13. Bare neutrino:

the photon rotated one orthogonal turn farther away from the laboratory frame would be seen in the laboratory frame as a bare neutrino. In the new approach, bare neutrinos move at the speed c inside an ordinary photon, orthogonal to the photon's direction of travel, constituting a flux in each half of the photon. Two neutrinos move in the photon, one in each half (a simple photon is a single sine wave). One neutrino moves in positive time, the second moves in negative time and is properly an antineutrino. Since the photon moves at the speed c with respect to the laboratory frame, then the bare neutrino moves at the speed c-squared, but only its carrier speed is seen by the laboratory observer. The flux of bare neutrinos in each half of a photon corresponds to the classical neutrino of present physics. The bare neutrino is (to the lab frame) a factor of c smaller than a photon, and one dimensional. Note that these are just "models" for convenient visualizations. In the real world, they would appear as energy currents inside the time dimension of the observer; in other words, as structures inside the observer's flow of time. In the new Sachs-Evans unified field theory, energetic time-like currents appear and in fact drive many electromagnetic situations. When the Whittaker decomposition of the scalar potential between the poles of a dipole is used, the result reveals that longitudinal EM wave energy is continuously received by the dipole charges from the time domain. The 720 degree spin of each charge in the dipole means that the charge spends half its time in the complex plane (in the time domain) and the other half in real 3-space. Hence the spinning charge absorbs EM energy from the vacuum (from the time domain or complex plane), transduces it into real energy when it rotates into 3-space, and emits the excess energy in all directions while it completes its 360 degrees of spin in 3-space.