage, see Bearden, Thomas E., "A Conditional Criterion for Identity, Leading to a Fourth Law of Logic," Specula, Journal of the A.A.M.S., P.O. Box 1182, Huntsville, AL 35807, combined Vol. 3, No. 4/Vol. 4, No. 3, Oct 1980 - Mar 1981, pp. 50-57 (also available from Defense Technical Information Service). 

14.  Note this is an identity of opposites, which explicitly violates the three Aristotlean laws of logic.  See Bearden, "A Conditional Criterion for Identity, Leading to a Fourth Law of Logic," loc. cit., 1981. 

15.  Again note the fourth law of logic:  zero motion (the absence of motion) being recognized as a special case of the presence of motion.  Also, physical reality consists of internested levels, and any physical object has an internal substructure of nested levels of finer structure, extending down into the virtual (nonobserved) state.  For a vector to model (apply to) a physical object, it itself must be modeled in such fashion as to reflect this kind of substructure.  Thus the use of geometrical vectors as models of physical objects in motion is presently flawed in a fundamental fashion. 

16.  The reader is most strongly urged to read Morris Kline, Mathematics: The Loss of Certainty, Oxford University Press, New York, 1980 as a prelude to understanding what mathematics is and is not, and what it does and does not. 

17.  Refer to Lindsay & Margenau, op. cit., pp. 79-81 to see how the ideas of motion and vector are inextricably entangled with the idea of a particle. 

18.  Call it uncertainty or call it constituency; a quantum change is composed of two canonical entities inextricably welded together into a single entity. 

19.  Time is an unavoidable, nonexclusive constituency of the welded quantum. 

20.  Simply from the definition of force as CONSISTING OF a time- and length-smeared mass motion change. 

21.  The force is an effect, not a cause.  It IS the smeared charged particle.  It is CAUSED by a more fundamental mechanism.  It is the result of the combination of (1) a nonzero del phi, and (2) the presence of a spinning charged particle.  IN A DEL PHI, THE SPINNING CHARGED PARTICLE ACCELERATES ITSELF!  This is the fundamental secret of free energy that was suppressed, to bury the fundamental work of Nikola Tesla, shortly after Tesla was forced to abort his Wardenclyffe attempt to provide the world with free energy. 

22.  To quote: "The Hertz wave theory of wireless transmission may be kept up for a while, but I do not hesitate to say that in a short time it will be recognized as one of the most remarkable and inexplicable aberrations of the scientific mind which has ever been recorded in history.  " Nikola Tesla, "The True Wireless, " Electrical Experimenter, May 1919, p. 87. 

23.  De Beauregard, O.  Costa, "Running backwards the Mermin device:  Causality in EPR correlations," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 51, No. 6, June 1983, p. 515. 

24.  Note the Soviet scientist Kozyrev's experiments with time waves.  See Kozyrev, N. A., "Possibility of Experimental Study of the Properties of Time," September 1967, pp. 1-49, in JPRS 45238, May 1968.  Kozyrev reports real physical effects from the oscillation of time.  Also, note that scalar potential energy of appreciable size with respect to a particle's rest energy can force the situation to be relativistic, even though the velocity of the particle with respect to the velocity of light is small.  That is, electrostatic scalar potential alone can cause variation in the rate of flow of time and hence vary physical characteristics.  See Bloch & Crater, "Lorentz-invariant potentials and the non-relativistic limit," American Journal of Physics, Vol. 49, No.1, 1981, pp. 67-75.  By inference, oscillating the electrostatic scalar potential can produce time waves and lead to direct physical effects. 

25.  It is already shown in the literature that the electrostatic scalar potential (ESP) can affect spacetime (ST) in the same manner as velocity.  Cf Bloch & Crater, op. cit., 1981.  Now note that, to any quantal or macroscopic observer, the existence of the 4-space volume of ST implicit in (Δt)(Δv), where v is volume, cannot be separated from the existence of the subquantal entities that exist therein.  We therefore DEFINE the magnitude of the ESP as the summation of the absolute values of all the internal virtual vectors in the (Δt)(Δv) quantum of ST, divided by the absolute value (magnitude) of (Δt)(Δv).  We take the view that no such thing as "unstressed" ST physically exists, and that "spacetime" and "stressed spacetime" are identical.  Hence ESP and ST are one and the same thing.  Note that this implies that the virtual density of ST is
variable, and is nothing but the magnitude of the ESP.  In EM theory, the assumption that the ESP of vacuum (O) is equal to zero is in serious error.  In fact, O IS "spacetime of the laboratory observer," in the new view. 

26.  For example, the definition of the electrostatic potential (ESP) is usually taken as "the work which must be done against electric forces to bring a unit charge from a reference point to the point in question; the reference point is located at an infinite distance, or, for practical purposes, at the surface of the earth or some other large conductor."  (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of. Scientific and Technical Terms, ed.  Daniel N. Lapedes, second edition, 1978, p.  518.)  Note that this is NOT a definition at all, for it is not an identity.  Instead, it is the statement that, if an ESP exists at a point and a unit charged mass (assumed to be at a point) is brought in from infinity toward the ESP location point, the amount of work it is necessary to expend upon the mass of the particle is equal to the magnitude of the ESP.  The ESP exists whether or not any work at all is expended, and whether or not a charged unit mass is brought in.  To adequately define ESP, we must define its identity, or what it consists of, in the absence of mass, since we have conceived the ESP to exist at a vacuum point.  Further, the definition usually taken is completely a 3-space definition.  Instead, in our new view the ESP is to be taken at a point in n-space, where n is equal to or greater than 4. 

27.  See Bearden, Quiton/Perceptron Physics, 1973, available through the DTIS.  See also Bearden, The Excalibur Briefing, Strawberry Hill Press, San Francisco, CA, 1980.  Ultimately all physical phenomena are mindchanges in the minds of all the observers. 

28.  And then assumes this summation value is zero. 

29.  See note 25 above. 

30.  Bearden, The Excalibur Briefing, Strawberry Hill Press, San
Francisco, CA, 1980. 

31.  Cf Rauscher, E.  A., "Electromagnetic and Non-Linear Phenomena in Complex Minkowski Spaces,"  Tecnic Research Laboratories, 64 Santa Margarita, San Leandro, CA 94579.  Presented at the 1983 March Meeting of The American Physical Society in Los Angeles, CA 21-25 March, 1983.  This is a truly remarkable paper of great significance.  Rauscher, a
world-class physicist, has presented a new theoretical model for some rather extraordinary possible extensions of present electromagnetics. 

32.  Cf Muses, Charles, Introduction to Jerome Rothstein's Communication, Organization, and Science, The Falcon's Wing Press, Indian Hills, Colorado, 1958.  The entire foreword by Muses is a remarkable document, which analyzes the structure of time itself.  See also his profound summary paper, "Hypernumbers II" in the January 1978 issue of Applied Mathematics and Computation, published by Elsevier. 

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