The Tom Bearden
178. Scalar field: in vector analysis, each point in space is assigned a magnitude; the set of spatial points and their assigned magnitudes is called a scalar field. In the new approach, an observable scalar value is assigned to every point in n-dimensional space, where n is 4 or greater, and the set of n-dimensional points and their assigned observable magnitudes is called a scalar field. Also, in the new approach each scalar magnitude is considered to contain an n-dimensional virtual-state sub- structure, where each succeedingly higher dimension is a succeedingly lower level of virtual state. Vacuum itself is such a scalar field. Such a scalar field is also the rigorous identity of a massless charge field, of -- for example -- the electrostatic scalar potential, 0. Also, the scalar field is considered to be composed of two time fields: one in positive time and one in negative time that is the phase conjugate replica of the first. Thus the timeless, lengthless vacuum exists both in positive and negative lime, and its potentials are scalar potentials. When the vacuum is uncurved, equal amounts and components of positive and negative time exist. When it is curved at a point, the positive and negative time components are unbalanced at that point.