4. Aharonov-Bohm Effect:
Effect whereby interfering electromagnetic potentials can produce effects on charged particle systems, even at a distance and in the absence of the electromagnetic force fields. When E and B fields are zero in a region, their potentials still exist and interference of the potentials produces real electro-magnetic effects (energy) upon charges in the interference zone, even at a great distance. This can be without transmission of "field energy" in the accepted sense, per se, through the intervening space. The Aharonov-Bohm effect highlights some of the stark differences between the classical view of electromagnetics and the quantum mechanics view. In classical EM, the force fields are erroneously considered the real causative agents while the potentials are only mathematical creations for convenience in calculation. In quantum mechanics, it is the potentials that are considered real and fundamental; the force fields are effects derived from the potentials by differential operators. In classical EM, when the E and B fields are zero in an area, there is no more electromagnetics going on there. In quantum mechanics, the force-free potentials may still exist and may still cause real effects. By the use of artificial potentials (sets of bidirectional longitudinal EM waves in deliberate pattern and with deliberate dynamics), the Aharonov-Bohm effect can be made macroscopic and used to cause EM action at a distance -- even significant EM action at a very great distance. Thus scalar EM interferometers can produce energy effects at a distance. The negative Aharonov-Bohm effect also exists. If the chassis grounds of the transmitters in a scalar interferometer are biased highly negative with respect to the ambient potential in the distant interference zone, then energy is extracted from the distant interference zone, reappearing at the transmitters. This results in cooling in the distant zone, and if the interferometry is pulsed explosively, it results in a distant "cold explosion" in the distant interference zone. If the chassis grounds of the transmitters are biased highly positive with respect to the ambient potential in the interference zone, then EM energy emerges from the distant interference zone and scatters. That produces heat, and in the case of violent pulse interferometry, it produces a "hot explosion" in the distant zone. Tesla proposed a "Big Eye" that could see at a distance; actually he planned to use a slightly negatively biased scalar interferometer, scan the beams, then reassemble the scanned energy appearing back at the transmitter/receivers. In this way he had a crude picture of the distant conditions in the interference zone. Such a device can see through the earth or ocean to a preselected intersection depth, since the longitudinal EM waves comprising scalar potential waves can be made to pass readily through the earth or sea.
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